| The Right Honourable |
Sir George Trevelyan
Sir George Trevelyan, Bt
|Chief Secretary for Ireland|
9 May 1882 –23 October 1884
|Prime Minister||William Ewart Gladstone|
|Preceded by||Lord Frederick Cavendish|
|Succeeded by||Henry Campbell-Bannerman|
|Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster|
29 October 1884 –9 June 1885
|Prime Minister||William Ewart Gladstone|
|Preceded by||John George Dodson|
|Succeeded by||Henry Chaplin|
|Secretary for Scotland|
8 February 1886 –March 1886
|Prime Minister||William Ewart Gladstone|
|Preceded by||The Duke of Richmond|
|Succeeded by||The Earl of Dalhousie|
18 August 1892 –21 June 1895
|Prime Minister|| William Ewart Gladstone |
The Earl of Rosebery
|Preceded by||The Marquess of Lothian|
|Succeeded by||The Lord Balfour of Burleigh|
|Born||20 July 1838|
Rothley Temple, Leicestershire
|Died||17 August 1928 (aged 90)|
|Alma mater||Trinity College, Cambridge|
Sir George Otto Trevelyan, 2nd Baronet, OM, PC, FBA (20 July 1838 – 17 August 1928) was a British statesman and author. In a ministerial career stretching almost 30 years, he was most notably twice Secretary for Scotland under William Ewart Gladstone and the Earl of Rosebery. He broke with Gladstone over the 1886 Irish Home Rule Bill, but after modifications were made to the bill he re-joined the Liberal Party shortly afterwards. Also a writer and historian, Trevelyan published The Life and Letters of Lord Macaulay , his maternal uncle, in 1876.
Her Majesty's Most Honourable Privy Council, usually known simply as the Privy Council of the United Kingdom or just the Privy Council, is a formal body of advisers to the Sovereign of the United Kingdom. Its membership mainly comprises senior politicians, who are current or former members of either the House of Commons or the House of Lords.
Fellowship of the British Academy (FBA) is an award granted by the British Academy to leading academics for their distinction in the humanities and social sciences. There are three kinds of fellowship
The United Kingdom, officially the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland but more commonly known as the UK or Britain, is a sovereign country lying off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland and many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state—the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world. The Irish Sea lies between Great Britain and Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres (93,600 sq mi), the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world. It is also the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017.
Trevelyan was born in Rothley Temple, Leicestershire, the only son of Sir Charles Trevelyan, 1st Baronet, and Hannah, daughter of Zachary Macaulay and sister of the historian Lord Macaulay. He was educated at Harrowand Trinity College, Cambridge, where he was President of the Cambridge Union Society, and earned second place in the first class of the Classical Tripos in 1861. That same year he wrote his Horace at the University of Athens, a topical drama in verse, parts of which are said to have offended William Whewell and lost Trevelyan a fellowship. He was a Cambridge Apostle.
Rothley Temple, or more correctly Rothley Preceptory, was a preceptory in the village of Rothley, Leicestershire, England, associated with both the Knights Templar and the Knights Hospitaller.
Leicestershire is a landlocked county in the English Midlands. The county borders Nottinghamshire to the north, Lincolnshire to the north-east, Rutland to the east, Northamptonshire to the south-east, Warwickshire to the south-west, Staffordshire to the west, and Derbyshire to the north-west. The border with most of Warwickshire is Watling Street.
Sir Charles Edward Trevelyan, 1st Baronet, was a British civil servant and colonial administrator. As a young man, he worked with the colonial government in Calcutta, India; in the late 1850s and 1860s he served there in senior-level appointments. Trevelyan was instrumental in the process of reforming the British civil service in the 1850s.
In 1862 Trevelyan went out as a civil servant to India, where he spent several years.In 1865 he was elected Liberal Member of Parliament (MP) for Tynemouth and North Shields. At the general election of 1868 he was returned for the Hawick Burghs, which he continued to represent until 1886. When the first Gladstone ministry was formed in December 1868, Trevelyan was appointed Civil Lord of the Admiralty, but resigned in July 1870 on a point of conscience connected with the government Education Bill. He advocated a sweeping reform of the army, including the abolition of the purchase of commissions, and both in and out of parliament he was the foremost supporter for many years of the extension of the county franchise. In the session of 1874 he brought forward his Household Franchise (Counties) Bill, which was lost on the second reading – it was not till ten years later that the agricultural labourer was enfranchised. Among other causes which he warmly supported were women's suffrage, a thorough reform of metropolitan local government, and the drastic reform or abolition of the House of Lords. He was also in favour of the direct veto and other temperance legislation.
The Liberal Party was one of the two major parties in the United Kingdom with the opposing Conservative Party in the 19th and early 20th centuries. The party arose from an alliance of Whigs and free trade Peelites and Radicals favourable to the ideals of the American and French Revolutions in the 1850s. By the end of the 19th century, it had formed four governments under William Gladstone. Despite being divided over the issue of Irish Home Rule, the party returned to government in 1905 and then won a landslide victory in the following year's general election.
Tynemouth and North Shields was a parliamentary constituency represented in the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom between 1832 and 1885. It elected one Member of Parliament (MP) by the first-past-the-post system of election.
The Civil Lord of the Admiralty formally known as the Office of the Civil Lord of Admiralty also referred to as the Department of the Civil Lord of the Admiralty was a member of the Board of Admiralty who was responsible for managing the Royal Navy's supporting civilian staff, the works and buildings departments and naval lands from 1830 to 1964.
In 1880 Trevelyan was appointed Parliamentary Secretary to the Admiralty under Gladstone. He held this office until May 1882, when, after the assassination of Lord Frederick Cavendish, he became Chief Secretary for Irelandand sworn of the Privy Council. From November 1884 to June 1885 he was Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster with a seat in the cabinet. In February 1886 he became Secretary for Scotland and Vice-President of the Scottish Education Department in Gladstone's third administration, but resigned in March over Irish Home Rule. The same year he succeeded his father in the baronetcy.
Lord Frederick Charles Cavendish was an English Liberal politician and protégé of the Prime Minister, William Ewart Gladstone. Cavendish was appointed Chief Secretary for Ireland in May 1882 but was murdered only hours after his arrival in Dublin, a victim of the politically motivated Phoenix Park killings.
The Chief Secretary for Ireland was a key political office in the British administration in Ireland. Nominally subordinate to the Lord Lieutenant, and officially the "Chief Secretary to the Lord Lieutenant", from the early 19th century until the end of British rule he was effectively the government minister with responsibility for governing Ireland, roughly equivalent to the role of a Secretary of State. Usually it was the Chief Secretary, rather than the Lord Lieutenant, who sat in the British Cabinet. The Chief Secretary was ex officio President of the Local Government Board for Ireland from its creation in 1872.
The Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster is a ministerial office in the Government of the United Kingdom that includes as part of its duties, the administration of the estates and rents of the Duchy of Lancaster. The Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster is appointed by the Sovereign on the advice of the Prime Minister.
At the general election of 1886 Trevelyan lost his seat for Hawick.As a representative of the Liberal Unionist Party he took part in the Round Table Conference, and, being satisfied with the changes made by Gladstone in his Home Rule scheme, he formally rejoined the Liberal Party. In August 1887 he re-entered the House of Commons as member for Glasgow Bridgeton. From 1892 to 1895 he was again Secretary for Scotland and Vice-President of the Scottish Education Department. He resigned his seat in parliament in early 1897 and retired into private life. In 1911 he was appointed a member of the Order of Merit.
Hawick Burghs was a district of burghs constituency of the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom from 1868 until 1918. It consisted of the Roxburghshire burgh of Hawick and the Selkirkshire burghs of Galashiels and Selkirk.
The Liberal Unionist Party was a British political party that was formed in 1886 by a faction that broke away from the Liberal Party. Led by Lord Hartington and Joseph Chamberlain, the party formed a political alliance with the Conservative Party in opposition to Irish Home Rule. The two parties formed the ten-year-long coalition Unionist Government 1895–1905 but kept separate political funds and their own party organisations until a complete merger was agreed in May 1912.
Glasgow Bridgeton was a parliamentary constituency in the city of Glasgow. From 1885 to 1974, it returned one Member of Parliament (MP) to the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, elected by the first-past-the-post voting system.
During his stay in India, Trevelyan contributed "Letters of a Competition Wallah" to Macmillan's Magazine (republished 1864). Cawnpore , an account of the massacre there during the Indian Rebellion of 1857, was published in 1865. In 1867 he wrote The Ladies in Parliament, a humorous political brochure in verse. In 1876 he published The Life and Letters of Lord Macaulay (a second, enlarged edition appeared in 1908), and in 1880 he published The Early History of Charles James Fox . In 1899 he published the first volume of a History of the American Revolution, which was completed (three volumes) in 1905. In the latter year, as Interludes in Prose and Verse, he republished his early classical "jeux d'esprit" and Indian pieces.
Macmillan's Magazine was a monthly British magazine from 1859 to 1907 published by Alexander Macmillan.
Kanpur is a large city in the state of Uttar Pradesh, India. The city is famous for its leather and textile industries. Kanpur was an important British garrison town until 1947 when India gained independence. Kanpur the administrative headquarter of Kanpur (Urban) district and Kanpur division.
The Siege of Cawnpore was a key episode in the Indian rebellion of 1857. The besieged Company forces and civilians in Cawnpore were unprepared for an extended siege and surrendered to rebel forces under Nana Sahib, in return for a safe passage to Allahabad. However, under ambiguous circumstances, their evacuation from Cawnpore turned into a massacre, and most of the men were killed. As an East India Company rescue force from Allahabad approached Cawnpore, 120 British women and children captured by the Sepoy forces were killed in what came to be known as the Bibighar Massacre, their remains being thrown down a nearby well in an attempt to hide the evidence. Following the recapture of Cawnpore and the discovery of the massacre, the angry Company forces engaged in widespread retaliation against captured rebel soldiers and local civilians. The murders greatly embittered the British rank-and-file against the Sepoy rebels and inspired the war cry "Remember Cawnpore!".
Trevelyan married Caroline, daughter of Robert Needham Philips,MP for Bury, in 1869. Their eldest son, Sir Charles Trevelyan, 3rd Baronet, also became a Liberal politician. Their second son R. C. Trevelyan was a poet and translator. The historian G. M. Trevelyan was their third son. Trevelyan died in August 1928, aged 90. He left unsettled property valued at £556,993 (gross) and £397,492 (net).
|Parliament of the United Kingdom|
| Member of Parliament for Tynemouth and North Shields |
Thomas Eustace Smith
|New constituency|| Member of Parliament for Hawick Burghs |
Alexander Laing Brown
Sir Edward Russell
| Member of Parliament for Glasgow Bridgeton |
Sir Charles Cameron
Hon. Frederick Stanley
| Civil Lord of the Admiralty |
The Earl of Camperdown
| Parliamentary Secretary to the Admiralty |
Lord Frederick Cavendish
| Chief Secretary for Ireland |
John George Dodson
| Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster |
The Duke of Richmond
| Secretary for Scotland |
The Earl of Dalhousie
The Marquess of Lothian
| Secretary for Scotland |
The Lord Balfour of Burleigh
|Baronetage of the United Kingdom|
| Baronet |
George Macaulay Trevelyan, was a British historian and academic. He was a Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge, from 1898 to 1903. He then spent more than twenty years as a full-time author. He returned to the University of Cambridge and was Regius Professor of History from 1927 to 1943. He served as Master of Trinity College from 1940 to 1951. In retirement, he was Chancellor of Durham University.
Arthur Wellesley Peel, 1st Viscount Peel, was a British Liberal politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1865 to 1895. He was Speaker of the House of Commons from 1884 until 1895 when he was raised to the peerage.
Edward Cardwell, 1st Viscount Cardwell, PC, PC (Ire), FRS, was a prominent British politician in the Peelite and Liberal parties during the middle of the 19th century. He is best remembered for his tenure as Secretary of State for War between 1868 and 1874 and, with William Ewart Gladstone's support, the introduction of the Cardwell Reforms. The goal was to centralise the power of the War Office, abolish purchase of officers' commissions, and to create reserve forces stationed in Britain by establishing short terms of service for enlisted men.
The third Gladstone ministry was one of the shortest-lived ministries in British history. It was led by William Ewart Gladstone of the Liberal Party upon his reappointment as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom by Queen Victoria. It lasted five months until July 1886.
John William Maule Ramsay, 13th Earl of Dalhousie KT, PC, styled Lord Ramsay between 1874 and 1880, was a Scottish naval commander, courtier and Liberal politician. He served as Secretary for Scotland in William Ewart Gladstone's short-lived 1886 administration.
Henry Brooke Parnell, 1st Baron Congleton PC, known as Sir Henry Parnell, Bt, from 1812 to 1841, was an Irish writer and Whig politician. He was a member of the Whig administrations headed by Lord Grey and Lord Melbourne of the 1830s and also published works on financial and penal questions as well as on civil engineering. He was the great-uncle of Irish nationalist leader Charles Stewart Parnell.
William John Monson, 1st Viscount Oxenbridge PC, known as The Lord Monson between 1862 and 1886, was a British Liberal politician. He served as Captain of the Yeomen of the Guard between 1880 and 1885 and in 1886 under William Ewart Gladstone.
Joseph Albert Pease, 1st Baron Gainford, PC, DL, JP, known as Jack Pease, was a British businessman and Liberal politician. He was a member of H. H. Asquith's Liberal cabinet between 1910 and 1916 and also served as Chairman of the BBC between 1922 and 1926.
Cecil Bisshopp Harmsworth, 1st Baron Harmsworth LLD, was a British businessman and Liberal politician. He served as Under-Secretary of State for the Home Department in 1915 and as Under-Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs between 1919 and 1922.
Ughtred James Kay-Shuttleworth, 1st Baron Shuttleworth, known as Sir Ughtred Kay-Shuttleworth, Bt, between 1872 and 1902, was a British landowner and Liberal politician. He was Under-Secretary of State for India and Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster under William Ewart Gladstone in 1886 and Parliamentary and Financial Secretary to the Admiralty under Gladstone and Lord Rosebery between 1892 and 1895.
Thomas David Gibson-Carmichael, 1st Baron Carmichael, known as Sir Thomas Gibson-Carmichael, Bt, between 1891 and 1912, was a Scottish Liberal politician and colonial administrator. He was also a keen naturalist.
Sir Charles Philips Trevelyan, 3rd Baronet was a British Liberal Party, and later Labour Party, politician and landowner. He served as President of the Board of Education in 1924 and between 1929 and 1931 in the first two Labour administrations of Ramsay MacDonald.
(James) Ian Stewart Macpherson, 1st Baron Strathcarron,, known as Sir Ian Macpherson, Baronet, between 1933 and 1936, was a British lawyer and Liberal politician.
George Henry Charles Byng, 3rd Earl of Strafford, styled Viscount Enfield between 1860 and 1886, was a British Liberal politician.
George Grenfell Glyn, 2nd Baron Wolverton PC, was a British Liberal politician. He held office in three of the Liberal administrations of William Ewart Gladstone.
Richard de Aquila Grosvenor, 1st Baron Stalbridge,, styled Lord Richard Grosvenor between 1845 and 1886, was a British politician and businessman. Initially a Liberal, he served under William Ewart Gladstone as Vice-Chamberlain of the Household between 1872 and 1874 and as Parliamentary Secretary to the Treasury between 1880 and 1885. However, he broke with Gladstone over Irish Home Rule in 1886 and joined the Liberal Unionists.
William Patrick Adam, CIE, DL was a British colonial administrator and Liberal politician. He was twice First Commissioner of Works under William Ewart Gladstone and also served briefly as Governor of Madras between 1880 and 1881.
Alexander Laing Brown (1851–1936) was a British Liberal Party politician.
Herbert John Gladstone, 1st Viscount Gladstone, was a British Liberal statesman. The youngest son of William Ewart Gladstone, he was Home Secretary from 1905 to 1910 and Governor-General of the Union of South Africa from 1910 to 1914.