Siret

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Siret
Fosta primarie a orasului Siret.JPG
Former Siret town hall
ROU SV Siret CoA.jpg
Coat of arms
Siret jud Suceava.png
Location in Suceava County
Romania location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Siret
Location in Romania
Coordinates: 47°57′11″N26°4′21″E / 47.95306°N 26.07250°E / 47.95306; 26.07250 Coordinates: 47°57′11″N26°4′21″E / 47.95306°N 26.07250°E / 47.95306; 26.07250
CountryFlag of Romania.svg  Romania
County Suceava
Government
  Mayor (20202024) Adrian Popoiu [1] (PNL)
Area
43.40 km2 (16.76 sq mi)
Population
 (2011) [2]
7,976
  Density180/km2 (480/sq mi)
Time zone EET/EEST (UTC+2/+3)
Vehicle reg. SV
Website siretromania.ro

Siret (Romanian pronunciation:  [siˈret] ; German : Sereth; Yiddish : סערעט, romanized: Seret) is a town, municipality and former Latin bishopric in Suceava County, north-eastern Romania. It is situated in the historical region of Bukovina. Siret is the 11th largest urban settlement in the county, with a population of 7,721 inhabitants, according to the 2011 census. It is one of the oldest towns in Romania and was the capital of the medieval Principality of Moldavia during the late 14th century. Furthermore, the town administers two villages: Mănăstioara and Pădureni.

Contents

Administration and local politics

Town council

The town's current local council has the following political composition, according to the results of the 2020 Romanian local elections: [3]

   PartySeatsCurrent Council
  National Liberal Party (PNL)10          
  Social Democratic Party (PSD)5          

Geography

The town of Siret is located at the north-eastern limit of Suceava County, 2 kilometres (1 mile) from the border with Ukraine, being one of the main border passing points in the north of the country, having both a road border post and a rail connection.

The rail is on a standard gauge on the Romanian side and continues as a Russian-style broad gauge into Ukraine. Siret (actually the nearby border passing point called Vicșani Vadul Siret) is one of the few places in Romania which provides a gauge change equipment, allowing transportation without transfer.

Siret is situated at the half distance between Chernivtsi and Suceava, on the right banks of Siret River. The European route E85 crosses the city.

History

Holy Trinity Church (1352), one of the oldest in Romania Biserica Sf. Treime din Siret13.jpg
Holy Trinity Church (1352), one of the oldest in Romania

During the period 1211–1225, on a hill near Siret a fortress was built by the Teutonic Knights. The town and the Teutonic castle were destroyed by the Tatars in 1241. The first document of Siret dates back to 1339, according to some historical sources. The town was the capital of the former principality of Moldavia, in the late 14th century.

The Russian Imperial Army occupied the town in 1770, and, as a consequence, an epidemic of cholera broke out. Together with the rest of Bukovina, Siret was under the imperial rule of the Habsburg Monarchy (later Austria-Hungary) from 1775 to 1918.

During World War II, Siret was captured on 3 April 1944 by Soviet troops of the 1st Ukrainian Front in the course of the Dnieper–Carpathian Offensive.

Religions

Given the 14th century decline of the Byzantine empire as Orthodox regional superpower-ally and Latin mendicant orders missions since the 13th century, the prince Bogdan I of Moldavia obtained virtual independence in 1359 as founding voivode (autonomous prince), seeking aid and protection from Poland, welcomed Latin missionaries, Francescans (founding a monastery at Siret in 1340) and Dominicans. His son and indirect successor Lațcu of Moldavia (1365-1373) promised Rome his and the people's conversion to Catholicism and asked Pope Urban V to send missionaries and erect a Latin diocese in his principality's capital, Siret, which happened in 1371, initially directly subject to the Holy See until 1412 when it was made suffragan of the Archbishopric of Lviv (Lwów in Polish; now in Ukraine). This Roman Catholic Diocese of Siret started to decline in 1388 when prince Petru of Moldavia transferred the Moldavian voivode's capital from Siret to Suceava, and was effectively suppressed, but from circa 1418, the Holy See erected another Moldavian bishopric, the Diocese of Baia, which inherited its territory (1434?).

There was a Jewish community by the mid-16th century. Zionist activity began at the turn of the 20th century, a time when most of the local Jews worked in commerce. From 1912 to 1918, the mayor was Jewish and the town council included Jews. During World War I, Jews fled in advance of the Imperial Russian Army, and found their property destroyed when they returned. After the union of Bukovina with Romania, the new authorities revoked licenses for Jewish members of the free professions and removed Jewish officials from their posts. In 1930, there were 2,121 Jews or 14% of the town's population. In 1936, Baruch Hager of the Vizhnitz dynasty was named rabbi and opened a yeshiva. During the interwar period, there was activity by Zionist youth movements. On June 20, 1941, just before Romania's entry into World War II, the authorities of the Ion Antonescu regime forced the Jews of Siret to march to Dornești before transporting them to Craiova and Calafat and finally Transnistria (see The Holocaust in Romania ). Soviet troops liberated 460 Siret Jews there in 1944; 400 of them subsequently left for Palestine. [4]

Today, most of the population is Romanian Orthodox, with Roman Catholic, Pentecostal, Greek-Catholic and Christian Evangelical minorities.

Demographics

Historical population
YearPop.±%
1910 7,948    
1930 9,905+24.6%
1948 8,058−18.6%
1956 5,664−29.7%
1966 8,018+41.6%
1977 8,264+3.1%
1992 10,071+21.9%
2002 9,329−7.4%
2011 7,721−17.2%
2016 9,720+25.9%
Source: Austrian and Romanian census data and/or official estimates

Siret reached its peak population in 1992, when more than 10,000 people were living within the town limits. In 2016, Siret had a population of c. 10,000 inhabitants. [5]

According to the 2011 census data, 7,721 inhabitants lived in Siret, a decrease from the figure recorded at the 2002 census, when the town had a population of 9,329 inhabitants. In 2011, of the total population, 95.85% were ethnic Romanians, 2.55% Ukrainians, 0.72% Poles, 0.42% Germans (Bukovina Germans), 0.28% Russians (Lipovans). Siret is the eleventh most populated urban locality in Suceava County.

Notable natives

International relations

Siret is a member of the Douzelage, a unique town twinning association of 24 towns across the European Union. This active program began in 1991, and regular events, such as a produce market from each of the other countries[ clarification needed ] and festivals. [7] [8] Discussions regarding membership are also in hand with three additional towns (Agros in Cyprus, Škofja Loka in Slovenia, and Tryavna in Bulgaria).

Twin towns – sister cities

Siret is twinned with:

Related Research Articles

Moldavia historical region and former principality in Central and Eastern Europe

Moldavia is a historical region and former principality in Central and Eastern Europe, corresponding to the territory between the Eastern Carpathians and the Dniester River. An initially independent and later autonomous state, it existed from the 14th century to 1859, when it united with Wallachia as the basis of the modern Romanian state; at various times, Moldavia included the regions of Bessarabia, all of Bukovina and Hertza. The region of Pokuttya was also part of it for a period of time.

Bukovina historical region situated in Northern Romania and Southwestern Ukraine

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Botoșani County County of Romania

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Suceava County County of Romania

Suceava County is a county (județ) of Romania. Most of its territory lies in the southern portion of the historical region of Bukovina, while the remainder forms part of Western Moldavia proper. The county seat is the historical city of Suceava, formerly the capital of the Principality of Moldavia during the late Middle Ages and then a pivotal, predominantly German-speaking commercial town of the Habsburg/Austrian Empire at the border with the Kingdom of Romania throughout the Modern Age up until 1918.

Chernivtsi Oblast Oblast (region) of Ukraine

Chernivtsi Oblast is an oblast (province) in Western Ukraine, consisting of the northern parts of the regions of Bukovina and Bessarabia. It has an international border with Romania and Moldova. The oblast is the smallest in Ukraine by area and population.

Suceava City in Suceava County, Romania

Suceava is the largest city and the seat of Suceava County, situated in the historical region of Bukovina, north-eastern Romania, and at the crossroads of Central and Eastern Europe. During the late Middle Ages, from 1388 to 1564, the city was the capital of the Principality of Moldavia.

Roman, Romania Municipality in Neamț, Romania

Roman is a city located in the central part of Western Moldavia, a traditional region of Romania. It is located 46 km east of Piatra Neamț, in Neamț County at the confluence of the Siret and Moldova rivers.

Rădăuți Municipality in Suceava, Romania

Rădăuți is a city in Suceava County, north-eastern Romania. It is situated in the historical region of Bukovina. Rădăuți is the third largest urban settlement in the county, with a population of 23,822 inhabitants, according to the 2011 census. It was declared a municipality in 1995, along with two other cities in Suceava County: Fălticeni and Câmpulung Moldovenesc. Rădăuți covers an area of 32.30 km2 (12.47 sq mi) and it was the capital of former Rădăuți County.

Lațcu was Voivode of Moldavia from c. 1367 to c. 1375. He converted to the Roman Catholic faith and attempted to strengthen his realm's autonomy by establishing a Roman Catholic diocese directly subordinated to the Holy See. However, he seems to have accepted the suzerainty of King Louis I of Hungary and Poland in his last years.

Costea was a Moldavian grand boyar possibly briefly a Voivode of Moldavia mentioned in a document from 1407 in line of rulers between Laţcu and Petru. Initially it has been thought that he ruled between 1373 and 1374.

Baia Commune in Suceava, Romania

Baia is a commune in the Suceava County, Western Moldavia, Romania with a population of 6,793. It is composed of two villages, Baia, and Bogata. Located on the Moldova River, it was one of the earliest urban settlements in Moldavia.

Bukovina Germans German ethnic group

The Bukovina Germans are a German ethnic group which settled in Bukovina, a historical region situated at the crossroads of Central and Eastern Europe. Their main demographic presence lasted from the last quarter of the 18th century, when Bukovina was annexed by the Habsburg Empire, until 1940, when nearly all Bukovina Germans were resettled into the Third Reich as a part of Heim ins Reich national socialist population transfer policy.

Eastern Orthodoxy in Moldova

The Eastern Orthodox Church in Moldova is organized by the Metropolis of Chișinău and All Moldova, commonly referred to as the Moldovan Orthodox Church, a self-governing church body under the Russian Orthodox Church, and by the Metropolis of Bessarabia, also referred to as the Bessarabian Orthodox Church, a self-governing church body under the Romanian Orthodox Church. According to a 2011 Gallup survey on religion, among the Eastern Orthodox of Moldova, 86% belonged to the Moldovan Orthodox Church, while 13% belonged to the Bessarabian Orthodox Church.

The founding of Moldavia began with the arrival of a Vlach (Romanian) voivode, Dragoș, soon followed by his people from Maramureș to the region of the Moldova River. Dragoș established a polity there as a vassal to the Kingdom of Hungary in the 1350s. The independence of the Principality of Moldavia was gained when Bogdan I, another Vlach voivode from Maramureș who had fallen out with the Hungarian king, crossed the Carpathians in 1359 and took control of Moldavia, wresting the region from Hungary. It remained a principality until 1859, when it united with Wallachia, initiating the development of the modern Romanian state.

Poles in Moldova

The history of Poles in Moldova has to be examined through the longstanding border along the Dniester river which separates Bessarabia from Transnistria in Moldova. While the regions on both sides of the river were socially and culturally interconnected, the distinct political destinies of both territories resulted in different settlement patterns. The majority of Moldova is in Bessarabia, which lies east of the Dniester and was part of Moldavia. Today's Transnistria, the region west of that river, was part of Podolia in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and later the Russian Empire.

Petru II of Moldavia

Petru (Peter) Mușat (d. 1391) was Voivode (prince) of Moldavia from 1375 to 1391, the son of an unknown son of Bogdan I, the first ruler from the dynastic House of Bogdan, succeeding Lațcu, Bogdan's son and successor who converted to Catholicism. According to one significant hypothesis, he may have been the first voivode of Moldavia under this regnal name, and should be referred as Petru I of Moldavia. After 2000, Romanian historian Constantin Rezachevici proposed a novel timeline of Moldavian rulers, according to which Petru Mușat would be referred as Petru II.

Western Moldavia Historical region of Romania

Moldavia, also called Western Moldavia or Romanian Moldavia, is the historic and geographical part of the former Principality of Moldavia situated in eastern and north-eastern Romania. Until its union with Wallachia in 1859, the Principality of Moldavia also included, at various times in its history, the regions of Bessarabia, all of Bukovina, and Hertza; the larger part of the former is nowadays the independent state of Moldova, while the rest of it, the northern part of Bukovina, and Hertza form territories of Ukraine.

Rădăuți County County in Romania

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Siret was one of the more stable Latin bishoprics founded in medieval Moldavia.

Pokuttia-Bukovina dialect

The Pokuttia-Bukovina dialect is a dialect of the Ukrainian language that originated in Pokuttia and Bukovina under the influence of the Romanian language. Along with Hutsul, Upper Prutian and Upper Sannian dialects, it is part of the archaic Galician-Bukovinian group of dialects. The dialect is locally spoken in some regions in Western Ukraine south of the Dniester and east of the Carpathian Mountains.

References

  1. "Results of the 2020 local elections". Central Electoral Bureau. Retrieved 9 June 2021.
  2. "Populaţia stabilă pe judeţe, municipii, oraşe şi localităti componenete la RPL_2011" (in Romanian). National Institute of Statistics. Retrieved 4 February 2014.
  3. "Rezultatele finale ale alegerilor locale din 2020" (Json) (in Romanian). Autoritatea Electorală Permanentă. Retrieved 2020-11-02.
  4. Shmuel Spector, Geoffrey Wigoder (eds.), The Encyclopedia of Jewish Life Before and During the Holocaust: Seredina-Buda-Z, p. 1186-87. NYU Press, 2001, ISBN   978-081-4793-78-7
  5. "Populaţia României pe localitati la 1 ianuarie 2016" (in Romanian). INSSE. 6 June 2016. Retrieved 27 October 2017.
  6. Match, Richard (July 20, 1947). "Trouble in Sereth". Review of Seedtime by Leo Katz. The New York Times. Retrieved July 20, 2019.
  7. "Douzelage.org: Home". www.douzelage.org. Archived from the original on February 17, 2010. Retrieved October 21, 2009.
  8. "Douzelage.org: Member Towns". www.douzelage.org. Archived from the original on April 6, 2009. Retrieved October 21, 2009.
  9. "Partnerstwo Samorządów Siłą Europy". Europa Miast (in Polish). Retrieved 2013-08-13.