Singapore Strait

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Singapore Strait
Straits of Singapore locator map.PNG
Map of the Singapore Strait
Coordinates 1°13′N103°55′E / 1.217°N 103.917°E / 1.217; 103.917 Coordinates: 1°13′N103°55′E / 1.217°N 103.917°E / 1.217; 103.917
Type strait
Basin  countries Singapore
Malaysia
Indonesia
Max. length105 km (65 mi)
Min. width16 km (9.9 mi)
Average depth22 metres (72 ft) (minimum, within the nautical channel) [1]
Settlements Singapore
Batam
Map all coordinates using: OpenStreetMap  
Download coordinates as: KML  ·  GPX
The Singapore Strait, as seen from East Coast Park East Coast Park 11, Mar 06.JPG
The Singapore Strait, as seen from East Coast Park
The Singapore Strait, as seen from Marina Bay Sands Singapore Strait View from Marina Bay Sands in Singapore.jpg
The Singapore Strait, as seen from Marina Bay Sands

The Singapore Strait is a 105-kilometre-long (65 mi) * , 16-kilometre-wide (9.9 mi) * strait between the Strait of Malacca in the west and the Karimata Strait in the east. Singapore is on the north of the channel, and the Riau Islands are on the south. The Indonesia-Singapore border lies along the length of the strait.

Contents

It includes Keppel Harbour and many small islands. The strait provides the deepwater passage to the Port of Singapore, which makes it very busy. Approximately 2,000 merchant ships traverse the waters on a daily basis. [2] The depth of the Singapore Strait limits the maximum draft of vessels going through the Straits of Malacca, and the Malaccamax ship class.

Historical Records

Aerial panorama of the Singapore Strait and the Pasir Panjang Port Terminal, 2016 Aerial panorama of the Singapore Strait and the Pasir Panjang Port Terminal.jpg
Aerial panorama of the Singapore Strait and the Pasir Panjang Port Terminal, 2016
Aerial perspective of Kusu Island, one of the southern islands found in the Singapore Straits, 2016 Aerial perspective of Kusu Island, Singapore. Shot in 2016.jpg
Aerial perspective of Kusu Island, one of the southern islands found in the Singapore Straits, 2016

The 9th century AD Muslim author Ya'qubi referred a Bahr Salahit or Sea of Salahit (from the Malay selat meaning strait), one of the Seven Seas to be traversed to reach China. Some have interpreted Sea of Salahit as referring to Singapore, [3] although others generally considered it the Malacca Strait, a point of contact between the Arabs and the Zābaj (likely Sumatra). [4] Among early Europeans travellers to South East Asia, the Strait of Singapore may refer to the whole or the southern portion of the Strait of Malacca as well as other stretches of water. [5] Historians also used the term in plural, "Singapore Straits", to refer to three or four different straits found in recorded in old texts and maps the Old Strait of Singapore between Sentosa and Telok Blangah, the New Strait of Singapore southwest of Sentosa, the "Governor's Strait" or "Strait of John de Silva" which corresponds to Phillip Channel, and the Tebrau Strait. [6] Today the Singapore Strait refers to the main channel of waterway south of Singapore where the international border between Singapore and Indonesia is located.

Second World War

The strait was mined by the British during the Second World War. [7]

Accidents

In 2009 the Maersk Kendal grounded on the Monggok Sebarok reef. [8]

Extent

The International Hydrographic Organization defines the limits of the Singapore Strait as follows: [9]

On the West. The Eastern limit of Malacca Strait [A line joining Tanjong Piai (Bulus), the Southern extremity of the Malay Peninsula ( 1°16′N103°31′E / 1.267°N 103.517°E / 1.267; 103.517 (W1) ) and The Brothers ( 1°11.5′N103°21′E / 1.1917°N 103.350°E / 1.1917; 103.350 (W2) ) and thence to Klein Karimoen ( 1°10′N103°23.5′E / 1.167°N 103.3917°E / 1.167; 103.3917 (W3) )].

On the East. A line joining Tanjong Datok, the Southeast point of Johore ( 1°22′N104°17′E / 1.367°N 104.283°E / 1.367; 104.283 (E1) ) through Horsburgh Reef to Pulo Koko, the Northeastern extreme of Bintan Island ( 1°13.5′N104°35′E / 1.2250°N 104.583°E / 1.2250; 104.583 (E2) ).

On the North. The Southern shore of Singapore Island, Johore Shoal and the Southeastern coast of the Malay Peninsula.

On the South. A line joining Klein Karimoen to Pulo Pemping Besar ( 1°06.5′N103°47.5′E / 1.1083°N 103.7917°E / 1.1083; 103.7917 (S) ) thence along the Northern coasts of Batam and Bintan Islands to Pulo Koko.

Pilot guides and charts

Pilot guides and charts of the Malacca and Singapore straits have been published for a considerable time due to the nature of the straits [10] [11] [12] [13]

See also

Related Research Articles

Strait of Malacca Strait between the Malay Peninsula and the Indonesian island of Sumatra

The Strait of Malacca or Straits of Malacca is a narrow, 550 mi (890 km) stretch of water between the Malay Peninsula and the Indonesian island of Sumatra. As the main shipping channel between the Indian Ocean and the Pacific Ocean, it is one of the most important shipping lanes in the world. It is named after the Malacca Sultanate that ruled over the archipelago between 1400 and 1511, the center of administration of which was located in the modern-day state of Malacca, Malaysia.

Malacca Sultanate historical state in Malaysia

The Malacca Sultanate was a Malay sultanate centred in the modern-day state of Malacca, Malaysia. Conventional historical thesis marks c. 1400 as the founding year of the sultanate by a Malay Raja of Singapura, Parameswara, also known as Iskandar Shah. At the height of the sultanate's power in the 15th century, its capital grew into one of the most important entrepôts of its time, with territory covering much of the Malay Peninsula, the Riau Islands and a significant portion of the northern coast of Sumatra in present-day Indonesia.

Port of Singapore port

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Johor Sultanate sultanate

The Johor Sultanate was founded by Malaccan Sultan Mahmud Shah's son, Sultan Alauddin Riayat Shah II in 1528. Johor was part of the Malaccan Sultanate before the Portuguese conquered Malacca's capital in 1511. At its height, the sultanate controlled modern-day Johor, Riau, and territories stretching from the river Klang to the Linggi and Tanjung Tuan, Muar, Batu Pahat, Singapore, Pulau Tinggi and other islands off the east coast of the Malay peninsula, the Karimun islands, the islands of Bintan, Bulang, Lingga and Bunguran, and Bengkalis, Kampar and Siak in Sumatra. In 1564 the Ottomans conquered the Sultanate during the Ottoman expedition to Aceh. During the colonial era, the mainland part was administered by the British, and the insular part by the Dutch, thus breaking up the sultanate into Johor and Riau. In 1946, the British section became part of the Malayan Union. Two years later, it joined the Federation of Malaya and subsequently, the Federation of Malaysia in 1963. In 1949, the Dutch section became part of Indonesia.

Founding of modern Singapore 1819 establishment of Singapore as a crown colony

The establishment of a British trading post in Singapore in 1818 by Sir Stamford Raffles led to its founding as a British colony

Cornelis Matelief de Jonge Dutch admiral

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A Famosa

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References

  1. "СИНГАПУРСКИЙ ПРОЛИВ - это... Что такое СИНГАПУРСКИЙ ПРОЛИВ?". Словари и энциклопедии на Академике (in Russian). Retrieved 2018-07-29.
  2. Liang, Annabelle; Maye-E, Wong (August 22, 2017). "Busy waters around Singapore carry a host of hazards". Navy Times . Around 2,000 merchant ships travel in the area every day, Tan estimated.
  3. "Tumasik Kingdom". Melayu Online. Archived from the original on 12 March 2009.
  4. R. A. Donkin (March 2004). Between East and West: The Moluccas and the Traffic in Spices Up to the Arrival of Europeans. Amer Philosophical Society. p. 91. ISBN   978-0871692481.
  5. Peter Borschberg, ed. (December 2004). Iberians in the Singapore-Melaka Area and Adjacent Regions (16th to 18th Century). Harrassowitz. pp. 97–99. ISBN   978-3447051071.
  6. Borschberg, Peter (2012). "The Singapore Straits in the Latter Middle Ages and Early Modern Period (c.13th to 17th Centuries). Facts, Fancy and Historiographical Challenges". Journal of Asian History. 46 (2): 193–224.
  7. "SINGAPORE STRAIT MINED". The Central Queensland Herald . Rockhampton, Qld. 20 February 1941. p. 34. Retrieved 12 May 2012 via National Library of Australia.
  8. Great Britain. Marine Accident Investigation Branch (2010), Report on the grounding of mv Maersk Kendal on Monggok Sebarok reef in the Singapore Strait on 16 September 2009, Marine Accident Investigation Branch, retrieved 12 May 2012
  9. "Limits of Oceans and Seas, 3rd edition" (PDF). International Hydrographic Organization. 1953. Retrieved 7 February 2010.
  10. Great Britain. Hydrographic Dept; Great Britain. Hydrographic Office (1971), Malacca Strait and west coast of Sumatra pilot : comprising Malacca Strait and its northern approaches, Singapore Strait, and the west coast of Sumatra (5th ed. (1971)- ed.), Hydrographer of the Navy, retrieved 12 May 2012
  11. Maritime & Port Authority of Singapore; Chua, Tiag Ming (2000), Charts for small craft, Singapore Strait & adjacent waterways (2000 ed.), Maritime and Port Authority of Singapore, retrieved 12 May 2012
  12. Great Britain. Hydrographic Dept; Hennessey, S. J (1971), Malacca Strait and west coast of Sumatra pilot : comprising Malacca Strait and its northern approaches, Singapore Strait, and the west coast of Sumatra (5th ed.), Hydrographer of the Navy, ISBN   9780902539716 , retrieved 12 May 2012
  13. Singapore. Maritime and Port Authority; Singapore. Maritime and Port Authority. Hydrographic Dept (1998), Singapore Strait, Hydrographic Dept., Maritime and Port Authority of Singapore, retrieved 12 May 2012

Further reading