Singkawang

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Singkawang

San Khew Jong
Other transcription(s)
   Jawi سيڠ كوانڠ
   Chinese 山口洋
Lambang KotaSingkawang.png
Coat of arms
Nickname(s): 
Hong Kong van Borneo, Hakka Town
Motto(s): 
Bersatu Untuk Maju, Singkawang Berkualitas
Locator map of Singkawang City in West Kalimantan.svg
Location within West Kalimantan
Indonesia Kalimantan location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Singkawang
Location in Kalimantan and Indonesia
Indonesia location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Singkawang
Singkawang (Indonesia)
Coordinates: 0°54′N108°59′E / 0.900°N 108.983°E / 0.900; 108.983 Coordinates: 0°54′N108°59′E / 0.900°N 108.983°E / 0.900; 108.983
Country Flag of Indonesia.svg  Indonesia
Province Flag of West Kalimantan.svg  West Kalimantan
Established12 December 1981 (as administrative city)
21 June 2001
Districts
Government
  MayorTjhai Chui-Mie
  Vice MayorIrwan
Area
  Total504.0 km2 (194.6 sq mi)
Population
 (2020 Census)
  Total235,064
  Density470/km2 (1,200/sq mi)
   Demonym
Singkawangite 山口洋人 (Shan Khew Jong-nyin)
  [1]
Time zone UTC+7 (Indonesia Western Time)
Area code (+62) 562
Website singkawangkota.go.id
Singkawang
Chinese 山口洋

Singkawang or San Khew Jong in Hakka (Hakka POJ: Sân-khiéu-yòng), is a city located in the province of West Kalimantan, on the island of Borneo in Indonesia. It is located at about 145 km north of Pontianak, the provincial capital, and is surrounded by the Pasi, Poteng, and Sakok mountains. Singkawang is derived from the Hakka Chinese, sân-khiéu-yòng which refers to "a town in hills nearby a sea and estuary." The city covers an area of 504 km2 and had a population of 186,462 at the 2010 Census, [2] 207,144 at the 2015 Intermediate Census and 235.064 at the 2020 Census. [3]

Contents

History

Originally Singkawang was a village in that part of the Sultanate of Sambas, named as Singkawang Village (Kampong Singkawang) as a haven for traders and gold miners from Monterado. The miners and traders who came mostly from China, before they headed towards Monterado, first rested in Singkawang, while gold miners from Monterado often rested in Singkawang to remove their tiredness, while Singkawang also served as the transit point for the transportation of gold dust. At that time, they (the Chinese) called Singkawang as San Keuw Jong (Hakka); they assumed in terms of geography that Singkawang directly adjacent to the Natuna Sea and there are mountains and rivers, where the water flows from the mountains through the river to the mouth of the sea. Seeing the development of Singkawang assessed by those who are promising enough that the miners switched professions as are farmers and traders in Singkawang and eventually the miners lived and in Singkawang till now.

From the middle of the 18th century the Chinese governed trading in the city. During the Dutch East Indies era Singkawang was a Roman Catholic main station and permanent residence of Roman Catholic clergy. The mission there was called the 'Apostolic Vicariate of Dutch Borneo' and founded among others schools, a hospital and a leprosy colony.

Administrative districts

The city is divided into five administrative districts (kecamatan), listed below with their areas and their populations at the 2010 Census [4] and the 2020 Census. [5]

NameArea
in
km2
Pop'n
Census
2010
Pop'n
Census
2020
Singkawang Selatan
(South Singkawang)
224.4841,43254,910
Singkawang Timur
(East Singkawang)
166.2619,26323,366
Singkawang Utara
(North Singkawang)
66.4521,97730,994
Singkawang Barat
(West Singkawang)
15.0446,89055,477
Singkawang Tengah
(Central Singkawang)
31.5756,90070,317
Totals504.00186,462235,064

Climate

Singkawang has a tropical rainforest climate (Af) with heavy to very heavy rainfall year-round.

Climate data for Singkawang
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Average high °C (°F)29.6
(85.3)
30.1
(86.2)
30.9
(87.6)
31.2
(88.2)
31.8
(89.2)
31.5
(88.7)
31.2
(88.2)
31.3
(88.3)
31.2
(88.2)
31.1
(88.0)
30.6
(87.1)
30.1
(86.2)
30.9
(87.6)
Daily mean °C (°F)26.0
(78.8)
26.5
(79.7)
26.9
(80.4)
27.0
(80.6)
27.5
(81.5)
27.3
(81.1)
26.9
(80.4)
27.0
(80.6)
27.1
(80.8)
27.1
(80.8)
26.7
(80.1)
26.5
(79.7)
26.9
(80.4)
Average low °C (°F)22.5
(72.5)
23.0
(73.4)
22.9
(73.2)
22.9
(73.2)
23.2
(73.8)
23.1
(73.6)
22.7
(72.9)
22.8
(73.0)
23.0
(73.4)
23.1
(73.6)
22.9
(73.2)
22.9
(73.2)
22.9
(73.3)
Average rainfall mm (inches)309
(12.2)
215
(8.5)
198
(7.8)
198
(7.8)
200
(7.9)
191
(7.5)
165
(6.5)
186
(7.3)
227
(8.9)
322
(12.7)
358
(14.1)
387
(15.2)
2,956
(116.4)
Source: Climate-Data.org [6]

Demographics

Ethnicities of Singkawang - 2000 Census [7]
ethnic grouppercent
Chinese
71.15%
Malay
15.20%
Dayak
7.25%
Javanese
5.40%
Other
1.35%

Most of the population are of Chinese descent (around 70% of whole population). The largest group of Chinese descent is Hakka people (locally called as "Hakka-nyin" who speak Guangdong-Hakka dialect). The other major group of Chinese descent is Chaozhou People which is better known as Teochew. The rest are Malay, Dayak, Javanese, and other ethnicities. The total population was 235,064 at the 2020 Census. [8]

The distribution of the religion practically follows the distribution of the ethnic groups; the largest groups are Buddhism followed by Confucianism, Islam, Protestantism and Catholicism.

City of a Thousand Temples

One of the main temples in Singkawang, named as Tri Dharma Bumi Raya temple (Fu De Ci ) Singkawang temple 101221-10563.JPG
One of the main temples in Singkawang, named as Tri Dharma Bumi Raya temple (福德祠)

Singkawang is also known as the City of a Thousand Temples since there are many temples can be found in the city and its surrounding. Nearly every god and goddess in Chinese Mythology are worshipped here. People also worship popular historical figures like Tua Pek Kong (Hakka: Thai Phak Kung; Indonesian: Dewa Bumi), General Guan Gong, Admiral Zheng He, and Emperor Sung Tai-zu, who was found to be worshipped in the temple outside the north side of the city.

Food

Chinese food especially Hakka style dominates the food stalls or small restaurants, but Teochew style is also available. Minang style food can also be found here. Unique food like Rujak Ju Hie (鱿鱼炒; rojak with dried squid) is one of delicacies in Singkawang. Tofu (bean curd) Singkawang is famous in West Kalimantan, also Kembang Tahu (腐皮; silky smooth tofu with sugar gravy) is very popular in this city. Singkawang is also famous for its cakes. The variety of cakes is surprising and available from early morning till midnight. Choi Pan (菜粿:Steamed vegetable dumplings) also known as Chai Kue or Chai Kueh, is one of the many special traditional Asian delicacies. Believed to be of Teochew origin, it consists mainly of fragrantly stir-fried yam bean wrapped in a slightly chewy translucent skin and is steamed to perfection. [9] There are also have several Malay food such as Bubur Paddas (Malay's spicy porridge), Pedak (fermented shrimp paste) and Nasi Lemak. Kopi tiam (咖啡店; local coffee shop) with strong bitter robusta coffee can be found every where. Peaceful and safe feeling for everyone makes Singkawang to be one of the cities with lively night. One may enjoy various food in Pasar Hongkong from porridge, kwetiau, fried rice, nasi lemak, rujak (fruit & vegetables salad), cakes coffee stall. And the prices of the food are surprisingly cheap. Local people enjoy the night with their friends discussing the local hottest issues, singing, or playing cards.

Chinatown

Beside it is well known as the City of Thousands Temples, as there are many small and large temple from any corner of Singkawang region, Singkawang is also known as one of the Indonesian Chinatowns since the majority of the population is of Chinese descent, consisting of mostly Hakka and some other sub-group of Han Chinese, they're resided at any areas in the city. They still practice their culture in any ceremony or official events, from weddings to funeral ceremonies. The culture is seen as the closest to the original tradition of Chinese people (mostly refers to Fujian), making Singkawang known as the Indonesian Chinatown.

Languages

Singkawang people use Indonesian as the primary language not only in conversation or trading, but they also use their own mother tongue. As Singkawang consists of three major ethnic groups, Chinese, Malays and Dayak, Hakka people, almost all of the Singkawang people use either Indonesian or Hakka Chinese for conversation; even some members of other ethnic groups use it, too. The Indonesian used in Singkawang commonly for daily conversation is not standard Indonesian, but has some Malay influence on vocabulary as Malay is the closest language to Indonesian and the Singkawang people have for years been accustomed to Malay.

Transportation

At present there is no airport at Singkawang, and served by Supadio International Airport. It is connected by road, can be reached by bus or taxi from Pontianak covering a distance of 150 kilometers. It is also connected by road to Kuching in Malaysia via the Aruk/Biawak border and Sambas.

Proposal to build an airport, and toll road from Pontianak is now under consideration. The construction of the airport is planned to begin in 2020 and the first phase of construction is targeted to be completed in 2022. [10] [11]

Festivals

Around Singkawang

One of the main roads in Singkawang, Jalan P. Diponegoro Singkawang.jpg
One of the main roads in Singkawang, Jalan P. Diponegoro

Places of interest around the city are:

Mail Order Bride Scandal

There have been unsubstantiated allegations of human trafficking in Singkawang, based upon the town's mail order bride illegal business. [13] Most of the men who travel to Singkawang looking for young women to marry are from Taiwan, China, or Singapore. These men arrive and get in touch with brokers, these brokers then approach families with suitably aged daughters and generally offers these parents about 6 million rupiahs (about US$450) for each girl.

It is most normal for a majority of these foreign clients to pay an amount exceedingly more than what is requested by the brokers and most payments are at an average of 30 million rupiahs (about US$2,250). Contracts are often drawn between the brokers and the clients. It is a fact that each contract includes a time period clause and most of these marriages are contractually bound for 2 to 4 years, some for even shorter periods of time. It is also common for these relationships to not be legally bound marriages.

Indonesian police actively arrest the offender of mail order bride. [14]

Sister cities

Notable people

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References

  1. Badan Pusat Statistik, Jakarta, 2021.
  2. Biro Pusat Statistik, Jakarta, 2011.
  3. Badan Pusat Statistik, Jakarta, 2021.
  4. Biro Pusat Statistik, Jakarta, 2011.
  5. Badan Pusat Statistik, Jakarta, 2021.
  6. "Climate: Singkawang". Climate-Data.org. Retrieved 24 November 2020.
  7. Indonesia's Population: Ethnicity and Religion in a Changing Political Landscape. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. 2003. ISBN   9812302123
  8. Badan Pusat Statistik, Jakarta, 2021.
  9. http://www.huangkitchen.com/chai-kuih/
  10. "Ground breaking for Singkawang airport project to take place in May". Antara News. Retrieved 8 May 2019.
  11. "Tol Pontianak-Singkawang Layak Dibangun". Kompas. Retrieved 8 May 2019.
  12. "Jika ke Singkawang, Ayo Mampir ke Sinka Island Park". February 3, 2012.
  13. Indonesia, Etc.: Exploring the Improbable Nation, Elizabeth Pisani, p. 286
  14. https://www.antaranews.com/berita/931464/polres-singkawang-gagalkan-pengiriman-warga-yang-diduga-korban-tppo
  15. Rendra Oxtora; Aria Cindyara; Fardah Assegaf (9 July 2019). "Sarawak Chambers explore cooperation with Singkawang". Antara. Archived from the original on 26 September 2019. Retrieved 26 September 2019.