Sir Thomas Hanmer, 4th Baronet (24 September 1677 – 7 May 1746) was Speaker of the House of Commons of Great Britain from 1714 to 1715, discharging the duties of the office with conspicuous impartiality. His second marriage was the subject of much gossip as his wife eloped with his cousin Thomas Hervey and lived openly with him for the rest of her days. He is, however, perhaps best remembered as being one of the early editors of the works of William Shakespeare.
He was identified with the Hanoverian Tory faction at the time of the Hanoverian Succession in 1714.
He was the son of William Hanmer (b. c. 1648 in Angers, France, d. c. 1678?,the son by his second marriage of Sir Thomas Hanmer, 2nd Baronet), and of Peregrine, daughter and co-heiress of Sir Henry North, 1st Baronet, of Mildenhall, Suffolk.
He was born between 10 and 11 p.m. in the house of his grandfather Sir Thomas Hanmer, 2nd Baronet, at Bettisfield Park,near Wrexham, Clwyd, Wales (formerly Flintshire). His father William seems to have died early, and Thomas was educated in Bury St Edmunds, at Westminster School and Christ Church, Oxford, matriculating on 17 October 1693, age 17. His tutor was Robert Freind, D.D., who was later under-master at Westminster in 1699, and headmaster 1711–1733. Hanmer gained his LL.D., however, Com. Reg. from Cambridge University in 1705.
He succeeded as 4th Baronet in 1701 when his uncle, the 3rd Baronet Sir John Hanmer, died in a duelleaving no issue.
He was a high church Tory M.P. for Thetford in 1701–2 and 1705–8; for Flintshire in 1702–5; and for Suffolk in 1708–27.He was unanimously elected Speaker of the House of Commons in February 1714, during the last Tory government for over 100 years; the Tory party was split between those (like Hanmer) who wished to maintain the Protestant succession in Britain, and those with jacobite tendencies who supported James Stuart, the 'Old Pretender' of the Jacobite succession. After the death of Queen Anne in August 1714, George I brought in a government composed entirely of Whigs. The House of Commons was dissolved in January 1715, and Hanmer was not put forward for re-election: in his stead Spencer Compton (later 1st Earl of Wilmington and Prime Minister) was elected Speaker on 17 March 1715, although Hannmer continued to serve as an MP until 1727. The Tory party was proscribed from government office until 1760 and the accession of George III.
He was one of the founding governors of the Foundling Hospital, a charity set up for London's abandoned children in 1739, which also became a centre for the arts.
He also built and endowed a home for impoverished elderly in Mildenhall, his mother's home village, in 1722. The home, called Bunbury Rooms for his brother-in-law and biographer Henry Edward Bunbury, serves a similar purpose today.
Hanmer's Shakespeare was published at Oxford in 1743–44, with nearly forty illustrations by Francis Hayman and Hubert Gravelot.The Cambridge History of English and American Literature states that "The print and binding were magnificent, and caused its value to rise to nine guineas, when Warburton’s edition was going for eighteen shillings."
Hanmer's editing, however, was based on his own selection of emendations from the Shakespeare editions of Alexander Pope and Lewis Theobald, along with his own conjectures, without indicating for the reader what was in his source texts and what was editorially corrected.Therefore, Hanmer's edition is not highly regarded today, with the editors of The Oxford Shakespeare assessing it in William Shakespeare: A Textual Companion as "one of the worst in the eighteenth century."
Also, Hanmer became the target of ridicule by Pope, who in his Dunciad lampoons him under the name Montalto (Book IV, 105ff.) and refers to him in a note (IV 113) as "An eminent person, who was about to publish a very pompous Edition of a great Author, at his own expense" (emphasis original).
However, there are some emendations of value that were made by Hanmer which have been accepted into later editions of Shakespeare.
He died in 1746 and was buried at Hanmer.He had married firstly in 1698 Isabella FitzRoy, Duchess of Grafton, the daughter and heiress of Henry Bennet, 1st Earl of Arlington, and widow of Henry Fitzroy, 1st Duke of Grafton, natural son of King Charles II. She died in 1723.
He married secondly in 1725 Elizabeth Folkes, only daughter of Thomas Folkes of Great Barton, Suffolk. Elizabeth was much younger than her husband and the couple were ill-suited; in particular she did not share his love of Shakespeare. She caused a notable scandal a few years later by eloping with his cousin Thomas Hervey, younger son of John Hervey, 1st Earl of Bristol, by whom she had a son Thomas. Hervey, who was often said to be insane, subjected Hanmer to years of persecution over property which allegedly belonged to Elizabeth. Hanmer maintained that Elizabeth's father had settled the property strictly on his son in law, and that Elizabeth had no right to it. She died in 1741. Hanmer on his side threatened to "prosecute" Hervey (presumably he meant that he would bring a civil action for criminal conversation) but nothing seems to have come of it.
He had no heir by either marriage and so the baronetcy became extinct.
Henry William Bunbury was an English caricaturist.
John Hervey, 1st Earl of Bristol was an English politician.
Mildenhall is a small market town and civil parish in Suffolk, England. The town is near the A11 and is located 37 mi (60 km) north-west of Ipswich, the county town. The large Royal Air Force station, RAF Mildenhall as well as RAF Lakenheath, are located north of the town. The former is used by the United States Air Force, as the headquarters of its 100th Air Refueling Wing and 352nd Special Operations Group.
Sir David Hanmer, KS, SL (c.1332–1387) was a fourteenth century Anglo-Welsh Justice of the King's Bench from Hanmer, Wales, best known as Owain Glyndŵr's father-in-law and the father of Glyndŵr's chief supporters.
Sir Thomas Hanmer, 4th Baronet (1677–1746) was Speaker of the House of Commons, MP for Flint 1701–1702, Flintshire 1702–1705, Thetford 1705–1708 and Suffolk 1708–1727.
There have been two baronetcies created for members of the Hanmer family of Flintshire, Wales, one in the Baronetage of England and one in the Baronetage of Great Britain. Only one creation is extant as of 2008. The third Baronet of the second creation was elevated to the peerage as Baron Hanmer in 1872, a title which became extinct in 1881. The family name derived from the manor of Hanmer in the Diocese of St. Asaph.
Sir William Dawes, 3rd Baronet, was an Anglican prelate. He served as Bishop of Chester from 1708 to 1714 and then as Archbishop of York from 1714 to 1724. Politically he was a Hanoverian Tory, who favoured the Hanoverian Succession.
Sir Henry Bunbury, 3rd Baronet of Stanney Hall, Cheshire was a British Tory politician who sat in the English and British House of Commons for 27 years from 1700 to 1727. At the time of the Hanoverian Succession in 1714 he was a Hanoverian Tory, but later offered support to the Jacobites.
Sir Thomas Charles Bunbury, 6th Baronet was a British politician who sat in the House of Commons between 1761 and 1812. He was the first husband of Lady Sarah Lennox.
Sir Charles Bunbury, 4th Baronet, of Bunbury, Cheshire and Rake Hall, Stanney, near Chester, was a British politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1733 to 1742.
This is a list of High Sheriffs of Flintshire.
Sir Thomas Hanmer, 2nd Baronet (1612–1678) was an English politician who sat in the House of Commons in 1640 and from 1669 to 1678. He was a Royalist during the English Civil War and raised troops for Charles I. In his personal life he was a keen horticulturist. He is not to be confused with Sir Thomas Hanmer, 2nd Baronet (1747–1828) of the second creation.
Lieutenant-Colonel Henry Hanmer, was an English Tory politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1831 to 1837.
Sir John Hanmer, 3rd Baronet was a Welsh politician who sat in the House of Commons at various times between 1659 and 1690.
Thomas Hanmer, of Fenns, Shropshire, was an English Tory politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1734 to 1737.
Thomas Hawkins (1729–1772) was an English Anglican priest, academic and literary editor. He edited the second edition of the Hanmer Shakespeare—Sir Thomas Hanmer's Shakespeare edition—which appeared in 1771. His historical work The Origin of the English Drama appeared shortly after his death, in 1773.
Elizabeth Hervey, Countess of Bristol, was a British court official and noble, the second wife of John Hervey, 1st Earl of Bristol. They had seventeen children.
Thomas Hanmer, of Fenns, Flintshire, was a British politician who sat in the English Parliament briefly in 1690.
Thomas Hervey, of Bond Street, London, was an English pamphleteer and politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1733 to 1747. He became embroiled with the wife of a neighbour who left her husband, and the ensuing dispute brought him to the brink of madness. He was noted for his eccentric open letters.
William Mostyn was a 17th-century Welsh Anglican priest.
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This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Wood, James, ed. (1907). "article name needed". The Nuttall Encyclopædia . London and New York: Frederick Warne.