"Six flags over Texas" is the slogan used to describe the six nations that have had sovereignty over some or all of the current territory of the U.S. state of Texas: Spain (1519–1685; 1690–1821), France (1685–1690), Mexico (1821–1836), the Republic of Texas (1836–1845), the Confederate States of America (1861–1865), and the United States of America (1845–1861; 1865–present).
A slogan is a memorable motto or phrase used in a clan, political, commercial, religious, and other context as a repetitive expression of an idea or purpose, with the goal of persuading members of the public or a more defined target group. The Oxford Dictionary of English defines a slogan as "a short and striking or memorable phrase used in advertising." A slogan usually has the attributes of being memorable, very concise and appealing to the audience.
In the United States, a state is a constituent political entity, of which there are currently 50. Bound together in a political union, each state holds governmental jurisdiction over a separate and defined geographic territory and shares its sovereignty with the federal government. Due to this shared sovereignty, Americans are citizens both of the federal republic and of the state in which they reside. State citizenship and residency are flexible, and no government approval is required to move between states, except for persons restricted by certain types of court orders. Four states use the term commonwealth rather than state in their full official names.
Texas is the second largest state in the United States by both area and population. Geographically located in the South Central region of the country, Texas shares borders with the U.S. states of Louisiana to the east, Arkansas to the northeast, Oklahoma to the north, New Mexico to the west, and the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Coahuila, Nuevo León, and Tamaulipas to the southwest, while the Gulf of Mexico is to the southeast.
This slogan has been incorporated into shopping malls, theme parks (Six Flags), and other enterprises. In Austin, the six flags fly in front of the Bullock Texas State History Museum; the Texas State Capitol has the six coats of arms on its northern facade, and the University of Texas at Austin Life Sciences Library, previously the location of the central library in the Main Building, has each coat of arms displayed in plaster emblems with short excerpts representative of the constitutions of each country. The six flags are also shown on the reverse of the Seal of Texas.
Six Flags Entertainment Corporation, usually referred to as simply Six Flags, is an amusement park corporation based in the United States, with properties in the US, Canada, and Mexico. It is the largest amusement park company in the world, based on the number of properties owned, and is ranked seventh in terms of attendance. The company maintains twenty five properties throughout North America including theme parks, amusement parks, water parks, and family entertainment centers. In 2017, Six Flags properties hosted 30.4 million guests.
The Bullock Texas State History Museum, is a history museum in Austin, Texas. The museum is owned by the Texas State Preservation Board. Its stated mission is to tell "the Story of Texas."
The Texas State Capitol is the capitol building and seat of government of the American state of Texas. Located in downtown Austin, Texas, the structure houses the offices and chambers of the Texas Legislature and of the Governor of Texas. Designed in 1881 by architect Elijah E. Myers, it was constructed from 1882 to 1888 under the direction of civil engineer Reuben Lindsay Walker. A $75 million underground extension was completed in 1993. The building was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1970 and recognized as a National Historic Landmark in 1986.
In 1997 the Texas Historical Commission adopted standard designs for representing the six flags.
The Texas Historical Commission is an agency dedicated to historic preservation within the state of Texas. It administers the National Register of Historic Places for sites in Texas.
The first flag belonged to Spain, which ruled most of Texas from 1519 to 1685 and 1690 to 1821. There were three Spanish flags used during this period: the "castle and lion" arms of the Crown of Castile (see Flag of Castile and León); the Cross of Burgundy, a military and maritime flag also used by the viceroys of New Spain; and the Rojigualda introduced by King Charles III in 1785, containing horizontal stripes of red-gold-red and the simple arms of Castile and León. This third flag has been used by Spain in various forms to the present day, and is the flag used in the reverse of the Seal of Texas and adopted by the Texas State Historical Commission.
A flag is a piece of fabric with a distinctive design and colours. It is used as a symbol, a signalling device, or for decoration. The term flag is also used to refer to the graphic design employed, and flags have evolved into a general tool for rudimentary signalling and identification, especially in environments where communication is challenging. The study of flags is known as "vexillology" from the Latin vexillum, meaning "flag" or "banner".
Spain, officially the Kingdom of Spain, is a country mostly located in Europe. Its continental European territory is situated on the Iberian Peninsula. Its territory also includes two archipelagoes: the Canary Islands off the coast of Africa, and the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea. The African enclaves of Ceuta, Melilla, and Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera make Spain the only European country to have a physical border with an African country (Morocco). Several small islands in the Alboran Sea are also part of Spanish territory. The country's mainland is bordered to the south and east by the Mediterranean Sea except for a small land boundary with Gibraltar; to the north and northeast by France, Andorra, and the Bay of Biscay; and to the west and northwest by Portugal and the Atlantic Ocean.
The flag of Spain, as it is defined in the Spanish Constitution of 1978, consists of three horizontal stripes: red, yellow and red, the yellow stripe being twice the size of each red stripe. Traditionally, the middle stripe was defined by the more archaic term of gualda, and hence the popular name rojigualda (red-weld).
The second flag was the royal banner of the Kingdom of France from 1684 to 1690. In 1684, French nobleman René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle, founded a colony on the Texas Gulf Coast called Fort Saint Louis. The colony was unsuccessful, and after La Salle's murder, was soon abandoned. During this time, there was no official French flag, so a number of designs are used in displays of the "six flags".
The Kingdom of France was a medieval and early modern monarchy in Western Europe. It was one of the most powerful states in Europe and a great power since the Late Middle Ages and the Hundred Years' War. It was also an early colonial power, with possessions around the world.
René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle was a 17th century French explorer and fur trader in North America. He explored the Great Lakes region of the United States and Canada, the Mississippi River, and the Gulf of Mexico. He is best known for an early 1682 expedition in which he canoed the lower Mississippi River from the mouth of the Illinois River to the Gulf of Mexico and claimed the entire Mississippi River basin for France.
The Gulf Coast of the United States is the coastline along the Southern United States where they meet the Gulf of Mexico. The coastal states that have a shoreline on the Gulf of Mexico are Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, and Florida, and these are known as the Gulf States.
Later on in 1800, Spain ceded Louisiana to France under the Third Treaty of San Ildefonso. French Louisiana included northern sections of Texas. It remained in the hands of France until 1803, when France sold the Louisiana Territory to the United States. However, what would later be northern Texas was sold back to Spain years later.
The Third Treaty of San Ildefonso was a secret agreement signed on 1 October 1800 between the Spanish Empire and the First French Republic by which Spain agreed in principle to exchange their North American colony of Louisiana for territories in Tuscany. The terms were later confirmed by the March 1801 Treaty of Aranjuez.
The third flag flown (1821 through 1836) was the flag of Mexico. Mexico's independence was recognized by Spain in 1821. The Mexican flag displayed in the Austin Capitol is the one of the Mexican Republic of 1823 through 1864.
This flag was in use in Texas until its independence from Mexico in 1836 (Texas' declaration of independence).
The fourth flag belonged to the Republic of Texas from 1836 to 1845. The Republic had two national flags during its history, the first being the so-called "Burnet Flag". The "Lone Star Flag", the final national flag, became the state flag when Texas joined the United States as a U.S. state in 1845.
The fifth and current flag is that of the United States of America, which Texas joined in 1845. Upon secession Texas abandoned this flag for its sixth, until readmission to the Union in 1865.
The sixth flag belonged to the Confederate States of America from 1861 to 1865. During this time, the Confederacy had three national flags.
The Republic of Texas was a sovereign state in North America that existed from March 2, 1836, to February 19, 1846. It was bordered by Mexico to the west and southwest, the Gulf of Mexico to the southeast, the two U.S. states of Louisiana and Arkansas to the east and northeast, and United States territories encompassing parts of the current U.S. states of Oklahoma, Kansas, Colorado, Wyoming, and New Mexico to the north and west. The citizens of the republic were known as Texians.
Tejanos are the Hispanic residents of the state of Texas who are culturally descended from the original Spanish-speaking settlers of Tejas, Coahuila, and other northern Mexican states. They may be variously of Criollo Spaniard or Mestizo origin. Alongside Californios and Neomexicanos, Tejanos are part of the larger Chicano/Mexican-American/Hispano community of the United States, which have lived in the American Southwest since the 16th century.
The Bonnie Blue Flag was an unofficial banner of the Confederate States of America at the start of the American Civil War in 1861. It now often serves as a representative banner of the southeastern United States in general. It consists of a single, five-pointed white star on a blue field. It closely resembles the flags of the short-lived Republic of West Florida of 1810, Congo under Belgian rule, and Somalia.
The Territory of Louisiana or Louisiana Territory was an organized incorporated territory of the United States that existed from July 4, 1805, until June 4, 1812, when it was renamed the Missouri Territory.
The flag of Texas is the official flag of the U.S. state of Texas. It is well known for its prominent single white star which gives the flag its commonly-used name: "Lone Star Flag". This lone star, in turn, gives rise to the state's nickname: "The Lone Star State." The flag, flown at homes and businesses statewide, is highly popular among Texans and is treated with a great degree of reverence and esteem within Texas.
The Territory of New Mexico was an organized incorporated territory of the United States that existed from September 9, 1850, until January 6, 1912, when the remaining extent of the territory was admitted to the Union as the State of New Mexico, making it the longest-lived organized incorporated territory of the United States, lasting approximately 62 years.
The Territory of Wyoming was an organized incorporated territory of the United States that existed from July 25, 1868, until July 10, 1890, when it was admitted to the Union as the State of Wyoming. Cheyenne was the territorial capital. The boundaries of the Wyoming Territory were identical to the modern State of Wyoming.
The flag of Florida consists of a red saltire on a white background, with the state seal superimposed on the center. The design was approved by popular referendum November 6, 1900. The flag's current design has been in use since May 21, 1985, after the state seal was graphically altered and officially sanctioned for use by state officials.
Thomas Jefferson Rusk was an early political and military leader of the Republic of Texas, serving as its first Secretary of War as well as a general at the Battle of San Jacinto. He was later a US politician and served as a Senator from Texas from 1846 until his suicide. He served as the President pro tempore of the United States Senate in 1857.
The President of the Republic of Texas was the head of state and head of government while Texas was an independent republic between 1836 and 1845.
The Seal of the State of Texas was adopted through the 1845 Texas Constitution, and was based on the seal of the Republic of Texas, which dates from January 25, 1839.
The Seal of the City of Los Angeles is, since 1905, the official seal of the City of Los Angeles, a city located in the southern portion of the U.S. state of California.
The Texian Army, also known as the Army of Texas and the Army of the People, was a military organization consisting of volunteer and regular soldiers who fought against the Mexican army during the Texas Revolution. Approximately 3,700 men joined the army between October 2, 1835, during the Battle of Gonzales through the end of the war on April 21, 1836, at the Battle of San Jacinto. After gaining independence the Texian Army would be officially known as the Army of the Republic of Texas. In 1846, after the annexation of Texas by the United States, the Army of the Republic of Texas merged with the US Army. Sam Houston became the new commander in chief of the new Texas army.
Charles Bellinger Tate Stewart was an American-born pharmacist, doctor, and political leader in the Republic of Texas. He was born in Charleston, South Carolina, but moved to Texas in 1830. Stewart was a delegate from the Municipality of Austin to the Convention of 1836 where he signed the Texas Declaration of Independence from Mexico. He was a member of the committee that drafted the Constitution of the Republic of Texas. On March 8, 1836, two days after The Alamo fell, Stewart absented himself from the Convention for a few days to get married. On March 11, 1836, he married Julia Shepperd in the Lake Creek Settlement. Stewart returned to the Convention on March 16, 1836 and signed the Constitution of the Republic of Texas on March 17, 1836. He moved to Montgomery, Texas in 1837 and later attended the state constitutional convention of 1845. He represented Montgomery County in the Texas House of Representatives.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Texas:
The following chronology traces the territorial evolution of the U.S. State of Colorado.
The following timeline traces the territorial evolution of the U.S. State of New Mexico.
The following outline traces the territorial evolution of the U.S. State of Wyoming.
Texas is one of eighteen states that have adopted an official coat of arms. The current coat of arms developed from the original coat of arms used by the Republic of Texas before its annexation into the United States.