Six flags over Texas

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Six coats of arms displayed under the Texas State Capitol Dome Six Flags over Texas Emblems under State Capitol Dome.jpg
Six coats of arms displayed under the Texas State Capitol Dome

"Six flags over Texas" is the slogan used to describe the six nations that have had sovereignty over some or all of the current territory of the U.S. state of Texas: Spain (1519–1685; 1690–1821), France (1685–1690), Mexico (1821–1836), the Republic of Texas (1836–1845), the Confederate States of America (1861–1865), and the United States of America (1845–1861; 1865–present). [1]

Slogan motto or phrase used in advertising or other purposes

A slogan is a memorable motto or phrase used in a clan, political, commercial, religious, and other context as a repetitive expression of an idea or purpose, with the goal of persuading members of the public or a more defined target group. The Oxford Dictionary of English defines a slogan as "a short and striking or memorable phrase used in advertising." A slogan usually has the attributes of being memorable, very concise and appealing to the audience.

U.S. state constituent political entity of the United States

In the United States, a state is a constituent political entity, of which there are currently 50. Bound together in a political union, each state holds governmental jurisdiction over a separate and defined geographic territory and shares its sovereignty with the federal government. Due to this shared sovereignty, Americans are citizens both of the federal republic and of the state in which they reside. State citizenship and residency are flexible, and no government approval is required to move between states, except for persons restricted by certain types of court orders. Four states use the term commonwealth rather than state in their full official names.

Texas State of the United States of America

Texas is the second largest state in the United States by both area and population. Geographically located in the South Central region of the country, Texas shares borders with the U.S. states of Louisiana to the east, Arkansas to the northeast, Oklahoma to the north, New Mexico to the west, and the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Coahuila, Nuevo León, and Tamaulipas to the southwest, while the Gulf of Mexico is to the southeast.

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This slogan has been incorporated into shopping malls, theme parks (Six Flags), and other enterprises. In Austin, the six flags fly in front of the Bullock Texas State History Museum; the Texas State Capitol has the six coats of arms on its northern facade, and the University of Texas at Austin Life Sciences Library, previously the location of the central library in the Main Building, has each coat of arms displayed in plaster emblems with short excerpts representative of the constitutions of each country. The six flags are also shown on the reverse of the Seal of Texas.

Six Flags Entertainment company based in Grand Prairie, Texas

Six Flags Entertainment Corporation, usually referred to as simply Six Flags, is an amusement park corporation based in the United States, with properties in the US, Canada, and Mexico. It is the largest amusement park company in the world, based on the number of properties owned, and is ranked seventh in terms of attendance. The company maintains twenty five properties throughout North America including theme parks, amusement parks, water parks, and family entertainment centers. In 2017, Six Flags properties hosted 30.4 million guests.

Bullock Texas State History Museum Austin, Texas

The Bullock Texas State History Museum, is a history museum in Austin, Texas. The museum is owned by the Texas State Preservation Board. Its stated mission is to tell "the Story of Texas."

Texas State Capitol Seat of government of Texas

The Texas State Capitol is the capitol building and seat of government of the American state of Texas. Located in downtown Austin, Texas, the structure houses the offices and chambers of the Texas Legislature and of the Governor of Texas. Designed in 1881 by architect Elijah E. Myers, it was constructed from 1882 to 1888 under the direction of civil engineer Reuben Lindsay Walker. A $75 million underground extension was completed in 1993. The building was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1970 and recognized as a National Historic Landmark in 1986.

In 1997 the Texas Historical Commission adopted standard designs for representing the six flags. [2]

Texas Historical Commission agency of the State of Texas, United States

The Texas Historical Commission is an agency dedicated to historic preservation within the state of Texas. It administers the National Register of Historic Places for sites in Texas.

Spain (1519 to 1685; 1690 to 1821)

Royal Banner of the Crown of Castille (Habsbourg Style).svg
Flag of Cross of Burgundy.svg
Flag of Spain (1785-1873 and 1875-1931).svg

The first flag belonged to Spain, which ruled most of Texas from 1519 to 1685 and 1690 to 1821. There were three Spanish flags used during this period: the "castle and lion" arms of the Crown of Castile (see Flag of Castile and León); the Cross of Burgundy, a military and maritime flag also used by the viceroys of New Spain; and the Rojigualda introduced by King Charles III in 1785, containing horizontal stripes of red-gold-red and the simple arms of Castile and León. This third flag has been used by Spain in various forms to the present day, and is the flag used in the reverse of the Seal of Texas and adopted by the Texas State Historical Commission. [3] [4]

Flag piece of fabric with a distinctive design

A flag is a piece of fabric with a distinctive design and colours. It is used as a symbol, a signalling device, or for decoration. The term flag is also used to refer to the graphic design employed, and flags have evolved into a general tool for rudimentary signalling and identification, especially in environments where communication is challenging. The study of flags is known as "vexillology" from the Latin vexillum, meaning "flag" or "banner".

Spain Kingdom in Southwest Europe

Spain, officially the Kingdom of Spain, is a country mostly located in Europe. Its continental European territory is situated on the Iberian Peninsula. Its territory also includes two archipelagoes: the Canary Islands off the coast of Africa, and the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea. The African enclaves of Ceuta, Melilla, and Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera make Spain the only European country to have a physical border with an African country (Morocco). Several small islands in the Alboran Sea are also part of Spanish territory. The country's mainland is bordered to the south and east by the Mediterranean Sea except for a small land boundary with Gibraltar; to the north and northeast by France, Andorra, and the Bay of Biscay; and to the west and northwest by Portugal and the Atlantic Ocean.

Flag of Spain flag

The flag of Spain, as it is defined in the Spanish Constitution of 1978, consists of three horizontal stripes: red, yellow and red, the yellow stripe being twice the size of each red stripe. Traditionally, the middle stripe was defined by the more archaic term of gualda, and hence the popular name rojigualda (red-weld).

France (1684 to 1690 for Fort Saint Louis and 1800 to 1803 as French Louisiana)

Pavillon royal de France.svg

The second flag was the royal banner of the Kingdom of France from 1684 to 1690. In 1684, French nobleman René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle, founded a colony on the Texas Gulf Coast called Fort Saint Louis. The colony was unsuccessful, and after La Salle's murder, was soon abandoned. During this time, there was no official French flag, so a number of designs are used in displays of the "six flags". [3] [4]

Kingdom of France kingdom in Western Europe from 843 to 1791

The Kingdom of France was a medieval and early modern monarchy in Western Europe. It was one of the most powerful states in Europe and a great power since the Late Middle Ages and the Hundred Years' War. It was also an early colonial power, with possessions around the world.

René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle French explorer

René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle was a 17th century French explorer and fur trader in North America. He explored the Great Lakes region of the United States and Canada, the Mississippi River, and the Gulf of Mexico. He is best known for an early 1682 expedition in which he canoed the lower Mississippi River from the mouth of the Illinois River to the Gulf of Mexico and claimed the entire Mississippi River basin for France.

Gulf Coast of the United States Coastline in the United States

The Gulf Coast of the United States is the coastline along the Southern United States where they meet the Gulf of Mexico. The coastal states that have a shoreline on the Gulf of Mexico are Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, and Florida, and these are known as the Gulf States.

Later on in 1800, Spain ceded Louisiana to France under the Third Treaty of San Ildefonso. French Louisiana included northern sections of Texas. It remained in the hands of France until 1803, when France sold the Louisiana Territory to the United States. However, what would later be northern Texas was sold back to Spain years later.

Third Treaty of San Ildefonso treaty between France and Spain involving the colonial territory of Louisiana

The Third Treaty of San Ildefonso was a secret agreement signed on 1 October 1800 between the Spanish Empire and the First French Republic by which Spain agreed in principle to exchange their North American colony of Louisiana for territories in Tuscany. The terms were later confirmed by the March 1801 Treaty of Aranjuez.

Mexico (1821 to 1835)

Flag of Mexico (1823-1864, 1867-1893).svg

The third flag flown (1821 through 1836) was the flag of Mexico. Mexico's independence was recognized by Spain in 1821. The Mexican flag displayed in the Austin Capitol is the one of the Mexican Republic of 1823 through 1864.

This flag was in use in Texas until its independence from Mexico in 1836 (Texas' declaration of independence). [3]

Republic of Texas (1836 to 1845 as the Republic of Texas; since 1845 as the State of Texas)

Flag of Texas.svg

The fourth flag belonged to the Republic of Texas from 1836 to 1845. The Republic had two national flags during its history, the first being the so-called "Burnet Flag". The "Lone Star Flag", the final national flag, became the state flag when Texas joined the United States as a U.S. state in 1845. [4]

United States of America (1845 to 1861; 1865 to present)

Flag of the United States (1846-1847).svg

The fifth and current flag is that of the United States of America, which Texas joined in 1845. Upon secession Texas abandoned this flag for its sixth, until readmission to the Union in 1865. [4]

Confederate States of America (1861 to 1865)

CSA FLAG 4.3.1861-21.5.1861.svg

The sixth flag belonged to the Confederate States of America from 1861 to 1865. During this time, the Confederacy had three national flags. [3] [4]

See also

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References

  1. "Six Flags of Texas". Texas State Library and Archives Commission. Retrieved September 29, 2013.
  2. Texas Historical Commission (June 20, 1997). "Recommended Historic Designs: The "Six Flags Over Texas"". Texas Register. Texas Secretary of State. 22: 5959–67.
  3. 1 2 3 4 Texas State Library – Six Flags of Texas
  4. 1 2 3 4 5 The Six National Flags of Texas