Sinpo

Last updated
Sinpo

신포시
Korean transcription(s)
   Chosŏn'gŭl
   Hancha
   McCune-Reischauer Sinp'o si
   Revised Romanization Sinpo-si
DPRK2006 Hamnam-Sinpo.PNG
Map of South Hamgyong showing the location of Sinpo
North Korea adm location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Sinpo
Map of North Korea showing the location of Sinpo
Coordinates: 40°02′5″N128°11′8″E / 40.03472°N 128.18556°E / 40.03472; 128.18556 Coordinates: 40°02′5″N128°11′8″E / 40.03472°N 128.18556°E / 40.03472; 128.18556
Country North Korea
Province South Hamgyong Province
Administrative divisions 16 tong, 6 ri
Population
 (2008)
  Total152,759
  Dialect
Hamgyŏng
Time zone UTC+9 (Pyongyang Time)

Sinpho (Korean pronunciation:  [ɕin.pʰo] ) is a port city on the coast of the Sea of Japan (East Sea of Korea) in central South Hamgyŏng province, North Korea. According to the last available census, approximately 152,759 people reside here.

Contents

Administrative divisions

American F9F Panther flying near Sinpo during the Korean War 80-G-429646 (32354986592).jpg
American F9F Panther flying near Sinpo during the Korean War

Sinp'o is divided into 16 tong (neighbourhoods) and 6 ri (villages):

  • Haeam 1-dong
  • Haeam 2-dong
  • Haesan-dong
  • Kwangbok 1-dong
  • Kwangbok 2-dong
  • Mayang-dong
  • Ŏhang-dong
  • P'ung'ŏ-dong
  • Ryŏnho-dong
  • Ryuktae 1-dong
  • Ryuktae 2-dong
  • Sinhŭng-dong
  • Tongho 1-dong
  • Tongho 2-dong
  • Yangji-dong
  • Poju-ri
  • Puch'ang-ri
  • Ryongjung-ri
  • Sinho-ri
  • Sinp'ung-ri
  • Yanghwa-ri

Economy

Fishery

It is an important base for fishing, with a recent government emphasis on aquaculture. The DPRK has created aquacultural cooperatives and a central aquaculture office in the city.

Nuclear power

1980s

In 1985 or 1986, the Soviet Union announced it would build a nuclear power plant, in an effort to persuade North Korea to join the International Atomic Energy Agency. According to South Korean sources, the plant was to be located in the Sinpo District, and construction began in 1990, but later ended due to pressure from IAEA, and economic difficulties in the Soviet Union. [1]

1990s

In the 1990s, the Kumho area of Sinpo was the site of two planned reactors which were to have been built by the Korean Peninsula Energy Development Organization (KEDO) with international support. The project was later cancelled by the United States in 2002, amidst claims of a breach in a 1994 agreement on North Korea's nuclear weapons programs. [2]

Preparation work on the site began in 1996, and a groundbreaking ceremony took place in 1997, with construction originally expected to be completed in 2003. [2] Workers were removed from the area in January 2006, and the project was officially terminated in May that same year. [3]

Military

Sinpo is a major hub of the Defense industry of North Korea, and the Sinpo South Shipyard, its shipyards, have produced the Sinpo-class submarine, and is adjacent to the Mayang-Do Naval Base and a land-based SLBM launch platform. [4] Also, the SINPO-C ballistic missile submarine (SSB) [5] and the SINPO-class experimental ballistic missile submarine (SSBA) [5] were built in the shipyard.

Notable events

Sinp'o is reportedly close to the site of a severe railroad accident in 1995, with over 700 civilians killed. Those who died were passengers from the lower classes, packed into standing-room only cars. The survivors, mostly party elites and their relatives, were in safer cars at the front of the train. [6]

Transport

Sinp'o Station is on the P'yŏngra Line of the Korean State Railway.

Climate

Sinpo has a humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification: Dwa). [7]

Climate data for Sinpo (1981–2010)
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Average high °C (°F)1.5
(34.7)
3.1
(37.6)
7.2
(45.0)
13.7
(56.7)
18.4
(65.1)
21.2
(70.2)
24.8
(76.6)
26.3
(79.3)
22.9
(73.2)
17.8
(64.0)
10.2
(50.4)
4.5
(40.1)
14.3
(57.7)
Daily mean °C (°F)−3.2
(26.2)
−1.3
(29.7)
3.0
(37.4)
8.8
(47.8)
13.6
(56.5)
17.7
(63.9)
21.5
(70.7)
22.8
(73.0)
18.6
(65.5)
12.7
(54.9)
5.5
(41.9)
−0.2
(31.6)
10.0
(50.0)
Average low °C (°F)−7.8
(18.0)
−5.8
(21.6)
−1.1
(30.0)
4.4
(39.9)
9.7
(49.5)
14.7
(58.5)
19.0
(66.2)
19.8
(67.6)
14.4
(57.9)
7.8
(46.0)
0.8
(33.4)
−4.5
(23.9)
6.0
(42.8)
Average precipitation mm (inches)17.2
(0.68)
16.4
(0.65)
21.9
(0.86)
39.6
(1.56)
49.5
(1.95)
72.2
(2.84)
162.1
(6.38)
130.5
(5.14)
78.2
(3.08)
38.7
(1.52)
30.0
(1.18)
16.6
(0.65)
672.9
(26.49)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm)5.23.85.05.36.98.611.79.06.24.74.74.475.5
Average snowy days7.66.14.80.60.00.00.00.00.00.01.55.025.6
Average relative humidity (%)70.369.570.469.674.682.486.584.978.772.068.668.574.7
Source: Korea Meteorological Administration [8]

See also

Related Research Articles

The Ship/Submarine Recycling Program (SRP) is the process that the United States Navy uses to dispose of decommissioned nuclear vessels. SRP takes place only at the Puget Sound Naval Shipyard (PSNS) in Bremerton, Washington, but the preparations can begin elsewhere.

Soviet submarine <i>K-19</i> Ballistic missile submarine

K-19 was the first submarine of the Project 658 class, the first generation of Soviet nuclear submarines equipped with nuclear ballistic missiles, specifically the R-13 SLBM. The boat was hastily built by the Soviets in response to United States' developments in nuclear submarines as part of the arms race. Before it was launched, 10 civilian workers and a sailor died due to accidents and fires. After it was commissioned, it had multiple breakdowns and accidents, several of which threatened to sink the submarine.

Submarine-launched ballistic missile Ballistic missile capable of being launched from submerged submarines

A submarine-launched ballistic missile (SLBM) is a ballistic missile capable of being launched from submarines. Modern variants usually deliver multiple independently targetable reentry vehicles (MIRVs) each of which carries a nuclear warhead and allows a single launched missile to strike several targets. Submarine-launched ballistic missiles operate in a different way from submarine-launched cruise missiles.

North Korea and weapons of mass destruction North Koreas military development for weapons of mass destruction, including nuclear, chemical, and biological

North Korea has a military nuclear weapons program and, as of early 2020, is estimated to have an arsenal of approximately 30-40 nuclear weapons and sufficient production of fissile material for 6-7 nuclear weapons per year. North Korea has also stockpiled a significant quantity of chemical and biological weapons. In 2003, North Korea withdrew from the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT). Since 2006, the country has been conducting a series of six nuclear tests at increasing levels of expertise, prompting the imposition of sanctions.

<i>George Washington</i>-class submarine

The George Washington class was a class of nuclear-powered ballistic missile submarines deployed by the United States Navy. George Washington, along with the later Ethan Allen, Lafayette, James Madison, and Benjamin Franklin classes, comprised the "41 for Freedom" group of submarines that represented the Navy's main contribution to the nuclear deterrent force through the late 1980s.

USS <i>Michigan</i> (SSGN-727)

USS Michigan (SSBN-727/SSGN-727) is an Ohio-class nuclear-powered ballistic missile submarine that has been converted into a guided missile submarine and is part of the United States Navy. She is the third vessel to bear the name of the U.S. state of Michigan.

Nuclear submarine Submarine propelled by nuclear power

A nuclear submarine is a submarine powered by a nuclear reactor. The performance advantages of nuclear submarines over "conventional" submarines are considerable. Nuclear propulsion, being completely independent of air, frees the submarine from the need to surface frequently, as is necessary for conventional submarines. The large amount of power generated by a nuclear reactor allows nuclear submarines to operate at high speed for long periods of time; and the long interval between refuelings grants a range virtually unlimited, making the only limits on voyage times being imposed by such factors as the need to restock food or other consumables.

A nuclear navy, or nuclear-powered navy, refers to the portion of a navy consisting of naval ships powered by nuclear marine propulsion. The concept was revolutionary for naval warfare when first proposed. Prior to nuclear power, submarines were powered by diesel engines and could only submerge through the use of batteries. In order for these submarines to run their diesel engines and charge their batteries they would have to surface or snorkel. The use of nuclear power allowed these submarines to become true submersibles and unlike their conventional counterparts, they became limited only by crew endurance and supplies.

Delta-class submarine Class of russian nuclear powered, nuclear missile carrying submarines

The Delta class, Soviet designations Project 667B Murena, Project 667BD Murena-M, Project 667BDR Kalmar, Project 667BDRM Delfin, are a series of nuclear-powered ballistic missile submarines, designed and built in the Soviet Union, which formed the backbone of the Soviet and Russian strategic submarine fleet since their introduction in 1973. They carry nuclear ballistic missiles of the R-29 Vysota family, with the Delta I, Delta II, Delta III and Delta IV classes carrying the R-29, R-29D, R-29R and R-29RM respectively. The Delta I class carried 12 missiles, while the Delta II class which are lengthened versions of the Delta I class carry 16 missiles. The Delta III and Delta IV classes carry 16 missiles with multiple warheads and have improved electronics and noise reduction.

HMS <i>Victorious</i> (S29) Vanguard-class submarine

HMSVictorious is the second Vanguard-class submarine of the Royal Navy. Victorious carries the Trident ballistic missile, the UK's nuclear deterrent.

North Korea's defence industry predates the Korean War, but has emerged as major a supplier to the North Korean armed forces beginning in the 1970s, but increasingly so after the fall of the Soviet Union and to supplement those purchased from China. Most equipment produced are copies of Soviet and Chinese built military hardware.

Kilju County County in North Hamgyong Province, North Korea

Kilju, sometimes romanized as Kilchu, is a county in North Hamgyong province, North Korea. The county seat is Kilju Town.

Kumho, South Hamgyong area of South Hamgyong, North Korea

Kŭmho is a chigu, or area, in South Hamgyŏng province, near the city of Sinp'o, North Korea. Kŭmho was part of Sinp'o until 1995, when it was made a special area under the direct administration of the province.

Changjin County County in South Hamgyong Province, North Korea

Changjin County is a mountainous county in South Hamgyŏng province, North Korea.

Chunggang County County in Chagang Province, North Korea

Chunggang County is a kun, or county, in northern Chagang province, North Korea. It was originally part of Huchang county in Ryanggang, and for that reason older sources still identify it as being part of Huchang. The county seat was originally known as Chunggangjin (중강진), but is now known as Chunggang ŭp. Chunggang looks across the Yalu River at China, and borders Ryanggang province to the south.

38 North is a website devoted to analysis about North Korea. Its name refers to the 38th parallel north which passes through the Korean peninsula and between 1945 until the start of the Korean War in 1950 divided the peninsula into North and South Korea. Formerly a program of the US-Korea Institute at Johns Hopkins University's Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies, it is now housed at the Stimson Center and is managed by former U.S. Department of State official Joel S. Wit and Managing Editor Jenny Town. Notable contributors include nuclear scientist Sigfried Hecker, former Associated Press Pyongyang Bureau Chief Jean H. Lee, cybersecurity expert James Andrew Lewis, and North Korea Tech founder Martyn Williams.

The Sinpo class submarine, also called the Gorae ("whale") or Pongdae class, is a new class of submarine produced in North Korea. Only one submarine has been observed in service. It is the largest submarine designed and built for the Korean People's Navy.

In the year 2016, North Korea conducted two nuclear tests: one in January and the other in September. Additionally, the country conducted several missile tests. As consequence, the United Nations Security Council adopted three resolutions against North Korea.

The Academy of National Defense Science is a North Korean organization involved in the North Korean missile program, including the Hwasong-14. It is based in Pyongyang, and currently headed by Colonel General Jang Chang-ha.

Moored training ship

A Moored training ship (MTS) is a United States Navy designation for nuclear powered submarines that have been converted to training ships for the Naval Nuclear Power Training Command's Nuclear Power Training Unit (NPTU) at Naval Support Activity Charleston in South Carolina. The NPTU is part of the Navy's Nuclear Power School at Goose Creek, S.C.. The Navy uses decommissioned nuclear submarines and converts them to MTSs to train personnel in the operation and maintenance of submarines and their nuclear reactors. The first moored training ship was USS Sam Rayburn (SSBN-635) a James Madison-class fleet ballistic missile submarine, redesignated as (MTS-635) in 1989, followed a year later by USS Daniel Webster (SSBN-626), a Lafayette-class ballistic missile submarine, redesignated as (MTS-626). Conversion of these two boats took place at the Charleston Naval Shipyard and modifications included special mooring arrangements with a mechanism to absorb power generated by the main propulsion shaft.

References

  1. "Sinpo". Federation of American Scientists. 1 March 2000. Retrieved 16 April 2017.
  2. 1 2 "Shinpo, North Korea". power-technology.com. Kable Intelligence Limited. Retrieved 16 April 2017.
  3. "Geumho-Jigu Light Water Reactor Site". Nuclear Threat Initiative. 30 September 2011. Retrieved 16 April 2017.
  4. Cook, Damen (March 27, 2017). "North Korea's Most Important Submarine Base". The Diplomat . Archived from the original on March 31, 2017.
  5. 1 2 "North Korea's Submarine Ballistic Missile Program Moves Ahead: Indications of Shipbuilding and Missile Ejection Testing". 38 North. Retrieved 11 December 2017.
  6. Demick, Barbara (2009). Nothing to Envy: Ordinary Lives in North Korea . New York: Spiegel & Grau. pp.  139–140. ISBN   978-0-385-52391-2 . Retrieved 16 April 2017. sinpo train accident.
  7. "Climate: Sinpo". Climate-Data.org. Retrieved July 26, 2018.
  8. "30 years report of Meteorological Observations in North Korea" (in Korean). Korea Meteorological Administration. pp. 232–281. Archived from the original on 21 December 2020. Retrieved 25 December 2020.

Further reading