Sir William Wyndham
|Chancellor of the Exchequer|
|Preceded by||Sir Robert Benson|
|Succeeded by||Sir Richard Onslow|
|Secretary at War|
|Preceded by||George Granville|
|Succeeded by||Francis Gwyn|
|Died||17 June 1740 51–52)(aged|
|Spouse(s)||Lady Catherine Seymour|
Maria Catherina de Jonge
|Parent(s)|| Sir Edward Wyndham,2nd Baronet |
|Alma mater||Christ Church,Oxford|
Sir William Wyndham,3rd Baronet (c. 1688 –17 June 1740), of Orchard Wyndham in Somerset,was an English Tory politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1710 to 1740. He served as Secretary at War in 1712 and Chancellor of the Exchequer in 1713 during the reign of the last Stuart monarch,Queen Anne (1702–1714). He was a Jacobite leader firmly opposed to the Hanoverian succession and was leader of the Tory opposition in the House of Commons during the reign of King George I (1714–1727) and during the early years of King George II (1727–1760).
His first wife was Lady Catherine Seymour,the younger of the two daughters of Charles Seymour,6th Duke of Somerset (died 1748),and in her children by Wyndham,heiress to half of the vast estates,including Petworth House in Sussex and Egremont Castle in Cumberland,formerly held by the extinct Percy family,Earls of Northumberland. As a result of this complex inheritance his eldest son became the 2nd Earl of Egremont. Both his sons became earls and his daughter Elizabeth Wyndham was both the wife and mother of Prime Ministers,namely George Grenville and William Wyndham Grenville respectively.
He built the pier at Watchet harbour,near Orchard Wyndham.
He was the son and heir of Sir Edward Wyndham,2nd Baronet (c. 1667 –1695) of Orchard Wyndham,three times Member of Parliament for Ilchester,Somerset,by his wife Katherine Leveson-Gower,eldest daughter of Sir William Leveson-Gower,4th Baronet.
He was educated at Eton College and Christ Church,Oxford. As a young man while at Rome on his Grand Tour he was approached by a fortune teller who warned him to "beware of a white horse". A similar prophecy was made to him later in England. He later surmised that the white horse in question represented the Saxon Steed in the coat of arms of the Elector of Hanover,the future King George I of Great Britain,his opposition to whom would later cause him much trouble.
He entered parliament as Member of Parliament for Somerset at a by-election on 26 April 1710 and was returned again at the 1710 British general election. He became Secretary at War in the Tory ministry in 1712 and Chancellor of the Exchequer in 1713. He was closely associated with the radical Tory leader Lord Bolingbroke and was privy to the attempts made to bring about a Jacobite restoration on the death of Queen Anne (1702–1714). On the failure of the plot he was dismissed from office,and in 1714 was briefly imprisoned.
At the start of the reign of the Hanoverian King George I (1714–1727),Bolingbroke fled into exile in France to join the court of the Old Pretender,and Wyndham took his place in England as the leader of the Jacobites. A rebellion to oust King George was planned for the summer of 1715,and Wyndham sent a message to the Pretender in July "not to lose a day in going over".However,the rebellion was discovered and Wyndham's role was laid before the cabinet,attended by both the king and the 6th Duke of Somerset,Wyndham's father-in-law,who although a member of the Whig government and a firm supporter of the Hanoverian Succession,wanted to protect his son-in-law from arrest,and thus volunteered to "be responsible for him". Most ministers were inclined to agree to this for fear of offending a person of such consequence,yet Lord Townshend,Secretary of State for the Northern Department,in the belief that the government needed to show firmness,moved the motion to have him arrested. Ten minutes of silence ensued while the other ministers considered their own responses,and finally two or three others seconded the motion and the arrest was decreed by the king,who on retiring to his closet took Townshend's hand and told him:"you have done me a great service today".
Lord Stanhope brought down to the Commons a message from the King,desiring their consent for apprehending six members of their House on a charge of "being engaged in a design to support the intended invasion of the kingdom",namely Sir William Wyndham,Sir John Pakington,4th Baronet,Edward Harvey (MP for Clitheroe), Thomas Forster,John Anstis,and Corbet Kynaston. Consent was granted. Harvey and Anstis were in London,and were at once taken. Harvey stabbed himself in the breast in two or three places but his wounds were not mortal. Forster escaped and served as General of the Jacobite army in the 1715 Uprising.
Accordingly,Colonel John Huske of the "foot-guards" (i.e. Coldstream Guards),at about this time an aide-de-camp to William Cadogan,1st Earl Cadogan,was sent to arrest Wyndham at home at Orchard Wyndham. The story is related in detail by the contemporary commentator Boyer (1716).He was awoken at 5 in the morning and on searching his bedroom the colonel found incriminating papers in his waistcoat pocket,which listed his co-conspirators who planned to invade England and place the Old Pretender on the throne. The colonel had orders to "use him with decorum" and trusted Wyndham when he gave his word that at 7 am,having dressed and said goodbye to his pregnant wife,he would be dressed and ready to depart as the colonel's prisoner,and would even lay on his own coach and six horses for the purpose. Wyndham however escaped by the third unguarded door of his chamber and fled, it is said by having jumped out of a window onto a waiting horse. This caused the king to circulate a hand-bill headed "Proclamation for apprehending Sir William Wyndham,Baronett",dated 23 September 1715,which offered a huge reward of £1,000 for his capture.
Seeing that his case was hopeless,having for a while disguised himself as a clergyman,he visited his father-in-law the Duke of Somerset at his seat of Syon House,near London. From there he went to London and surrendered himself to the Duke's son and his brother-in-law the Earl of Hertford,a captain in the King's Lifeguards,and was taken into custodyin the Tower of London. The 6th Duke of Somerset offered bail to the council for Wyndham's liberty,which was refused. It was soon after having made that offer that the king dismissed him from the high office of Master of the Horse.
Under King George I (1714–1727) and during the early years of King George II (1727–1760) Wyndham was the leader of the Tory opposition in the House of Commons and fought for his High Church and Tory principles against Sir Robert Walpole. He was in constant communication with the exiled Bolingbroke and after 1723 was actively associated with him in abortive plans for the overthrow of Walpole.
He appears as "Gumdahm" in the parliamentary reports published from 1738 onwards under the title of the "Debates in the Senate of Magna Lilliputia" in the Gentleman's Magazine,in which to circumvent the prohibition of the publication of parliamentary debates the real names of the various debaters were replaced by pseudonyms and anagramsand the debates reported were stated to have been "those of that country which Gulliver had so lately rendered illustrious,and which untimely death had prevented that enterprising traveller from publishing himself",that is to say works of fiction in the style of Jonathan Swift's Gulliver's Travels. The published speeches,including some of those of William Pitt,were in fact often literary masterpieces wholly invented by the magazine's contributors,including William Guthrie and Samuel Johnson.
Despite these various enmities,Wyndham was a respected participant in public life in London. He was one of the founding governors of the Foundling Hospital,as recorded in that charity's royal charter of 1739. This was perhaps due to the fact that his father-in-law the 6th Duke of Somerset became a founding governor after his second wife,Charlotte Finch (1711–1773),became the first to sign the petition to King George II of its founder Captain Thomas Coram. This institution,the country's first and only children's home for foundlings,was then London's most fashionable charity and Wyndham served as a governor with such other notables as Thomas Pelham-Holles,1st Duke of Newcastle-upon-Tyne,James Waldegrave,1st Earl Waldegrave,Spencer Compton,1st Earl of Wilmington,Henry Pelham,Arthur Onslow,Horatio Walpole,1st Baron Walpole of Wolterton and even Sir Robert Walpole himself.
Wyndham married twice. His first marriage was to Lady Catherine Seymour,the younger of the two daughters of Charles Seymour,6th Duke of Somerset,KG (1662–1748),and sister of Algernon Seymour,7th Duke of Somerset (1684–1750). On her brother's death in 1750 she became (with the 7th Duke's only daughter Lady Elizabeth Seymour and her husband Sir Hugh Smithson,4th Baronet) one of two co-heirs to the vast estates formerly belonging to the ancient Percy family,former Earls of Northumberland,including of Egremont Castle in Cumberland and of the jewel in the crown Petworth House in Sussex,rebuilt in palatial style by her father the 6th Duke,whose first wife had been the great heiress Lady Elizabeth Percy (1667–1722),only daughter and sole heiress of Joceline Percy,11th Earl of Northumberland (1644–1670) of Petworth House and Alnwick Castle in Northumberland.
By his wife Lady Catherine Seymour he had two sons and three daughters including:
Sir William's second wife was Maria Catherina de Jonge,the widow of William Godolphin,Marquess of Blandford.
He died at Wells,Somerset,on 17 June 1740,after having fallen from his horse ("white of course"),whilst out hunting.
Portraits of Sir William Wyndham survive at Orchard Wyndham,Petworth House and other Wyndham family properties
Charles Seymour, 6th Duke of Somerset, known by the epithet "The Proud Duke", was an English peer. He rebuilt Petworth House in Sussex, the ancient Percy seat inherited from his wife, in the palatial form which survives today. According to the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, he was a remarkably handsome man, and inordinately fond of taking a conspicuous part in court ceremonial; his vanity, which earned him the sobriquet of "the proud duke", was a byword among his contemporaries and was the subject of numerous anecdotes; Macaulay described him as "a man in whom the pride of birth and rank amounted almost to a disease".
Charles Wyndham, 2nd Earl of Egremont, PC, of Orchard Wyndham in Somerset, Petworth House in Sussex, and of Egremont House in Mayfair, London, was a British statesman who served as Secretary of State for the Southern Department from 1761–63.
Baron Leconfield, of Leconfield in the East Riding of the County of York, is a title in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. It was created in 1859 for Col. George Wyndham (1787–1869). He was the eldest illegitimate son and adopted heir of George Wyndham, 3rd Earl of Egremont (1751–1837), from whom he inherited Petworth House in Sussex, Egremont Castle and Cockermouth Castle in Cumbria and Leconfield Castle in Yorkshire, all formerly lands of Josceline Percy, 11th Earl of Northumberland (1644–1670), inherited by Charles Seymour, 6th Duke of Somerset (1662–1748) on his marriage to the Percy heiress Elizabeth Percy (1667–1722) and inherited as one of the co-heirs of his son Algernon Seymour, 7th Duke of Somerset, 1st Earl of Egremont (1684–1750) by the latter's nephew Sir Charles Wyndham, 4th Baronet (1710–1763) of Orchard Wyndham in Somerset, who inherited by special remainder the Earldom of Egremont. The 1st Baron's eldest son, the second Baron, represented West Sussex in the House of Commons as a Conservative. He was succeeded by his eldest son, the third Baron, who served as Lord Lieutenant of Sussex from 1917 to 1949. The latter's nephew, the sixth Baron, served as Private Secretary to Prime Minister Harold Macmillan from 1957 to 1963. In 1963, four years before he succeeded his father in the barony of Leconfield, the Egremont title held by his ancestors was revived when he was raised to the peerage as Baron Egremont, of Petworth in the County of Sussex. As of 2017 the titles are held by his son, the seventh Baron. Known as Max Egremont, he is a biographer and novelist.
Petworth House in the parish of Petworth, West Sussex, England, is a late 17th-century Grade I listed country house, rebuilt in 1688 by Charles Seymour, 6th Duke of Somerset, and altered in the 1870s to the design of the architect Anthony Salvin. It contains intricate wood-carvings by Grinling Gibbons (d.1721). It is the manor house of the manor of Petworth. For centuries it was the southern home for the Percy family, Earls of Northumberland.
The House of Percy is an English noble family. They were one of the most powerful noble families in Northern England for much of the Middle Ages, known for their long rivalry with another powerful northern English family, the House of Neville.
Edward Seymour, 8th Duke of Somerset was an English peer and landowner.
General Algernon Seymour, 7th Duke of Somerset, styled Earl of Hertford until 1748, of Petworth House in Sussex, was a British Army officer and Whig politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1708 until 1722 when he was raised to the House of Lords as Baron Percy.
This is an incomplete list of people who have served as Lord Lieutenant of Somerset. Since 1714, all Lord Lieutenants have also been Custos Rotulorum of Somerset.
Hugh Percy, 1st Duke of Northumberland,, was an English peer, landowner, and art patron.
Earl of Egremont was a title in the Peerage of Great Britain. It was created in 1749, along with the subsidiary title Baron of Cockermouth, in Cumberland, for Algernon Seymour, 7th Duke of Somerset, with remainder to his nephews Sir Charles Wyndham, 4th Baronet, of Orchard Wyndham, and Percy Wyndham-O'Brien. The Duke had previously inherited the Percy estates, including the lands of Egremont in Cumberland, from his mother Lady Elizabeth Percy, daughter and heiress of Joceline Percy, 11th Earl of Northumberland. In 1750 Sir Charles Wyndham succeeded according to the special remainder as second Earl of Egremont on the death of his uncle. His younger brother Percy Wyndham-O'Brien was created Earl of Thomond in 1756.
George O'Brien Wyndham, 3rd Earl of EgremontFRS of Petworth House in Sussex and Orchard Wyndham in Somerset, was a British peer, a major landowner and a great art collector. He was interested in the latest scientific advances. He was an agriculturist and a friend of the agricultural writer Arthur Young, and was an enthusiastic canal builder who invested in many commercial ventures for the improvement of his estates. He played a limited role in politics.
The Smithson Baronetcy, of Stanwick in the County of York, is a title in the Baronetage of England. It was created on 2 August 1660 for Hugh Smithson (1598-1670) of Stanwick St John, Yorkshire. Sir Hugh Smithson, 3rd Baronet, married Elizabeth Langdale, daughter of Marmaduke Langdale, Baron Langdale. Sir Hugh Smithson, the fourth Baronet, married Lady Elizabeth Seymour, daughter of Algernon Seymour, 7th Duke of Somerset and heiress of the Percy family, Earls of Northumberland. In 1749 the Duke of Somerset was created Earl of Northumberland, with remainder to his son-in-law Sir Hugh Smithson, who succeeded as second Earl on his father-in-law's death in 1750. He assumed the surname of Percy and was created Duke of Northumberland in 1766. The baronetcy remains merged with the dukedom.
William Wyndham may refer to:
JoscelinePercy, 11th Earl of Northumberland, 5th Baron Percy, of Alnwick Castle, Northumberland and Petworth House, Sussex, was an English peer.
Percy Wyndham-O'Brien, 1st Earl of Thomond was a British Member of Parliament and an Irish peer.
Orchard Wyndham is a historic manor near Williton in Somerset, centred on the synonymous grade I listed manor house of Orchard Wyndham that was situated historically in the parish of Watchet and about two miles south of the parish church of St Decuman's, Watchet. Parts of the manor house are medieval. It has been owned for more than 700 years by the prominent Wyndham family, who continue there as of 2015.
Elizabeth Seymour, Duchess of Somerset and suo jureBaroness Percy was an English heiress. She was styled Lady Elizabeth Percy between 1667 and 1679, Countess of Ogle between 1679 and 1681, Lady Elizabeth Thynne between 1681 and 1682, and Duchess of Somerset between 1682 and 1722. She was the only surviving child and sole heiress of Joceline Percy, 11th Earl of Northumberland (1644–1670). Lady Elizabeth was one of the closest personal friends of Queen Anne, which led Jonathan Swift to direct at her one of his sharpest satires, The Windsor Prophecy, in which she was called "Carrots".
George Francis Wyndham, 4th Earl of Egremont of Orchard Wyndham, Somerset and Silverton Park, Devon, was an English nobleman and naval officer.
Wyndham is a surname and a given name. Notable people with the name include:
Mary Seymour, Duchess of Somerset, formerly Mary Webb, was the wife of Edward Seymour, 8th Duke of Somerset, and the mother of both the 9th and 10th dukes.