Sinaloa

Last updated
Sinaloa
Estado Libre y Soberano de Sinaloa
Flag of Sinaloa.svg
Flag
Coat of arms of Sinaloa.svg
Seal
Nickname(s): 
The Land of the 11 Rivers
Anthem: State of Sinaloa Anthem
Sinaloa in Mexico (location map scheme).svg
State of Sinaloa within Mexico
Coordinates: 25°0′N107°30′W / 25.000°N 107.500°W / 25.000; -107.500 Coordinates: 25°0′N107°30′W / 25.000°N 107.500°W / 25.000; -107.500
Country Flag of Mexico.svg  Mexico
Capital and Largest City Culiacán Rosales
Municipalities 18
Admission October 14, 1830 [1]
Order 20th
Government
   Governor Quirino Ordaz Coppel PRI logo (Mexico).svg
   Senators [2] Imelda Castro Castro Morena Party (Mexico).svg
Rubén Rocha Moya Morena Party (Mexico).svg
Mario Zamora Gastélum PRI logo (Mexico).svg
   Deputies [3]
Area
[4]
  Total58,328 km2 (22,521 sq mi)
  Ranked 17th
Highest elevation
[5]
2,520 m (8,270 ft)
Population
 (2019) [6]
  Total3,216,000
  Rank 16th
  Density55/km2 (140/sq mi)
  Density rank 18th
Demonym(s) Sinaloense
Time zone UTC−7 (MST)
  Summer (DST) UTC−6 (MDT)
Postal code
80-82
Area code
ISO 3166 code MX-SIN
HDI Increase2.svg 0.804 very high Ranked 5th
GDP US$ 13,749,376,250 [a]
Website Official Web Site
^ a. The state's GDP was $175,992,016 thousand of pesos in 2008, [7] amount corresponding to $13,749,376.25 thousand of dollars, being a dollar worth 12.80 pesos (value of June 3, 2010). [8]

Sinaloa (Spanish pronunciation:  [sinaˈloa] ( Loudspeaker.svg listen )), officially the Estado Libre y Soberano de Sinaloa (English: Free and Sovereign State of Sinaloa), is one of the 32 states which comprise the Federal Entities of Mexico. It is divided into 18 municipalities and its capital city is Culiacán Rosales.

Contents

It is located in Northwestern Mexico. It is bordered by the states of Sonora to the north, Chihuahua and Durango to the east (separated from them by the Sierra Madre Occidental) and Nayarit to the south. To the west, Sinaloa faces Baja California Sur across the Gulf of California.

The state covers an area of 58,328 square kilometers (22,521 sq mi), and includes the Islands of Palmito Verde, Palmito de la Virgen, Altamura, Santa María, Saliaca, Macapule and San Ignacio.

In addition to the capital city, the state's important cities include Mazatlán and Los Mochis.

History

Prior to the coming of the Spaniards, much of Sinaloa was inhabited by the Cáhita peoples.

In 1531, Nuño Beltrán de Guzmán with a force of over 10,000 men, defeated a force of 30,000 Cáhita warriors at the site of Culiacán. Beltrán de Guzmán established a Spanish and allied Indian outpost at San Miguel de Culiacán. Over the next decade, the Cahíta suffered severe depopulation from smallpox and other diseases the Spanish brought.

The Spanish organized Sinaloa as part of the gobierno of Nueva Galicia. In 1564, the area was realigned: the area of Culiacán and Cosalá remained in control of Nueva Galicia, while the areas to the north, south and west were made part of the newly formed Nueva Vizcaya province, making the Culiacán area an exclave of Nueva Galicia. The first capital of Nueva Vizcaya was located in San Sebastián, near Copala, but the capital moved to Durango in 1583. [9]

Starting in 1599, Jesuit missionaries spread out from a base at what is now Sinaloa de Leyva and by 1610, the Spanish influence had been extended to the northern edge of Sinaloa. In 1601, the Jesuits' movement into the eastern part of Sinaloa led to the Acaxee going to war. The Spanish eventually managed to reassert authority in the Sierra Madre Occidental region and executed 48 Acaxee leaders. [10]

After Mexican independence, Sinaloa was joined with Sonora as Estado de Occidente, but it became a separate, sovereign state in 1830.

Geography and environment

The coastal plain is a narrow strip of land that stretches along the length of the state and lies between the Gulf of California and the foothills of the Sierra Madre Occidental mountain range, which dominates the eastern part of the state. Sinaloa is traversed by many rivers, which carve broad valleys into the foothills. The largest of these rivers are the Culiacán, Fuerte, and Sinaloa.

Sinaloa has a warm climate on the coast; moderately warm climate in the valleys and foothills; moderately cold in the lower mountains, and cold in the higher elevations. Its weather characteristics vary from subtropical, found on coastal plains, to cold in the nearby mountains. Temperatures range from 22 °C (72 °F) to 43 °C (109 °F) with rain and thunderstorms during the rainy season (June to October) and dry conditions throughout most of the year. Its average annual precipitation is 790 millimetres. [11]

Numerous species of plants and animals are found within Sinaloa. Notable among the tree species is the elephant tree, Bursera microphylla . [12]

Botanic garden "Benjamin F. Johnston" of Parque Sinaloa Parque Sinaloa 001.JPG
Botanic garden "Benjamín F. Johnston" of Parque Sinaloa

Culture

Culturally, it is known for its popular styles of music banda and norteño. [13]

It is the only place in the continent where the ancient Mesoamerican ballgame is still played, in a handful of small, rural communities not far from Mazatlán. The ritual ballgame was central in the society, religion and cosmology of all the great Mesoamerican cultures including the Mixtecs, Aztecs, and Maya. [ citation needed ]

An ulama player in Sinaloa. Ulama 37 (Aguilar).jpg
An ulama player in Sinaloa.

The Sinaloa version of the game is called ulama and is very similar to the original. [14] There are efforts to preserve this 3500-year-old unique tradition by supporting the communities and children who play it. [15]

Its rich cuisine [16] is well known for its variety [17] particularly in regard to mariscos (seafood) and vegetables. [18] Sushi is a popular dish here. [19] Sinaloa is particularly famous for its Aguachile.

Famous entertainers from Sinaloa include actor Pedro Infante and singer Ana Gabriel, born in Guamúchil; Lola Beltrán from Rosario, Cruz Lizárraga, the founder of Banda el Recodo, Jorge Orta, actress/comedian/singer Sheyla Tadeo, born in Culiacan; Sabine Moussier and actress/singer Lorena Herrera, born in Mazatlan.

The Sinaloa Cartel (Cártel de Sinaloa or CDS) has significantly influenced the culture of Sinaloa. [20] The cartel is reportedly the largest drug trafficking, money laundering and organized crime syndicate in the Americas; it is based in the city of Culiacán, Sinaloa. [21]

Demography

Historical population
YearPop.±%
1895 [22] 261,050    
1900 296,701+13.7%
1910 323,642+9.1%
1921 341,265+5.4%
1930 395,618+15.9%
1940 492,821+24.6%
1950 635,681+29.0%
1960 838,404+31.9%
1970 1,266,528+51.1%
1980 1,849,879+46.1%
1990 2,204,054+19.1%
1995 2,425,675+10.1%
2000 2,536,844+4.6%
2005 2,608,442+2.8%
2010 2,767,761+6.1%
2015 2,966,700+7.2%
2019 3,216,000+8.4%

According to the 2019 projection, Sinaloa is home to 3,216,000 [7] inhabitants, 61% of whom reside in the capital city of Culiacán and the municipalities of Mazatlán and Ahome. It is a young state in terms of population, 56% of which is younger than 30 years of age.

Other demographic particulars report 87% of the state practices the Catholic faith. Also, 1% of those over five years of age speak an indigenous language alongside Spanish; the main indigenous ethnic group still residing in the state is the Mayo or "Yoreme" (Cáhita language) people. Life expectancy in the state follows the national tendency of higher rates for women than men, a difference of almost five years in the case of Sinaloa, at 72.5 and 77.4 years respectively.

In ethnic composition, Sinaloa has received large historic waves of immigration from Europe (mainly Spain, the United Kingdom, Ireland, France, Germany, Austria, Italy and Russia) and Asia (mainly China, Japan and the Philippines). In recent years, retirees from the U.S. and Canada have arrived and made Sinaloa their home.

There was also a sizable influx of Ashkenazi and Sephardic Jews in the first decades of the twentieth century.

Greeks (ancestry from Greece) form a notable presence in Sinaloa, where one can find local cuisine with kalamari and a few Greek Orthodox churches along the state's coast.

There is a sizable Arab Mexican community, mostly Lebanese and Syrian descent. It has one of the largest Arab populations in the country.

Overall Sinaloa has one of the highest European Mexican rates in the whole country, estimated at 38%, although the Mexican Census didn't have a racial category count since 1921.

Sinaloenses have moved to the United States in large numbers since 1970; a large community lives in the twin towns of Indio, California and Coachella, California about 25 miles east of Palm Springs, California in the desert resort industry.

Education

In terms of education, average schooling reaches 8.27 years; 4.2% of those over 15 years of age are illiterate, and 3.18% of children under 14 years of age do not attend school. [23]

Institutions of higher education include Universidad Politécnica de Sinaloa, Universidad Politécnica del Mar y la Sierra, Universidad Politécnica del Valle del Evora, Universidad Autónoma de Sinaloa, Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey, Campus Sinaloa, Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey, Campus Mazatlán and Universidad Casa Blanca.

Municipalities

Sinaloa is divided into 18 municipios (municipalities). See Municipalities of Sinaloa.

The state's major cities include the capital and largest city, Culiacán. Also Mazatlán, which is a world-famous tourist resort and destination. Los Mochis, an agricultural hub in the Northwestern region of Mexico.

Economy

The main economic activities of Sinaloa are agriculture, fishing, livestock breeding, commerce and industry. The products obtained from these activities are used for both local and national consumption. Sinaloa has on its license plates the image of a Tomato, as the state is widely recognized for harvesting this particular fruit in great abundance from Los Mochis in the North to Culiacan in the Central region of the state. Agriculture produce aside from tomatoes include cotton, beans, corn, wheat, sorghum, potatoes, soybeans, mangos, sugarcane, peanuts and squash. Sinaloa is the most prominent state in Mexico in terms of agriculture and is known as "Mexico's breadbasket". Additionally, Sinaloa has the second largest fishing fleet in the country. [24] Livestock produces meat, sausages, cheese, milk as well as sour cream.

Government and politics

The current governor of Sinaloa is Quirino Ordaz Coppel (PRI), elected for the period 20172022. The state is represented in the Mexican Congress by three Senators in the upper house and fourteen federal deputies in the lower house.

Notable residents

See also

Notes

  1. "Ley. Reglas para la división del Estado de Sonora y Sinaloa" (in Spanish).
  2. "Senadores por Sinaloa LXI Legislatura". Senado de la Republica. Retrieved April 6, 2011.
  3. "Listado de Diputados por Grupo Parlamentario del Estado de Sinaloa". Camara de Diputados. Retrieved April 6, 2011.
  4. "Resumen". Cuentame INEGI. Archived from the original on May 14, 2013. Retrieved February 12, 2013.
  5. "Relieve". Cuentame INEGI. Archived from the original on October 14, 2010. Retrieved April 6, 2011.
  6. "Encuesta Intercensal 2015" (PDF). Retrieved December 9, 2015.
  7. 1 2 "Mexico en Cifras". INEGI. Archived from the original on April 20, 2011. Retrieved April 6, 2011.
  8. "Reporte: Jueves 3 de Junio del 2010. Cierre del peso mexicano". www.pesomexicano.com.mx. Retrieved August 10, 2010.
  9. Peter Gerhard, The Northern Frontier of New Spain (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1982) p. 245
  10. John Schmal, "The History of Indigenous Sinaloa"
  11. "Clima de Sinaloa". Cuéntame... Información por entidad. INEGI. Retrieved 14 August 2019.
  12. C. Michael Hogan. 2009
  13. Lawrence Downes. "In Los Angeles, Songs Without Borders". New York Times.
  14. "The Game". Mesoamerican Heritage Chapter of the Asociacion de Gestores del Patrimonio Historico y Cultural de Mazatlan. Retrieved 31 March 2012.
  15. Asociacion de Gestores del Patrimonio Historico y Cultural de Mazatlan. 2009
  16. "Festivities and cuisine in Sinaloa".
  17. "Sinaloa".
  18. "Culinary Arts of Sinaloa".
  19. "Oh No, There Goes Tokyo Roll—Sinaloa Style Sushi Invades Los Angeles".
  20. "Sinaloa Cartel Influence is Steadily Growing In Tijuana". Borderland Beat . 23 February 2011.
  21. "Mexico's Sinaloa gang grows empire, defies crackdown". Reuters. 19 January 2011. Retrieved 18 September 2011.
  22. "Mexico: extended population list". GeoHive. Archived from the original on 2012-03-11. Retrieved 2011-07-29.
  23. INEGI (2005). "Principales resultados de la Encuesta Intercensal 2015 Sinaloa" (PDF): 27, 29, 33. Retrieved 26 April 2017.Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  24. "Sinaloa". SEDESOL Secretaría de Desarrollo Social. Secretaría de Desarrollo Social. Retrieved 14 August 2019.

Related Research Articles

Culiacán Place in Sinaloa, Mexico

Culiacán is a city in northwestern Mexico. It is the largest city in and the capital of the state of Sinaloa. It is also the seat of Culiacán Municipality. It had an urban population of 785,800 in 2015 while 905,660 lived in the entire municipality. While the municipality has a total area of 4,758 km2 (1,837 sq mi), the city itself is considerably smaller, measuring only 65 km2 (25 sq mi).

A narcocorrido is a subgenre of the Regional Mexican corrido genre, from which several other genres have evolved. This type of music is heard and produced on both sides of the Mexico–US border. It uses a danceable, polka, waltz or mazurka rhythmic base.

Joaquín "El Chapo" Guzmán Mexican drug lord

Joaquín Archivaldo Guzmán Loera, commonly known as "El Chapo" because of his 168 cm stature, is a Mexican drug lord and former leader of the Sinaloa Cartel, an international crime syndicate. He is considered to have been the most powerful drug trafficker in the world.

Francisco Rafael Arellano Félix former Mexican drug trafficker

Francisco Rafael Arellano Félix was a Mexican drug lord and former leader of the Tijuana Cartel, a drug trafficking organization. He was the oldest of seven brothers and headed the criminal organization early in the 1990s alongside them. Through his brother Benjamín, Francisco Rafael joined the Tijuana Cartel in 1989 following the arrest of Miguel Ángel Félix Gallardo, one of the most prominent drug czars in Mexico during the 1980s. When the Arellano Félix took control of the organization in the early 1990s, tensions with the rival Sinaloa Cartel prompted violent attacks and slayings from both fronts.

Ignacio "Nacho" Coronel Villarreal was a Mexican suspected drug lord and one of the founders of the Sinaloa Cartel, a criminal group based in Sinaloa. He worked alongside Joaquín "El Chapo" Guzmán, Mexico's most-wanted drug lord. His stronghold was Jalisco.

The timeline of some of the most relevant events in the Mexican Drug War is set out below. Although violence between drug cartels had been occurring for three decades, the Mexican government held a generally passive stance regarding cartel violence through the 1980s and early 2000s.

The Beltrán Leyva Cartel was a Mexican drug cartel and organized crime syndicate, formerly headed by the six Beltrán Leyva brothers: Marcos Arturo, Carlos, Alfredo, Mario Alberto, Esaúl Beltrán Leyva and Héctor. Founded as a branch of the Sinaloa Cartel, the Beltrán Leyva cartel was responsible for transportation and wholesaling of cocaine, heroin and marijuana. It controlled numerous drug trafficking corridors, and engaged in human smuggling, money laundering, extortion, kidnapping, murder and gun-running.

Héctor Beltrán Leyva was a Mexican drug lord and leader of the Beltrán Leyva Cartel, a drug-trafficking organization. He was the brother of Arturo Beltrán Leyva (deceased), former leader of the cartel. Héctor was the second-in-command and rose to the leadership of the criminal organization after his brother's death on 16 December 2009 during a confrontation with Mexican marines.

Carlos Beltrán Leyva Mexican drug lord

Carlos Beltrán Leyva is an incarcerated Mexican drug lord with the Beltrán-Leyva Cartel. The cartel was created by the four Beltrán Leyva brothers: Carlos, Héctor, Alfredo and Arturo. Born in the Sinaloan countryside in the late 1960s, Carlos and his brothers worked closely with Joaquín "Chapo" Guzmán, the leader of the Sinaloa Cartel, during decades of smuggling.

José Manuel Torres Félix, also known as El M1 and/or El Ondeado, was a suspected Mexican drug lord and high-ranking leader of a cell within the Sinaloa Cartel.

Operation Sinaloa or Operation Culiacan - Navolato is an ongoing Anti-drug trafficking operation in the Mexican state of Sinaloa by the Federal Police and the Mexican Armed Forces. Its main objective is to cripple all cartel organizations such as the Sinaloa Cartel, Beltrán-Leyva Cartel and Los Zetas that operate in that state. The Military was deployed in response to the murder of Mexico's Federal Police commissioner Édgar Eusebio Millán Gómez.

Alfredo Beltrán Leyva Mexican drug trafficker

Alfredo Beltrán Leyva, commonly referred to by his alias El Mochomo, is a convicted Mexican drug lord and former leader of the Beltrán-Leyva Cartel, a drug trafficking organization. He was one of Mexico's most-wanted drug lords. Beltrán Leyva was responsible for smuggling multi-ton shipments of cocaine and methamphetamine to the United States from Mexico and South America between the 1990s and 2000s. He worked alongside his brothers Héctor, Carlos, and Arturo.

Los Pelones is an enforcer gang originally part of the Mexican drug trafficking organization known as the Sinaloa Cartel, headed by the drug lord Joaquín El Chapo Guzmán, Mexico's most-wanted man.

La Resistencia (gang) Mexican criminal enforcer squad

La Resistencia, also known as Cárteles Unidos is a Mexican criminal enforcer squad composed of well trained gunmen from the Sinaloa Cartel, Gulf Cartel and Knights Templar Cartel dedicated to killing or expelling the Los Zetas Cartel operatives from the states of Michoacán and Jalisco.

Leyva is of Spanish origin. It is a variant of Leiva.

Los Ántrax enforcer gang of the Sinaloa Cartel

Los Ántrax is an enforcer gang of Sinaloa Cartel, a criminal group based in Sinaloa. The group was led by the drug lords Jesús Peña, José Rodrigo Aréchiga Gamboa, René Velázquez Valenzuela, among others, and they are responsible for a number of homicides and for providing armed security services to Ismael El Mayo Zambada. The gang operates in the capital city of Culiacán, Sinaloa, where its members conduct homicides and violent attacks.

Gonzalo Inzunza Inzunza, commonly referred to by his alias El Macho Prieto, was a Mexican drug lord and high-ranking leader of the Sinaloa Cartel, a Mexican transnational criminal organization. He worked as the cartel's assassins chief under the tutelage of Ismael "El Mayo" Zambada and as the regional leader of the cartel in the states of Baja California and Sonora. His base of operations was in Mexicali, where he coordinated marijuana and cocaine shipments through the Calexico–Mexicali border region. On 18 December 2013, Inzunza Inzunza was killed in a shootout with Mexican authorities in the resort area of Puerto Peñasco, Sonora. Before the gunfight was over, several of his gunmen took the corpse of the drug lord with them.

Los Mazatlecos is an enforcer gang of the Beltrán Leyva Cartel, currently led by Héctor Beltrán Leyva and Fausto Isidro Meza Flores.

Fausto Isidro Meza Flores Mexican drug trafficker

Fausto Isidro Meza Flores, commonly referred to by his criminal alias El Chapo Isidro, is a Mexican drug lord and high-ranking leader of the Beltrán Leyva Cartel, a drug trafficking organization. He is also the alleged leader of Los Mazatlecos and was right-hand man of the now deceased drug lord Héctor and the incarcerated Alfredo Beltrán Leyva. The FBI is offering a USD $5 million bounty.

René Velázquez Valenzuela

René Velázquez Valenzuela was a Mexican suspected hitman and high-ranking member of the Sinaloa Cartel, a criminal group based in Sinaloa. According to security forces, Velázquez was a senior member within Los Ántrax, one of the Sinaloa Cartel's assassin squads responsible for fighting rival gangs, guarding drug shipments, and protecting the family of Ismael "El Mayo" Zambada, one of Mexico's most-wanted men. He was commonly referred to by his aliases "El Sargento Phoenix", "El Gato Negro", and "El Talibán". Velázquez was known for his long beard and shaved head.

References