Sioux Falls, South Dakota

Last updated

Sioux Falls
SiouxFalls.jpg
Falls of the Big Sioux River and the Sioux Falls skyline
SiouxFallsSeal1.png
Seal
Nickname(s): 
Best Little City in America, Queen City of the West, The Heart of America
Minnehaha County South Dakota Incorporated and Unincorporated areas Sioux Falls Highlighted.svg
Location within Minnehaha County
USA South Dakota relief location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Sioux Falls
Location within South Dakota
Usa edcp relief location map.png
Red pog.svg
Sioux Falls
Location within the United States
North America laea relief location map with borders.jpg
Red pog.svg
Sioux Falls
Sioux Falls (North America)
Coordinates: 43°32′11″N96°43′54″W / 43.53639°N 96.73167°W / 43.53639; -96.73167 Coordinates: 43°32′11″N96°43′54″W / 43.53639°N 96.73167°W / 43.53639; -96.73167
Country United States
State South Dakota
Counties Minnehaha, Lincoln
Government
   Mayor Paul TenHaken
Area
[1]
   City 79.63 sq mi (206.24 km2)
  Land79.09 sq mi (204.84 km2)
  Water0.54 sq mi (1.41 km2)
Elevation
1,470 ft (448 m)
Population
 (2010) [2] [3]
   City 153,888
  Estimate 
(2019) [4]
183,793
  RankUS: 139th
  Density2,323.91/sq mi (897.26/km2)
   Urban
156,777 (US: 212th)
   Metro
265,653 (US: 184th)
Time zone UTC−6 (Central)
  Summer (DST) UTC−5 (Central)
ZIP codes
Zip codes [5]
Area code 605
FIPS code 46-59020
GNIS feature ID1267670 [6]
Website www.siouxfalls.org

Sioux Falls ( /ˌsˈfɔːlz/ ; Lakota: Íŋyaŋ Okábleča Otȟúŋwahe; [7] "Stone Shatter City") is the most populous city in the U.S. state of South Dakota and the 139th-most populous city in the United States. It is the county seat of Minnehaha County [8] and also extends into Lincoln County to the south, proximate with the Iowa state line. As of 2020, Sioux Falls had an estimated population of 195,850. [9] The Sioux Falls metro area accounts for more than a quarter of the state's entire population. Chartered in 1856 on the banks of the Big Sioux River, the city is situated in the rolling hills at the junction of interstates 29 and 90.

Contents

According to Best Life magazine, Sioux Falls is the healthiest city in the United States and is often considered one of the healthiest cities in the US by many other organizations. [10] [11]

History

Looking south on Main Avenue Downtown Sioux Falls in the evening.jpg
Looking south on Main Avenue

The history of Sioux Falls revolves around the cascades of the Big Sioux River. The falls were created about 14,000 years ago during the last ice age. The lure of the falls has been a powerful influence. Ho-Chunk, Ioway, Otoe, Missouri, Omaha (and Ponca at the time), Quapaw, Kansa, Osage, Arikira, Dakota, and Cheyenne people inhabited and settled the region previous to Europeans and European descendants. Numerous burial mounds still exist on the high bluffs near the river and are spread throughout the general vicinity. Indigenous people maintained an agricultural society with fortified villages, and the later arrivals rebuilt on many of the same sites that were previously settled. Lakota populate urban and reservation communities in the contemporary state and many Lakota, Dakota, and numerous other Indigenous Americans reside in Sioux Falls today. [12]

French voyagers/explorers visited the area in the early 18th century. The first documented visit by an American of European descent was by Philander Prescott, who camped overnight at the falls in December 1832. Captain James Allen led a military expedition out of Fort Des Moines in 1844. Jacob Ferris described the Falls in his 1856 book "The States and Territories of the Great West". [13]

Two separate groups, the Dakota Land Company of St. Paul and the Western Town Company of Dubuque, Iowa organized in 1856 to claim the land around the falls, considered a promising townsite for its beauty and water power. Each laid out 320-acre (1.3 km2) claims, but worked together for mutual protection. They built a temporary barricade of turf which they dubbed "Fort Sod", in response to native tribes attempting to defend their land from the settlers. Seventeen men then spent "the first winter" in Sioux Falls. The following year the population grew to near 40.

Although conflicts in Minnehaha County between Native Americans and white settlers were few, the Dakota War of 1862 engulfed nearby southwestern Minnesota. The town was evacuated in August of that year when two local settlers were killed as a result of the conflict. The settlers and soldiers stationed here traveled to Yankton in late August 1862. The abandoned townsite was pillaged and burned.

Fort Dakota, a military reservation established in present-day downtown, was established in May 1865. [14] Many former settlers gradually returned and a new wave of settlers arrived in the following years. The population grew to 593 by 1873, and a building boom was underway in that year. The Village of Sioux Falls, consisting of 1,200 acres (4.9 km2), was incorporated in 1876 and was granted a city charter by the Dakota Territorial legislature on March 3, 1883. [15]

The arrival of the railroads ushered in the great Dakota Boom decade of the 1880s. The population of Sioux Falls mushroomed from 2,164 in 1880 to 10,167 at the close of the decade. The growth transformed the city. A severe plague of grasshoppers and a national depression halted the boom by the early 1890s. The city grew by only 89 people from 1890 to 1900.

But prosperity eventually returned with the opening of the John Morrell meat packing plant in 1909, the establishment of an airbase and a military radio and communications training school in 1942, and the completion of the interstate highways in the early 1960s. Much of the growth in the first part of the 20th century was fueled by agriculturally based industry, such as the Morrell plant and the nearby stockyards (one of the largest in the nation).

Sioux Falls panorama 1908 1.jpg
Downtown Sioux Falls in 1908, looking west

In 1955 the city decided to consolidate the neighboring incorporated city of South Sioux Falls. At the time South Sioux Falls had a population of nearly 1,600 inhabitants, according to the 1950 census. It was the third largest city in the county after Sioux Falls and Dell Rapids. By October 18, 1955, South Sioux Falls residents voted 704 in favor and 227 against to consolidate with Sioux Falls. On the same issue, Sioux Falls residents voted on November 15 by the vote 2,714 in favor and 450 against.

In 1981, to take advantage of recently relaxed state usury laws, Citibank relocated its primary credit card center from New York City to Sioux Falls. Some claim that this event was the primary impetus for the increased population and job growth rates that Sioux Falls has experienced over the past quarter-century. Others point out that Citibank's relocation was only part of a more general transformation of the city's economy from an industrially based one to an economy centered on health care, finance, and retail trade. [16]

Sioux Falls has grown at a rapid pace since the late 1970s, with the city's population increasing from 81,000 in 1980 to 195,850 in 2020.

Sioux Falls Skyline.jpg
Downtown Sioux Falls in 2010, looking west

2019 tornadoes

On the night of September 10, 2019, the south side of Sioux Falls was hit by three EF-2 tornadoes, severely damaging at least 37 buildings, including the Plaza 41 Shopping Center. One tornado hit the Avera Heart Hospital, damaging portions of the roof and windows, and causing 7 injuries, including a man who fractured his skull as he was thrown into an exterior wall of the hospital. Another tornado hit the busy commercial district near the Empire Mall, injuring one woman inside her home. Another touched down on the far south side in a suburban residential area, tearing the roofs off homes. The total damage was more than $5 million. [17]

Geography

Primary geographic features of Sioux Falls Sioux Falls Map 4.png
Primary geographic features of Sioux Falls

Sioux Falls is located at 43°32'11" North, 96°43'54" West (43.536285, −96.731780). [18] According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 73.47 square miles (190.29 km2), of which 72.96 square miles (188.97 km2) is land and 0.51 square miles (1.32 km2) is water. [19] The city is in extreme eastern South Dakota, about 15 miles (24 km) west of the Minnesota border. Sioux Falls has been assigned the ZIP Codes 57101, 57103–57110, 57117–57118, 57188–57189, and 57192–57198, and the FIPS place code 59020.

Metropolitan area

The Sioux Falls Metropolitan Statistical Area consists of four South Dakota counties: Lincoln, McCook, Minnehaha, and Turner. The estimated population of this MSA in 2017 was 259,094, an increase of 13.51% from the 2010 census. [3] According to recent estimates, Lincoln County is the 16th-fastest-growing county in the United States. [20] In addition to Sioux Falls, the metropolitan area includes Canton, Brandon, Dell Rapids, Tea, Harrisburg, Worthing, Beresford, Lennox, Hartford, Crooks, Baltic, Montrose, Salem, Renner, Rowena, Chancellor, Colton, Humboldt, Parker, Hurley, Garretson, Sherman, Corson, Viborg, Irene, and Centerville.

Parks and recreation

Sioux Falls has more than 70 parks and greenways. Probably the best known is Falls Park, established around the city's namesake waterfalls on the Big Sioux River, just north of downtown. Other notable parks include Terrace Park, McKennan Park, Sherman Park, and Yankton Trail park. A popular feature of the park system is a paved 19-mile (31 km) path used for biking, jogging, and walking. The path follows the course of the Big Sioux River, forming a loop around Sioux Falls, along with a few spurs off the main bike trail. Recently the city stepped up efforts to beautify a stretch of the bike trails through downtown along an area known as the River Greenway. Two of three planned phases of construction and updates have occurred. Among the updates were newer widened bike paths, new landscaping and lighting, improved street access to the bike trails, a new interactive fountain, a new pedestrian bridge across the river, removal of the old "River Ramp" parking structure, new stepped terraces leading down to the river's edge, new retaining walls along portions of the river, and a new amphitheater/performing space. New trailheads at Elmen, Dunham, and Lien parks have helped to improve access to outlying trail spurs. The city is expanding the bike trail network east from Sioux Falls at Lien Park to Brandon, South Dakota, and ultimately the Big Sioux Recreation Area. The South Dakota Department of Game, Fish and Parks has an outdoor campus in Sioux Falls at Sertoma Park with several outdoor areas and acreages devoted to fish and wildlife. The outdoor campus hosts many outdoor activities, including stargazing and snowshoeing. During the winter, Great Bear Recreation Park offers skiing, snowboarding, and tubing.

Climate

Due to its inland location, Sioux Falls experiences a humid continental climate (Köppen Dfa) characterized by hot, humid summers and cold, dry winters. It is in USDA Plant Hardiness Zone 4b. [21] The monthly daily average temperature ranges from 16.6 °F (−8.6 °C) in January to 73.0 °F (22.8 °C) in July; there are 18 days of maxima at or above 90 °F (32 °C) and 26 days with minima at or below 0 °F (−18 °C) annually. Snowfall occurs mostly in light to moderate amounts during the winter, totaling 44.6 inches (113 cm). Precipitation, at 26.33 inches (669 mm) annually, is concentrated in the warmer months. This results in frequent thunderstorms in summer from convection being built up with the unstable weather patterns. Extremes range from −42 °F (−41 °C) on February 9, 1899 to 110 °F (43 °C) as recently as June 21, 1988.

Climate data for Sioux Falls (Foss Field Airport), elevation: 436 m or 1,430 ft, [lower-alpha 1] 1981–2010 normals, [lower-alpha 2] extremes 1893–present
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °F (°C)66
(19)
70
(21)
88
(31)
98
(37)
104
(40)
110
(43)
110
(43)
109
(43)
104
(40)
94
(34)
82
(28)
63
(17)
110
(43)
Mean maximum °F (°C)48.4
(9.1)
54.2
(12.3)
70.3
(21.3)
82.9
(28.3)
87.7
(30.9)
93.6
(34.2)
96.7
(35.9)
94.7
(34.8)
89.7
(32.1)
81.3
(27.4)
65.9
(18.8)
48.6
(9.2)
98.6
(37.0)
Average high °F (°C)26.4
(−3.1)
31.3
(−0.4)
43.1
(6.2)
58.5
(14.7)
69.8
(21.0)
79.2
(26.2)
84.1
(28.9)
81.7
(27.6)
73.2
(22.9)
59.6
(15.3)
42.5
(5.8)
28.5
(−1.9)
56.6
(13.7)
Average low °F (°C)6.9
(−13.9)
11.7
(−11.3)
22.7
(−5.2)
34.4
(1.3)
46.2
(7.9)
56.4
(13.6)
61.9
(16.6)
59.6
(15.3)
49.3
(9.6)
36.1
(2.3)
22.7
(−5.2)
9.8
(−12.3)
34.9
(1.6)
Mean minimum °F (°C)−16.1
(−26.7)
−11.6
(−24.2)
0.2
(−17.7)
18.4
(−7.6)
31.5
(−0.3)
43.2
(6.2)
49.3
(9.6)
46.4
(8.0)
32.2
(0.1)
19.5
(−6.9)
3.9
(−15.6)
−11.0
(−23.9)
−21.0
(−29.4)
Record low °F (°C)−38
(−39)
−42
(−41)
−23
(−31)
4
(−16)
17
(−8)
32
(0)
34
(1)
34
(1)
13
(−11)
−5
(−21)
−17
(−27)
−31
(−35)
−42
(−41)
Average precipitation inches (mm)0.56
(14)
0.60
(15)
1.76
(45)
3.01
(76)
3.40
(86)
3.92
(100)
3.09
(78)
3.05
(77)
2.77
(70)
2.17
(55)
1.36
(35)
0.69
(18)
26.38
(670)
Average snowfall inches (cm)7.7
(20)
6.9
(18)
8.4
(21)
4.6
(12)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
trace1.3
(3.3)
7.4
(19)
8.2
(21)
44.5
(113)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in)6.66.68.710.511.811.59.89.18.77.97.26.9105.3
Average snowy days (≥ 0.1 in)6.96.25.02.4000000.84.17.032.4
Average relative humidity (%)71.773.372.164.563.565.465.467.969.567.273.475.569.1
Average dew point °F (°C)6.4
(−14.2)
12.6
(−10.8)
23.4
(−4.8)
33.6
(0.9)
44.8
(7.1)
55.2
(12.9)
60.6
(15.9)
58.8
(14.9)
49.5
(9.7)
36.9
(2.7)
24.4
(−4.2)
12.0
(−11.1)
34.8
(1.6)
Mean daily sunshine hours 6.06.07.08.09.011.011.010.08.07.05.04.07.7
Percent possible sunshine 67555862607373716764504462
Average ultraviolet index 1245789863215
Source 1: NOAA, [23] [24] WRCC [25] [26]
Source 2: Weather Atlas [27] (daily sunshine hours and UV index)

Law and government

2018 Mayor and City Council [28]
Mayor Paul Ten Haken
CentralCurt Soeh
NortheastPat Starr
NorthwestGreg Neitzert
SoutheastRick Kiley
SouthwestMarshall Selberg
At-largeJanet Brekke
At-largeChristine M. Erickson
At-largeTheresa Stehly

Economy

Major Area Employers 2019 [32]
EmployeesOrganization
10,750 Sanford Health
8,298 Avera Health
3,688 Sioux Falls School District
3,600 Smithfield Foods/John Morrell & Co.
2,939 Hy-Vee

Originally centered on quarrying and agriculturally based industries, the economy of Sioux Falls has become diversified and more service-based over the last half-century, making the city a center of financial services, health care, and retail trade.

Commerce and industry

Partially due to the lack of a state corporate income tax, Sioux Falls is home to a number of financial companies. The largest employers among these [33] are Wells Fargo and Citigroup. Other important financial service companies in Sioux Falls include Great Western Bank, Western Surety Company (CNA Surety), Total Card Inc., Capital Card Services, Midland National Life Insurance Company, MetaBank, and First Premier Bank.

Sioux Falls is a significant regional health care center. It has four major hospitals: Sanford Health (formerly Sioux Valley), Avera McKennan Hospital, the South Dakota Veterans Affairs Hospital, and the Avera Heart Hospital of South Dakota. Sanford Health and Avera Health are the largest and second-largest employers in the city, respectively. Emergency medical services (EMS) are provided by Paramedics Plus and Sioux Falls Fire Rescue.

Companies based in Sioux Falls include Raven Industries, retailers Lewis Drug, POET, and Sunshine Foods, and communications companies SONIFI Solutions and Midco.

Because of the relatively long distances between Sioux Falls and larger cities, Sioux Falls has emerged as an important regional center of shopping and dining. The Empire Mall, with over 180 stores, anchors one of the primary retail zones in the southwest section of the city. This area, centered mainly around the intersection of 41st Street and Louise Avenue, contains many large national chain stores and restaurants.

In Central Downtown, shops line Phillips Avenue, and in the "EastBank" shops and restaurants fill a boardwalk style center called "8th and Railroad." "The Bridges" is an outdoor shopping center at the intersection of 57th Street and Western Avenue on the south side of the city that contains over 30 restaurants, boutiques, and private businesses. Dawley Farm Village is a major commercial development on the east side of the city at the intersection of Arrowhead Parkway (SD Highway 42) and Veterans Parkway (SD Highway 11, previously known as Powder House Road).

While no longer as economically dominant as it once was, the manufacturing and food processing sector remains an important component of the economy of Sioux Falls. The Smithfield Foods/John Morrell meatpacking plant is the city's third-largest employer. [34] Other important manufacturing companies include Orion foods systems, Wheeler Tank, Egger Steel, Maguire Iron, Amesbury Group, Teem, Raven Industries, Bell Incorporated, Tyco International, Gage Brothers, and Rosenbauer America.

The USGS Center for Earth Resources Observation and Science is approximately 10 miles north of Sioux Falls. It houses one of the largest computer complexes in the Department of the Interior. EROS has approximately 600 government and contractor employees.

In 2020, Amazon announced plans to build a 640,000 square-foot distribution center in Sioux Falls. The facility is set to open in 2022. [35]

Demographics

Historical population
CensusPop.
1880 2,164
1890 10,177370.3%
1900 10,2660.9%
1910 14,09437.3%
1920 25,20278.8%
1930 33,36232.4%
1940 40,83222.4%
1950 52,96929.7%
1960 65,46623.6%
1970 72,48810.7%
1980 81,18212.0%
1990 100,81424.2%
2000 123,97523.0%
2010 153,88824.1%
2019 (est.)183,793 [4] 19.4%
U.S. Decennial Census [36]
2018 Estimate [37]

2010 census

As of the census [2] of 2010, there were 153,888 people, 61,707 households, and 37,462 families residing in the city. The population density was 2,109.2 inhabitants per square mile (814.4/km2). There were 66,283 housing units at an average density of 908.5 per square mile (350.8/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 86.8% White, 4.2% African American, 2.7% Native American, 1.8% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 2.0% from other races, and 2.5% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 4.4% of the population.

There were 61,707 households, of which 31.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 45.5% were married couples living together, 10.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.4% had a male householder with no wife present, and 39.3% were non-families. 30.6% of all households were made up of individuals, and 8.7% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.40 and the average family size was 3.02.

The median age in the city was 33.6 years. 24.6% of residents were under the age of 18; 10.7% were between the ages of 18 and 24; 29.7% were from 25 to 44; 24.1% were from 45 to 64; and 10.9% were 65 years of age or older. The gender makeup of the city was 49.6% male and 50.4% female.

In 2015, the median household income in Minnehaha County, SD was $59,884, while Lincoln County, SD was $76,094. This represents a 0.29% growth from the previous year. The median family income for Sioux Falls was $74,632 in 2015. Males had a median income of $40,187 versus $31,517 for females. The per capita income for the county was $26,392. 11.8% of the population and 8.5% of families were below the poverty line. Out of the total population, 16.8% of those under the age of 18 and 8.8% of those 65 and older were living below the poverty line. [38]

Many European immigrants, primarily from Scandinavia, Germany and the British Isles, settled in South Dakota in the 19th century. By 1890, one-third of the residents of South Dakota were immigrants. [39]

Religion

Most Sioux Falls residents are Lutheran, with Roman Catholics the second-largest group. The Lutheran Church - Missouri Synod has eight churches in Sioux Falls: Memorial Lutheran Church, Faith Lutheran Church, Christ Lutheran Church, Lord Of Life Lutheran Church, Our Redeemer Lutheran Church, Resurrection Lutheran Church, Zion Lutheran Church, and Trinity Lutheran Church of the Deaf.

The Wisconsin Evangelical Lutheran Synod has two churches in Sioux Falls: Bethel Lutheran Church [40] and Good Shepherd Lutheran Church. [41]

The Roman Catholic Diocese of Sioux Falls, one of two dioceses in the state, built St. Joseph Cathedral on Duluth Avenue beginning in 1915 and completed in 1919. Sioux Falls is also the seat of the Episcopal Diocese of South Dakota.

Sioux Falls has a small Hindu population served by the Hindu Temple of Siouxland.

The Chabad Jewish Center of South Dakota has been based in the city since December 24, 2016 [42] and serves the entire state of South Dakota and its Jewish population, which is estimated at between 400 and 1,000. [43]

There are three Islamic centers in the city, the Muslim Community Center of South Dakota (MCCSD), Islamic Center of Sioux Falls (ICSF), and Masjid Attaqwa. All observe the five daily prayers and some weekend activities for adults and children.

Education

Augustana University's mascot, Ole, with the Administration Building, East Hall, and Old Main visible in the background AugustanaSFSD.JPG
Augustana University's mascot, Ole, with the Administration Building, East Hall, and Old Main visible in the background

Higher education

Sioux Falls is home to Augustana University, the University of Sioux Falls, Sioux Falls Seminary, Southeast Technical College, National American University, the South Dakota School for the Deaf, the University of South Dakota's Sanford School of Medicine (Sioux Falls campus), Stewart School and the South Dakota Public Universities and Research Center (formerly known as USDSU).

Public schools

The Sioux Falls School District serves over 23,000 students living in Sioux Falls and some of its surrounding suburbs. [44] Suburbs around Sioux Falls continue to experience dramatic growth as Sioux Falls expands. Suburbs experiencing rapid growth are Brandon, Valley Springs, Baltic, Garretson, West-Central, Tri-Valley, Lennox, Parker, Canton, Harrisburg, and Tea. Many of these districts serve students who live on the outer edges of Sioux Falls city limits, and serve thousands of metro-area students.

The Sioux Falls School District has signed an agreement that will allow it to participate in an athletic conference known as the Metro Conference. Sioux Falls Lincoln, Washington, Roosevelt, O'Gorman and Brandon Valley High Schools will compete in this conference, potentially with other suburban districts, to help cut costs and increase competition between schools in the Sioux Falls Metro Area.

High schools

The district has four public high schools, serving grades 9–12:

SchoolEnrollment (Fall 2015)
Lincoln 1,967
Roosevelt 2,200
Washington 1,831
New Technology High School 341
Jefferson 0 (will open in 2021) [45]
Total6,339

In January 2019, The Sioux Falls School District board of education approved the naming and building plans of Thomas Jefferson High School. Construction will begin in 2019 and the school is scheduled to open for the 2021–22 school year. [45]

The district also operates two alternative high schools serving grades 9–12 and one specialized middle/high school alternative education center:

SchoolEnrollment (Fall 2014)
Axtell Park326
Career and Technical Education Academy803
Total1,129
  • Note: Axtell Park replaced Joe Foss High School beginning fall 2014 to consolidate middle and high school alternative programs into one location.

Middle schools

There are five public middle schools in the city, serving grades 6–8:

SchoolEnrollment (Fall 2014)
Edison862
Memorial1,205
Patrick Henry1,136
George McGovern711
Whittier 929
Reifel0 (will open in 2021) [46]
Total4,843

In January 2019, The Sioux Falls School District board of education approved the naming of Ben Reifel Middle School. [47] Construction will begin in 2019 and the school is scheduled to open for the 2021–22 school year.

  • Note: George McGovern Middle School replaced Axtell Park as one of the five primary middle schools serving Sioux Falls beginning with the 2014–15 school year.

Elementary schools

There are 25 public elementary schools in Sioux Falls, serving grades K-5. There is one Spanish Immersion school. Some also serve early childhood:

  • Note: Susan B. Anthony Elementary School replaced Mark Twain and Longfellow in 2016. Sonia Sotomayor Spanish Immersion elementary school is newly built and in the location of the Jefferson Elementary school building.

Private schools

Bishop O'Gorman Catholic Schools is a centralized Catholic school system that includes eight schools: six elementary schools, all PreK-6 (St. Mary, St. Lambert, St. Michael-St. Katharine Drexel, Holy Spirit and Christ the King); one junior high (O'Gorman Junior High, grades 7–8); and one high school, O'Gorman (9–12). The junior and senior high O'Gorman schools are on the same campus. Approximately 2,800 students attend Bishop O'Gorman Catholic Schools. As of the 2009–10 school year the Sioux Falls Catholic School system's St. Joseph Cathedral School was closed.

The Lutheran Church-Missouri Synod operates two schools in Sioux Falls. Sioux Falls Lutheran School is on 37th street, while the Lutheran High School of Sioux Falls is on Western Avenue. In 2018, voters approved a plan to move Sioux Falls Lutheran School to a new building near the I-29/I-229 merge on south Boe Lane. Students moved to the new building at the beginning of the Spring 2020 semester. [73]

The Wisconsin Evangelical Lutheran Synod has two schools in Sioux Falls: Bethel Lutheran [74] and Good Shepherd Lutheran. [75]

Other private schools include Sioux Falls Christian Schools, Christian Center, The Baan Dek Montessori, Cornerstone School, and the Open Arms Christian Child Development Center.

Culture

Events

Downtown Sioux Falls hosts a SculptureWalk [76] every summer. The exhibits change yearly and usually have historical significance and reflect the city's progressive standards.

Downtown Sioux Falls also hosts "First Fridays" on the first Friday of each summer month. Businesses and associations in the downtown area take part in creating a major evening event of concerts held at the EastBank. Stores and restaurants are open with live music all along Phillips Avenue in south central Downtown.

The Downtown Riverfest is an annual Sioux Falls festival that embraces the beauty of the Big Sioux.

Festival of Bands is a regional competition that hosts over 40 marching bands each year from across the Midwest.

The Sioux Empire Spectacular draws Drum Corps participants and fans from across the nation to Sioux Falls for a regional competition. Thousands attend the event, held at Howard Wood Memorial Field in July every summer. The event is run by DCI and the music departments of the Sioux Falls School District.

Party in the Park is an annual outdoor musical event held at Terrace Park. The Sioux Empire Fair is a regional fair held at the W. H. Lyon Fairgrounds, and the Sioux Falls JazzFest is hosted at Yankton Trail Park each year.

SiouxperCon is an annual nonprofit fan convention that celebrates comic books, sci-fi, fantasy, anime, board games, and video gaming. [77]

Arts

Replica of Michelangelo's Moses at Augustana University 1bronze michelangelo moses reproduction sioux falls.jpg
Replica of Michelangelo's Moses at Augustana University

In the beginning of the 21st century, Sioux Falls experienced a renaissance of cultural interest. The Sioux Empire Arts Council continues to lead in the Sioux Falls area arts scene and gives out Mayor's Awards each year in several categories for excellence demonstrated by Sioux Falls residents. [78] The Sioux Falls SculptureWalk was the first visual evidence of the renaissance and is an attraction for both visitors and resident artists, hosting over 55 sculptures. [79] [80] One of the earliest promoters of the contemporary arts scene was Sheila Agee, who still lives in nearby Brandon. [81] Her work was essential to the renovation of the original Washington High School into the Washington Pavilion (housing two performing arts, a visual arts, and a science center). [82]

The Northern Plains Indian Art Market (NPIAM) was established in 1988 by American Indian Services, Inc., of Sioux Falls as the Northern Plains Tribal Arts Show (NPTA). Northern Plains Tribal Arts dominated the Sioux Falls art scene from its inception in 1988. American Indian Services produced the juried art show and market from 1988 to 2003. Since 2004, Sinte Gleca University of Rosebud has been the producing organization. 2012 marked the show's 25th year. Directors have included Marilyn Lone Hill and Jack Herman. In the first 25 years of its existence—one of the longest-running Indian art shows in the country—over 800 artists from 7 northern plains states and two Canadian provinces exhibited at NPTA/NPIAM. Writers for national publications, filmmakers, and researchers have all joined the audiences over the years. Northern Plains Indian Art Market continues under the auspices of Sinte Gleca. [83]

A permanent Northern Plains Tribal Arts collection is housed in the Egger Gallery at the Washington Pavilion. Since the Washington Pavilion opened its doors to the public in 1999, this unique collection of Native American artwork has called the Visual Arts Center home. Originally the pieces were on an extended loan from American Indian Services, Inc. In 2013, thanks to many supporters, the works were acquired under the title of the Augustana Tribal Arts Collection, and now officially belong to the Visual Arts Center. [84]

A lifelong and well-respected area musician and artist, Jim Groth, became an educator when the Office of Indian Ed opened up and needed teachers for the new Native Connections classes, including his own, at Lincoln High School. He began a pit ceramics program for the students and many students working with him were able to move into the arts through the programming. The connections classes have grown to serve the city in cultural humanities and arts and Groth continues to be a leader in music in the city. [85] [86] [87]

Poetry and literary events began to come to greater popularity with the opening of the Sioux Empire Arts Council Horse Barn Gallery as the 21st century began (then directed by Deb Klebanoff), [88] and due to a National Endowment for the Arts-supported Y Writer's Voice, founded and directed by Allison Hedge Coke. [89] The Y Writer's Voice included a reading series of 38 nationally known poets and writers per year who performed works and youth workshops through the Sioux Falls Writers Voice in local performance spaces, at the YMCA after-school program, and in local schools, gaining national attention. [90]

These two entities are among a resurgence of events regularly hosted at the Washington Pavilion's Leonardo's Cafe (Lincoln High School Writer's Guild advised by SFSD Official Writer in Residence, Allison Hedge Coke, who also served on the Pavilion's Community Task Force, see Washington Pavilion Visual Arts Center – Timeline), [91] the Sioux Empire Arts Council's Horse Barn Art Gallery, and several coffeehouses.

Washington Pavilion of Arts and Science Washington Pavilion 5.JPG
Washington Pavilion of Arts and Science

During this renaissance, Allison Hedge Coke moved to Sioux Falls from Rapid City (shortly after winning an American Book Award), as she was serving the state of South Dakota (SDAC & ArtsCorr), first as a part-time literary artist in the Sioux Falls Schools (while still serving schools and incarcerated youth centers across the state) and then as a full-time literary artist in residence for the Sioux Falls school district (SFSD, SDAC, & Office of Indian Ed funded). She held the literary artist role with the school district while simultaneously teaching at Kilian College and the University of Sioux Falls and founding/directing a Y Writers Voice at the Sioux Falls YMCA for several years, hosting readings at the Washington Pavilion, the Dakota Conference at the Great Plains Center of Augustana College, with Deb Klebanoff at the Art Barn, in Siouxland Sioux Falls Library, in Zandbroz Bookstore, and with the Sioux Falls Multicultural Center. The Lincoln High School Creative Writers Guild and district-wide Wings Program (both advised by Hedge Coke) began holding reading performances and study periods in cafes across the city, including Leonardo's. Hedge Coke edited and published two anthologies during her tenure at Sioux Falls School District: Coming to Life: Poems of Peace in the Wake of 9/11 and They Wanted Children: Poems and Stories of Coping with Sudanese, Native, Latino, Asian, and EuroAmerican students. Hedge Coke successfully lobbied for the preservation and protection of Blood Run (now Good Earth State Park, just minutes east of town), [92] writing the verse play during her lobbying period under an SDAC grant. She continually participated at-large in the national literary field as a visiting writer/performing artist and publishing widely while serving on the Sioux Falls Housing Board and as a city Housing Revitalization Task Member, promoting arts, civil rights, affordability and inclusion. [89] [93] [94] [95] [96] [97] [98] [99] [100] [101]

Hedge Coke also formally proposed a Poetry Sidewalk contest for selected poems to be etched in Sioux Falls Quartzite to match the park aesthetic during city council meetings for the cleaning up and development of Falls Park and the downtown area. [102] A version of the project is coming to fruition (in concrete, to match the Cathedral District). [103] "Everyone deserves beauty," said Wayne Wagner, housing development director for Affordable Housing Solutions. Since the contest began in 2014, Wagner has installed poems in the sidewalk of new affordable housing within the neighborhood.

Charles Luden has long been the widely accepted unofficial resident poet. [104] [105] Ron Robinson, a Sioux Falls writer and professor of English at Augustana College, [106] [107] [108] was consistently on the scene. [109] Steve Boint; Charles Luden; Nicole Allen; Jason Freeman; and Suzanne Sunshower's lives converged in Sioux Falls while performing poetry at Michelle's Coffee and at the Horsebarn Arts Center. Together they published From the lonely cold: poems by Nicole Allen, Charles Luden, Jason Freeman, Suzanne Sunshower, Steve Boint. [110] Jason Freeman, poet and disability advocate was born in Sioux Falls (son of artist-writer/neurologist Jerome Freeman [111] ) and has been a part of the literary arts scene since his youth. [112] Tom Foster moved to Sioux Falls from California, having already developed a presence in the California Slam scene, and was integral to keeping public open mics going strong. The Washington Pavilion continued to donate space for literary activities, as did the Siouxland Sioux Falls Library. Eventually, David Allan Evans returned to Sioux Falls as the State of South Dakota Poet Laureate and enhanced the literary scene. Patrick Hicks, poet/writer, came to the city to teach at Augustana College and in 2010 published the anthology A Menagerie of Words: Contemporary South Dakota Poetry. [113] [114] Rosalee Blunk was the initial organizer of the Poetry Out Loud state finals held annually in Sioux Falls. [115] Maddie Lukomski, a Poetry Out Loud junior at Sioux Falls Lincoln High School was named a winner in the National Endowment for the Arts Poetry Ourselves competition spoken category in 2016. [80] [116]

The Sioux Falls mayor's awards in literary arts designated movers and shakers during the growth and development of the literary arts scene. [117] Deb Klebanoff, born in Sioux Falls, began the reading series at the Horse Barn with Allison Hedge Coke, after serving on the Sioux Falls Chamber of Commerce's Cultural Affairs committee, including a term as its chair and for almost a decade with the Sioux Empire Arts Council, including 8 years as its executive director. She later moved south of Sioux Falls and founded a writers' retreat, The Retreat at Pointer's Ridge. [118]

In addition to literary awards, there are mayor's awards in visual arts, performing arts, music, organizing in the arts, advocacy, and lifetime achievement, per the mayor's discretion. [117] Many visual artists got their start in and/or represent the city, including Carl Grupp, Mary Groth, Ceca Cooper, Marian Henjum, Brad Kringen, Nancyjane Huehl, Don Hooper, Nathan Holman, Gary Hartenhoff, Sheila Agee, Mary Selvig, Martha Baker, Chad Mohr, Paul Schiller, Liz Heeren, Edward Two Eagle, Edwin Two Eagle, James Starkey, and painter/muralist Byob Mergia. [119] [120] [121]

The Sioux Falls Jazz and Blues Festival is a three-day outdoor musical event featuring two stages and is free to the public. It is held the third weekend in July at Yankton Trail Park. [122] [123] The Sioux Falls Jazz & Blues Society hosts national musicians during its annual concert series. Each year the series includes approximately five concerts with acts from all over the world. JazzFest, with over 125,000 in annual attendance, has expanded over the years to include the Jazziest Diversity Project, the All-City Jazz Ensemble, the Concert Series, and JazzFest Jazz Camp. [124] 2016 was the festival's 25th anniversary year. [122]

The Downtown Riverfest [125] brings live music, art, kids' activities and more in an annual festival that embraces the beauty of the Big Sioux. [126]

Downtown Sioux Falls boasts Ipso Gallery, directed by Liz Bashore Heeren, [127] The Orpheum Theater, SculptureWalk, Sioux Empire Community Theater, Sioux Falls State Theater, The Museum of Visual Materials, The Interactive Water Fountain, Falls Park, Creative Spirits, Eastbank Art Gallery, and the Washington Pavilion, home to the South Dakota Symphony Orchestra and the occasional Poets & Painters show (P1, P2, P3, P4, P5...). Prairie Star Gallery, recently closed, was an additional American Indian Arts gallery and store. [128]

Landmarks

Replica of Michelangelo's David in Fawick Park Michelangelo David bronze reproduction.jpg
Replica of Michelangelo's David in Fawick Park

The Washington Pavilion contains the Kirby Science Discovery Center, as well as two performing arts centers that host several Broadway productions and operas. The South Dakota Symphony's home hosts dance groups as well as smaller theater and choral events. The Visual Arts Center, also part of the Pavilion complex, hosts six galleries of changing exhibits, all free of charge. The Wells Fargo Cinedome is a multiformat 60 ft (18 m) dome theater that plays several films each month.

The Great Plains Zoo & Delbridge Museum provides the area with natural history and animal exhibits in its 50-acre (200,000 m2) park, and has dioramas depicting wildlife. [129]

The USS South Dakota Battleship Memorial to the World War II battleship USS South Dakota is on State Highway 42 (West 12th Street) and Kiwanis Avenue.

The 114th Fighter Wing is at Joe Foss Field and houses F-16C/D fighter aircraft. The SD ANG unit is known for its support of community activities and services.

A replica of Michelangelo's David is near the downtown area at Fawick Park.

Transportation

Roads

Most residents of Sioux Falls travel and commute by car. Interstate 90 passes east to west across the northern edge of the city, while Interstate 29 bisects the western portion of the city from the north and south. Interstate 229 forms a partial loop around Sioux Falls, and connects with Interstate 90 to the northeast and Interstate 29 to the southwest. A grid design system for city streets is the standard for the central (older) area of the city, while secondary streets in newer residential areas have largely abandoned this plan.

Due to current and expected regional growth, several large construction projects have been or will be undertaken. New interchanges have recently been added to Interstate 29. An interchange was also completed on I-90 at Marion Road. I-29 has recently been improved from I-90 to 57th Street. This upgrade includes additional lanes and auxiliary lanes. Over the next decade, the city of Sioux Falls and the South Dakota Department of Transportation plan to construct a limited-access highway around the outer edges of the city to the south and east known as South Dakota Highway 100. [130] This highway will start at the northern Tea exit (Exit 73 on I-29, 101st Street) and will travel east on 101st Street, and curve northeast east of Western Avenue, then turn northerly near Sycamore Avenue. The highway will end at the Timberline Avenue exit (Exit 402 on I-90). Sioux Falls's major roads include W 41st, Minnesota, Main, W 26th (which becomes Louise as it turns south), 12th, 49th, 57th, and Western.

Public/mass transit

Main downtown bus terminal Bus Stop Downtown Sioux Falls 1.jpg
Main downtown bus terminal

Sioux Area Metro, the local public transit organization, operates 16 bus lines within the city, with most routes operating Monday through Saturday. [131] Recently, the city added a new transfer station in Sioux Falls on Louise Avenue between 49th and 57th Streets. The Sioux Area Metro Paratransit serves members of the community who would otherwise not be able to travel by providing door to door service.

Sioux Falls also has several taxi companies that operate within the city.

Jefferson Lines runs long-distance bus routes to Sioux Falls. Non-transfer destinations include Grand Forks, Kansas City, Minneapolis, and Omaha. Until 1965 a branch of the Milwaukee Road train from Chicago, the Arrow, made a stop in Sioux Falls. [132]

Amtrak passenger trains do not pass through South Dakota.

Air

Five domestic airlines (Delta Air Lines, United Airlines, American Airlines, Allegiant Air, and Frontier Airlines) serve Sioux Falls Regional Airport. [133] The airport is also known as Joe Foss Field (in honor of famed aviator and former Governor Joe Foss). Airlines offer non-stop flight service to a number of major U.S. airports, including Hartsfield–Jackson Atlanta International Airport, Chicago-O'Hare International Airport, Dallas-Fort Worth International Airport, Denver International Airport, Minneapolis–Saint Paul International Airport, Orlando-Sanford International Airport, Los Angeles International Airport (seasonal), Phoenix Sky Harbor International Airport, Phoenix–Mesa Gateway Airport, Las Vegas-McCarran International Airport, Tampa-St. Pete–Clearwater International Airport, Charlotte International Airport, and Southwest Florida International Airport.[ citation needed ]

Sports

ClubLeagueVenueEstablishedChampionships
Sioux Falls Canaries AAIPB, Baseball Sioux Falls Stadium 19931
Sioux Falls Stampede USHL, Ice hockey Denny Sanford Premier Center 19993
Sioux Falls Storm IFL, Indoor football Denny Sanford Premier Center 200011
Sioux Falls Skyforce NBA G League, Basketball Sanford Pentagon 19893
Sioux Falls Thunder FC NPSL, Soccer McEneaney Field 20170
Midwest All Pro WrestlingIndependent professional wrestling

The Sioux Falls Canaries were known as the Sioux Falls Fighting Pheasants from 2010 to 2013.

Championships

Special sporting events

Sioux Falls has several multipurpose athletic stadiums: the primarily-baseball Sioux Falls Stadium, indoor Sioux Falls Arena, indoor Sanford Pentagon, and indoor Denny Sanford Premier Center. Sioux Falls Stadium played host to the 2007 American Association of Independent Professional Baseball all-star game. [134] Sioux Falls Arena hosted the Continental Basketball Association all-star game in 1996, 2000 and 2003. It also hosted the NBA Development League Showcase in early 2007 and the United States Hockey League Prospects/All-Star Game in the 2002, 2009 and 2017 seasons.

Constructed in 2014, the Denny Sanford Premier Center is home to The Summit League Men's Basketball Tournament and The Summit League Women's Basketball Tournament. [135] Also The Premier Center hosted the 2017 USHL/NHL Top Prospects Game.

Sioux Falls hosted the 16U Amateur Softball Association A National Championship of fastpitch softball in July 2009 and the 14U ASA A National Championship of fastpitch softball in July 2012. In August 1989 and 2009, Sioux Falls hosted the Air National Guard National Softball Tournament at Sherman Park Complex.

Sister cities

Sioux Falls's Sister cities are: [136]

Media

Awards

Notable people

See also

Notes

  1. Considering the average elevation of the airport. [22]
  2. Mean monthly maxima and minima (i.e. the expected highest and lowest temperature readings at any point during the year or given month) calculated based on data at said location from 1981 to 2010.

Related Research Articles

Aberdeen, South Dakota City in South Dakota, United States

Aberdeen is a city in and the county seat of Brown County, South Dakota, United States, located approximately 125 miles (201 km) northeast of Pierre. The city population was 26,091 at the 2010 census, making it the third most populous city in the state after Sioux Falls and Rapid City. Aberdeen is the principal city of the Aberdeen Micropolitan Statistical Area, which includes all of Brown and Edmunds counties and has a population of 40,602 in 2010. Aberdeen is considered a college town, being the home of both Northern State University and Presentation College.

South Dakota State of the United States of America

South Dakota is a U.S. state in the upper Midwestern United States. It is named after the Lakota and Dakota Sioux Native American tribes, who comprise a large portion of the population and historically dominated the territory. South Dakota is the seventeenth largest by area, but the 5th least populous, and the 5th least densely populated of the 50 United States. As the southern part of the former Dakota Territory, South Dakota became a state on November 2, 1889, simultaneously with North Dakota. It is either the 39th or 40th state admitted to the union. President Benjamin Harrison shuffled the statehood papers before signing them so that no one could tell which became a state first. Pierre is the state capital, and Sioux Falls, with a population of about 187,200, is South Dakota's largest city.

Dakota County, Minnesota U.S. county in Minnesota

Dakota County is the third-most populous county in the U.S. state of Minnesota, located in the east central portion of the state. As of the 2010 United States Census, the population was 398,552. The county seat is Hastings. Dakota County is named for the Dakota Sioux tribal bands who inhabited the area. The name is recorded as "Dahkotah" in the United States Census records until 1851. Dakota County is included in the Minneapolis–St. Paul–Bloomington, MN–WI Metropolitan Statistical Area, the sixteenth largest metropolitan area in the United States with about 3.64 million residents. The largest city in Dakota County is the city of Lakeville, the eleventh-largest city in Minnesota and sixth-largest Twin Cities suburb. The county is bordered by the Minnesota and Mississippi Rivers on the north, and the state of Wisconsin on the east.

Grand Forks, North Dakota City in North Dakota, United States

Grand Forks is the third-largest city in the American state of North Dakota and the county seat of Grand Forks County. According to the 2010 census, the city's population was 52,838, while that of the city and its surrounding metropolitan area was 98,461. Grand Forks, along with its twin city of East Grand Forks, Minnesota, forms the center of the Grand Forks, ND-MN Metropolitan Statistical Area, which is often called Greater Grand Forks or the Grand Cities.

Brookings, South Dakota City in South Dakota, United States

Brookings is a city in Brookings County, South Dakota, United States. Brookings is the fourth largest city in South Dakota, with a population of 22,056 at the 2010 census. It is the county seat of Brookings County, and home to South Dakota State University, the largest institution of higher education in the state. Also found in Brookings are the South Dakota Art Museum, the Children's Museum of South Dakota, the annual Brookings Summer Arts Festival, and the headquarters of a number of manufacturing companies and agricultural operations.

Watertown, South Dakota City in South Dakota, United States

Watertown is a city in and the county seat of Codington County, South Dakota, United States. Watertown is home to the Redlin Art Center which houses many of the original art works produced by Terry Redlin, one of America's most popular wildlife artists. Watertown is located between Pelican Lake and Lake Kampeska, from which Redlin derived inspiration for his artwork.

Canton, South Dakota City in South Dakota, United States

Canton is a city in and the county seat of Lincoln County, South Dakota, United States. Canton is located 20 minutes south of Sioux Falls in southeastern South Dakota. Canton is nestled in the rolling hills of the Sioux Valley, providing an abundance of recreational activities with the Big Sioux River bordering the eastern side, Newton Hills State Park to the south, and Lake Alvin to the north. The city was named by Norwegian settler and former legislator James M. Wahl. The population was 3,057 as of the 2010 census.

Brandon, South Dakota City in South Dakota, United States

Brandon is a city in Minnehaha County, South Dakota, United States. Brandon is located five miles east of Sioux Falls. The population was estimated at 10,094 by the United States Census Bureau on July 1, 2018, which was up from 8,785 at the 2010 census.

Dell Rapids, South Dakota City in South Dakota, United States

Dell Rapids is a city in Minnehaha County, South Dakota, United States. The population was 3,633 at the 2010 census. It is known as "The Little City with the Big Attractions."

Rapid City, South Dakota City in South Dakota, United States

Rapid City is the second most populous city in South Dakota and the county seat of Pennington County. Named after Rapid Creek, where the settlement developed, it is in western South Dakota, on the Black Hills' eastern slope. The population was 67,956 as of the 2010 Census.

Yankton, South Dakota City in South Dakota, United States

Yankton is a city in and the county seat of Yankton County, South Dakota, United States.

Sioux City, Iowa City in Iowa, United States

Sioux City is a city in Woodbury and Plymouth counties in the northwestern part of the U.S. state of Iowa. The population was 82,684 in the 2010 census, which makes it the fourth-largest city in Iowa. The bulk of the city is in Woodbury County, of which it is the county seat, though a small portion is in Plymouth County. Sioux City is located at the navigational head of the Missouri River. The city is home to several cultural points of interest including the Sioux City Public Museum, Sioux City Art Center and Sergeant Floyd Monument, which is a National Historic Landmark. The city is also home to Chris Larsen Park, commonly referred to as "the Riverfront", which includes the Anderson Dance Pavilion, Sergeant Floyd Riverboat Museum and Lewis and Clark Interpretive Center. Sioux City is the primary city of the five-county Sioux City, IA–NE–SD Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA), with a population of 168,825 in 2010 and a slight increase to an estimated 169,405 in 2018. The Sioux City–Vermillion, IA–NE–SD Combined Statistical Area had a population of 182,675 as of 2010 but had decreased to an estimated population of 178,448 as of 2018.

Augustana University Private Lutheran university in Sioux Falls, South Dakota

Augustana University is a private Lutheran university in Sioux Falls, South Dakota. The university identifies 1860 as the year of its founding, the same as its Rock Island, Illinois Swedish-heritage sister school, Augustana College. It derives its name from the Confessio Augustana, or Augsburg Confession, a foundational document of Lutheranism. Prior to September 2015, the university was known as Augustana College.

Interstate 229 (I-229) in South Dakota runs just more than ten miles (16 km) mostly within the city limits of Sioux Falls, the largest city in the state. It runs from a trumpet interchange Interstate 29 in the southern extremities of Sioux Falls to Interstate 90 just north of Sioux Falls. In between, the interstate travels through parts of southern and eastern Sioux Falls.

Interstate 29 (I-29) is a north–south Interstate Highway in the midwestern United States. In the state of South Dakota, I-29 traverses on the eastern side of the state from the Iowa border near Sioux City to the North Dakota border near New Effington. On its route, I-29 passes through western portions of Sioux Falls, the state's largest city. It travels 252.5 miles (406.4 km) in the state, the longest stretch of any of the four states through which it passes. Interstate 229, the highway's lone auxiliary route in South Dakota, serves as a bypass around southern and eastern Sioux Falls.

Blood Run Site United States historic place

The Blood Run Site is an archaeological site on the border of the US states of Iowa and South Dakota. The site was essentially populated for 8,500 years, within which earthworks structures were built by the Oneota Culture and occupied descendant tribes such as the Ioway, Otoe, Missouri, and shared with Quapaw and later Kansa, Osage, and Omaha people. The site was so named on account of the iron-stained soil.

Allison Adelle Hedge Coke is an American poet and editor. Her debut book, Dog Road Woman, won the American Book Award and was the first finalist of the Paterson Poetry Prize and Diane DeCora Award. Since then, she has written five more books and edited eight anthologies. She is known for addressing issues of culture, prejudice, Indigenous rights, the environment, peace, violence, abuse, and labor in her poetry and other creative works.

Shakopee, Minnesota City in Minnesota, United States

Shakopee is a city in and the county seat of Scott County, Minnesota, United States. It is located southwest of downtown Minneapolis. Sited on the south bank bend of the Minnesota River, Shakopee and nearby suburbs comprise the southwest portion of Minneapolis-Saint Paul, the sixteenth-largest metropolitan area in the United States, with 3.6 million people. The population of Shakopee was 37,076 at the 2010 census.

The culture of the U.S. state of South Dakota exhibits influences from many different sources. American Indians, the cultures of the American West and Midwest, and the customs and traditions of many of the state's various immigrant groups have all contributed to South Dakota art, music, and literature.

Harold Theodore Spitznagel was an American architect from South Dakota. Spitznagel was best known for residential and institutional architecture, including the original Mount Rushmore visitor center. His styles included Prairie School, Art Deco, and Moderne architecture. He graduated from the University of Pennsylvania, was posthumously inducted into the South Dakota Hall of Fame, and has been called the "foremost 20th-century architect" of the state of South Dakota.

References

  1. "2019 U.S. Gazetteer Files". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved July 30, 2020.
  2. 1 2 "U.S. Census website". United States Census Bureau . Retrieved June 21, 2012.
  3. 1 2 "Metropolitan and Micropolitan Statistical Areas Population Totals: 2010-2017". 2017 Population Estimates. United States Census Bureau, Population Division. October 3, 2018. Retrieved October 3, 2018.
  4. 1 2 "Population and Housing Unit Estimates" . Retrieved May 21, 2020.
  5. "Zip Code Lookup". USPS. Archived from the original on January 1, 2008. Retrieved May 22, 2015.
  6. "US Board on Geographic Names". United States Geological Survey. October 25, 2007. Retrieved January 31, 2008.
  7. Ullrich, Jan F. (2014). New Lakota Dictionary (2nd ed.). Bloomington, Indiana: Lakota Language Consortium. ISBN   978-0-9761082-9-0. Archived from the original on October 18, 2016. Retrieved February 13, 2014.
  8. "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Retrieved June 7, 2011.
  9. Yost, Rae. "Sioux Falls' estimated 2020 population grew to 195,850".
  10. https://bestlifeonline.com/healthiest-cities/
  11. https://www.argusleader.com/story/news/business-journal/2015/09/02/sioux-falls-ranked-among-healthiest-cities/71511730/
  12. "American Indian Services Inc". Archived from the original on March 4, 2008. Retrieved April 22, 2008.
  13. "History of Sioux Falls". City of Sioux Falls. Archived from the original on July 5, 2008. Retrieved November 23, 2008.
  14. "Ft. Dakota Virtual Tour". Angelfire.com. Retrieved March 18, 2017.
  15. "Sioux Falls". Factmonster.com. Retrieved March 18, 2017.
  16. Hetland, Cara. Sioux Falls 25 years after Citibank's arrival. , Minnesota Public Radio. February 24, 2006. (accessed March 23, 2007)
  17. "Powerful storm strikes Sioux Falls with three confirmed EF-2 tornadoes". KCRG News. Associated Press. September 11, 2019. Retrieved September 25, 2020.
  18. "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. February 12, 2011. Retrieved April 23, 2011.
  19. "US Gazetteer files 2010". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on January 24, 2012. Retrieved June 21, 2012.
  20. "Estimates for the 100 Fastest Growing U.S. Counties in 2017: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2017". United States Census Bureau . Retrieved October 3, 2018.
  21. "USDA Plant Hardiness Zone Map". United States Department of Agriculture – Agricultural Research Service. Retrieved July 18, 2013.
  22. Ranter, Harro. "Sioux Falls Regional Airport (Jo Foss Field), SD profile - Aviation Safety Network". aviation-safety.net. Retrieved June 27, 2019.
  23. "Station Name: SD SIOUX FALLS FOSS FIELD". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved November 14, 2020.
  24. "NOWData – NOAA Online Weather Data". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration . Retrieved November 14, 2020.
  25. "SIOUX FALLS FOSS FLD, SOUTH DAKOTA - Climate Summary". wrcc.dri.edu. Retrieved June 27, 2019.
  26. "WMO climate normals for SIOUX FALLS/FOSS FIELD, SD 1961−1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration . Retrieved November 14, 2020.
  27. "Sioux Falls, South Dakota, USA - Monthly weather forecast and Climate data". Weather Atlas. Retrieved July 4, 2019.
  28. "Council Members". City of Sioux Falls. Retrieved May 15, 2018.
  29. "2006 Action Plan Draft" (PDF). City of Sioux Falls. 2006. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 4, 2007. Retrieved March 20, 2007.
  30. "2004 Presidential Election Data Graphs – South Dakota". Uselectionatlas.org. Retrieved March 23, 2007.
  31. "2008 Presidential Election Data Graphs – South Dakota". Uselectionatlas.org. Retrieved October 26, 2008.
  32. "Major Area Employers 2019" (PDF). Sioux Falls Argus Leader. Archived from the original on December 11, 2016. Retrieved March 22, 2019.
  33. "Major Area Employers" (PDF). Sioux Falls Development Foundation. Archived from the original (PDF) on December 11, 2016. Retrieved January 27, 2016.
  34. Estes, Adam Clark (May 8, 2020). "America's meat shortage is more serious than your missing hamburgers". Vox. Retrieved May 8, 2020.
  35. "Amazon Announces First Fulfillment Center in South Dakota | Amazon.com, Inc. - Press Room". press.aboutamazon.com. Retrieved January 1, 2021.
  36. "U.S. Decennial Census". Census.gov. Retrieved May 29, 2013.
  37. "Population Estimates". United States Census Bureau . Retrieved May 24, 2019.
  38. 2011-2015 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates
  39. "South Dakota State Historical Society EducationKit" (PDF). pp. 6–8. Retrieved April 15, 2021.
  40. "Bethel Evangelical Lutheran – Church and School". Sioux Falls, SD.
  41. "Meet Good Shepherd".
  42. "Chabad Jewish Center of South Dakota". Sioux Falls, SD.
  43. "Chabad rabbi and family move to South Dakota, giving state its only full-time rabbi". Sioux Falls, SD.
  44. "District Overview – Sioux Falls School District". Sf.k12.sd.us. Retrieved February 11, 2019.
  45. 1 2 "New Sioux Falls high school will have academic 'suites,' secure outdoor space". Argus Leader. Retrieved February 11, 2019.
  46. "School board unanimously votes to buy land for new middle school in southeast Sioux Falls". Argus Leader. Retrieved February 11, 2019.
  47. "New Northwest High School and the Southwest Middle School Naming Committee Report EXECUTIVE SUMMARY" (PDF). Sioux Falls School District. January 28, 2019. Retrieved February 11, 2019.
  48. "School - All City Elementary School (ACE)" . Retrieved September 21, 2018.
  49. "School - Anne Sullivan Elementary School" . Retrieved September 21, 2018.
  50. "School - Challenge Center School" . Retrieved September 21, 2018.
  51. "School - Cleveland Elementary School" . Retrieved September 21, 2018.
  52. "School - Discovery Elementary School" . Retrieved September 21, 2018.
  53. "School - Elementary Immersion Center" . Retrieved September 21, 2018.
  54. "School - Eugene Field A+ Elementary School" . Retrieved September 21, 2018.
  55. "School - Garfield Elementary School" . Retrieved September 21, 2018.
  56. "School - Harvey Dunn Elementary School" . Retrieved September 21, 2018.
  57. "School - Hawthorne Elementary School" . Retrieved September 21, 2018.
  58. "School - Hayward Elementary School" . Retrieved September 21, 2018.
  59. "School - Horace Mann Elementary School" . Retrieved September 21, 2018.
  60. "School - John F. Kennedy Elementary School" . Retrieved September 21, 2018.
  61. "School - John Harris Elementary School" . Retrieved September 21, 2018.
  62. "School - Laura B. Anderson Elementary School" . Retrieved September 21, 2018.
  63. "School - Laura Wilder Elementary School" . Retrieved September 21, 2018.
  64. "School - Lowell Elementary School" . Retrieved September 21, 2018.
  65. "School - Oscar Howe Elementary School" . Retrieved September 21, 2018.
  66. "School - Renberg Elementary School" . Retrieved September 21, 2018.
  67. "School - R. F. Pettigrew Elementary School" . Retrieved September 21, 2018.
  68. "School - Robert Frost Elementary School" . Retrieved September 21, 2018.
  69. "School - Rosa Parks Elementary School" . Retrieved September 21, 2018.
  70. "School - Sonia Sotomayor Spanish Immersion Elementary School" . Retrieved September 21, 2018.
  71. "School - Susan B. Anthony Elementary School" . Retrieved September 21, 2018.
  72. "School - Terry Redlin Elementary School" . Retrieved September 21, 2018.
  73. https://www.siouxfallslutheran.com/construction-updates
  74. "School – Bethel Evangelical Lutheran".
  75. "About Good Shepherd Lutheran School".
  76. Clark, Jim. "SculptureWalk Sioux Falls homepage" . Retrieved November 25, 2009.
  77. "SIOUXPERCON Returns For Second Year - KDLT". May 13, 2017.
  78. "Mayor's Awards for the Arts". Sioux Empire Arts Council. Archived from the original on May 14, 2008. Retrieved April 22, 2008.
  79. "About". SculptureWalk Sioux Falls. Retrieved March 18, 2017.
  80. 1 2 "So Much to See in Sioux Falls - Visit Sioux Falls". May 17, 2015. Archived from the original on May 17, 2015.
  81. "Whatever Happened To: Art is Agee's dream come true". Argusleader.com. January 24, 2015. Retrieved March 18, 2017.
  82. "About the Pavilion". Washingtonpavilion.org. January 1, 1970. Retrieved March 18, 2017.
  83. "Home". NPIAM. Retrieved March 18, 2017.
  84. "VAC: Northern Plains Tribal Art". Washingtonpavilion.org. Archived from the original on August 28, 2016. Retrieved March 18, 2017.
  85. "Indian Education – Sioux Falls School District". Sf.k12.sd.us. July 14, 2016. Retrieved March 18, 2017.
  86. "Jim Groth". Artscouncil.sd.gov. Retrieved March 18, 2017.
  87. [ dead link ]
  88. "Security Check Required". Facebook . Retrieved March 18, 2017.
  89. 1 2 "Allison Adelle Hedge Coke". Poetry Foundation. Retrieved March 18, 2017.
  90. YMCA of the USA. "YMCA National Writer's Voice". Archived from the original on October 12, 2009. Retrieved November 25, 2009.
  91. "Preparing bolo ties that will be... – Washington Pavilion Visual Arts Center". Facebook. July 27, 2016. Retrieved March 18, 2017.
  92. "Good Earth State Park at Blood Run South Dakota". Expedition Oklahoma. June 14, 2014. Retrieved March 18, 2017.
  93. "Allison Adelle Hedge Coke : Selected Resume" (PDF). Allisonhedgecoke.com. Retrieved March 18, 2017.
  94. "Welcome to the Official Allison Adelle Hedge Coke Website". Allisonhedgecoke.com. December 20, 2013. Retrieved March 18, 2017.
  95. "Allison Hedge Coke – Lannan Foundation". Lannan.org. Retrieved March 18, 2017.
  96. 1 2 "Allison Adelle Hedge Coke : Resume". Artscouncil.sd.gov. Archived from the original (PDF) on January 3, 2017. Retrieved March 18, 2017.
  97. "Allison Hedge Coke Reads from Naeem Murr's The Perfect Man – PEN America". Pen.org. April 30, 2006. Retrieved March 18, 2017.
  98. "SDAAE". Blackhillsradio.com. Retrieved March 18, 2017.
  99. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on August 3, 2016. Retrieved August 11, 2016.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  100. "Allison Adelle Hedge Coke Joining the MFA in Writing & Publishing Faculty | VCFA". Vcfa.edu. Retrieved March 18, 2017.
  101. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on August 22, 2016. Retrieved August 11, 2016.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  102. [ dead link ]
  103. "Sioux Falls Poetry Contest Set in Stone". Ksoo.com. Retrieved March 18, 2017.
  104. "Charles Luden | South Dakota Festival of Books". Sdhumanities.org. Archived from the original on January 3, 2017. Retrieved March 18, 2017.
  105. "Chuck Luden — South DaCola". Southdacola.com. Retrieved March 18, 2017.
  106. "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on August 16, 2016. Retrieved August 11, 2016.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  107. Story and photos by Ron Robinson. "Amaranth: The Once and Future Crop?". Southdakotamagazine.com. Retrieved March 18, 2017.
  108. "The Center For Western studies Newsletter" (PDF). Augie.edu. 2010. Retrieved March 18, 2017.
  109. "StoryCorps: Art Huseboe and Ron Robinson | SDPB Radio". Listen.sdpb.org. August 21, 2013. Retrieved March 18, 2017.
  110. From the lonely cold : poems by Nicole Allen, Charles Luden, Jason Freeman, Suzanne Sunshower, Steve Boint (Book, 2009). January 21, 2017. OCLC   489684493.
  111. Jerome W. Freeman. Bringing Kindness to Medicine: Stories from the Prairie. Amazon.com. ASIN   B00GZUD99S.
  112. Freeman, Jason (April 3, 2016). "From My Limitations to Achieving the Extraordinary". On Being . The On Being Project. Archived from the original on January 3, 2017. Retrieved September 16, 2020.
  113. "Faculty". Augie.edu. Retrieved March 18, 2017.
  114. "Patrick Hicks, ed. A Harvest of Words: Contemporary South Dakota Poetry. Sioux Falls: The Center for Western Studies, Augustana College, 2010. : SUMMARY OF THE BOOK" (PDF). Library.sd.gov. Retrieved March 18, 2017.
  115. "Poetry Out Loud". SDPB. Retrieved March 18, 2017.
  116. "Introducing the Poetry Ourselves Winners! | NEA". Arts.gov. May 6, 2016. Retrieved March 18, 2017.
  117. 1 2 "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on September 22, 2016. Retrieved August 11, 2016.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  118. "Who We Are – The Retreat at Pointer's Ridge". Pointersridge.org. Retrieved March 18, 2017.
  119. "Axum: The Artwork of Eyob Mergia". Augie.edu. March 11, 2010. Retrieved March 18, 2017.
  120. "Featured Artists – Sioux Falls Area Community Foundation". Sfacf.org. June 20, 2014. Retrieved March 18, 2017.
  121. "Beyond SculptureWalk: Our city's art". Argusleader.com. Retrieved March 18, 2017.
  122. 1 2 "About JazzFest – Sioux Falls JazzFest 2017". Siouxfallsjazzfest.com. July 15, 2016. Retrieved March 18, 2017.
  123. "Sioux Falls JazzFest 2017". Jazzfestsiouxfalls.com. July 15, 2016. Retrieved March 18, 2017.
  124. "History of SFJB | Sioux Falls Jazz and Blues". Sfjb.org. August 12, 2016. Retrieved March 18, 2017.
  125. "Downtown Riverfest | Downtown Sioux Falls". Dtsf.com. Archived from the original on January 3, 2017. Retrieved March 18, 2017.
  126. "Security Check Required". Facebook . Retrieved March 18, 2017.
  127. "Ipso Gallery Presents: Boonie | Downtown Sioux Falls". Dtsf.com. June 5, 2015. Archived from the original on January 3, 2017. Retrieved March 18, 2017.
  128. "Arts & Attractions". Dtsf.com. Retrieved March 18, 2017.
  129. Great Plains Zoo & Delbridge Museum of Natural History (April 8, 2005). "Our History & Our Mission". Archived from the original on April 18, 2009. Retrieved November 25, 2009.
  130. "South Dakota 100 Corridor Preservation Project". South Dakota Department of Transportation. Retrieved May 10, 2010.
  131. "Sioux Falls Transit First to Deploy RouteMatch Software's Fixed Route CAD/AVL Solution". Market Wire. August 2007. Archived from the original on July 1, 2014. Retrieved October 16, 2008.
  132. Jim Cribbins, The Milwaukee Road Remembered, 1990, pp. 61-66
  133. "Sioux Falls Regional Airport – Home". Sfairport.com. Retrieved March 18, 2017.
  134. "2007 American Association All Star Game". aabfan.com. July 17, 2007. Retrieved October 16, 2008.
  135. Reusse, Patrick (March 6, 2015). "Sioux Falls sports scene benefits from Sanford". Minneapolis Star Tribune . Retrieved April 4, 2015.
  136. "Partners". Sister Cities Association of Sioux Falls. Retrieved December 9, 2020.
  137. Megan Raposa. "Sioux Falls Business Journal". Sioux Falls Business Journal. Retrieved March 18, 2017.
  138. "How Angry Is Your City?". Health:MetroGrades. Men's Health. Archived from the original on February 14, 2009. Retrieved November 24, 2009.
  139. "3rd Annual Allstate America's Best Drivers Report". Archived from the original on June 16, 2007.
  140. David Broughton and Bill King (August 20, 2007). "Rounding out the top 10 markets". Street & Smith's Sports Group. Retrieved November 25, 2009.
  141. McDougall, Peter (July 2, 2008). "100 best places to live and launch". CNNMoney.com. Retrieved March 10, 2009.
  142. "California Literary ReviewJames Abourezk". Calitreview.com. Retrieved March 18, 2017.
  143. American Writer, March 2017, Pp. 7–8
  144. "Shayna Baszler". sherdog.com. Retrieved September 23, 2013.
  145. "Black and White Rag by George Botsford/arr. Daehn| J.W. Pepper Sheet Music". Jwpepper.com. Retrieved March 18, 2017.
  146. "Chris Browne". WorldNow and KSFY. Archived from the original on September 27, 2013. Retrieved September 24, 2013.
  147. "Benny Castillo". KELOLAND TV. Archived from the original on September 27, 2013. Retrieved September 24, 2013.
  148. "Dallas Clark". Scripps TV Station Group. Archived from the original on September 27, 2013. Retrieved September 24, 2013.
  149. "Donn Clendenon". BASEBALL REFERENCE. COM. Retrieved September 24, 2013.
  150. "William Dougherty". .kdlt.com. Retrieved September 24, 2013.
  151. "Joe Foss". by Acepilots.com. Retrieved September 24, 2013.
  152. "Michael E. Fossum". .jsc.nasa.gov. Retrieved September 24, 2013.
  153. "Neil Graff". pro-football-reference.com. Retrieved September 24, 2013.
  154. 1 2 3 4 Grigsby, Lutha (November 1, 1995). "Colonel Melvin Grigsby and Family" (PDF). National Grigsby Family Society Newsletter. GrigsbyFoundation.org. p. 49. Archived from the original (PDF) on February 25, 2019. Retrieved February 25, 2019.
  155. "Donald A. Haggar". South Dakota Legislature. Archived from the original on June 14, 2008. Retrieved September 24, 2013.
  156. "Mary Hart". sdhalloffame.com. Archived from the original on September 30, 2011. Retrieved September 24, 2013.
  157. "Witter Bynner Fellowships (Prizes and Fellowships, The Poetry and Literature Center at the Library of Congress)". Loc.gov. December 20, 2016. Retrieved March 18, 2017.
  158. Munger, Mark (2010). "Reading Herbert Krause". Cloquet River Press. Retrieved January 26, 2021.
  159. "Mike Martz". California Community College Athletic Association. Archived from the original on September 28, 2013. Retrieved September 24, 2013.
  160. "Pat O'Brien". CBS Interactive. Retrieved September 24, 2013.
  161. "Joan Tabor". Ancestry.com. Retrieved September 24, 2013.
  162. "About John Thune".
  163. "Shane Van Boening". AZBilliards.com EPPA inc. Retrieved September 24, 2013.
  164. "Jerry verDorn". American Media, Inc. Archived from the original on September 27, 2013. Retrieved September 24, 2013.

Further reading