Grímr Kveldúlfsson (usually called Skalla-Grímr, or "bald Grim") was a Norwegian who lived in the ninth and tenth centuries. He is an important character in Egils saga and is mentioned in the Landnámabók .
Norway, officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a Nordic country in Northwestern Europe whose territory comprises the western and northernmost portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula; the remote island of Jan Mayen and the archipelago of Svalbard are also part of the Kingdom of Norway. The Antarctic Peter I Island and the sub-Antarctic Bouvet Island are dependent territories and thus not considered part of the kingdom. Norway also lays claim to a section of Antarctica known as Queen Maud Land.
Landnámabók, often shortened to Landnáma, is a medieval Icelandic written work which describes in considerable detail the settlement (landnám) of Iceland by the Norse in the 9th and 10th centuries CE.
Skalla-Grímr was the son of Kveldúlfr Bjálfason and Salbjörg Káradóttir. He had one brother, Þorolfr, and was related to Ketil Trout on his mother's side.He was married to Bera Yngvarsdóttir and had two sons, Þorolfr and Egill, and two daughters, Sæunn and Þórunn. His ancestor, Hallbjorn, was Norwegian-Sami.
Ulf Bjalfason was a renowned hersir and landowner in ninth century Sogn, Norway. He is a main character in the early chapters of Egils saga and appears in the Landnámabók and other Icelandic sources. Kveldulf is described as an ulfhéðinn, a shape-shifter (hamrammr), or a berserker.
Salbjorg Karadottir was a Norwegian woman of the late ninth century. She was the daughter of Berle-Kari and sister of Eyvind Lambi and Olvir Hnufa. Salbjorg married Kveldulf Bjalfasson and had two children, Thorolf Kveldulfsson and Skallagrim Kveldulfsson, with him.
Thorolf Kveldulfsson was the oldest son of Kveldulf Bjalfasson and brother of the Norwegian/Icelandic goði and skald Skalla-Grimr. His ancestor Hallbjorn was nicknamed "halftroll", possibly indicating Norwegian-Sami ancestry.
Skalla-Grímr's brother Þorolfr was a member of King Haraldr Fairhair's retinue, although Kveldúlfr refused to swear allegiance to the king.When Haraldr had Þorolfr killed, Skalla-Grímr and Kveldulfr attacked a ship of King Haraldr's, and killed all but two of those on the ship, including two of the King's cousins.
Harald Fairhair is portrayed by medieval Icelandic historians as the first King of Norway. According to traditions current in Norway and Iceland in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, he reigned from c. 872 to 930. Supposedly, two of his sons, Eric Bloodaxe and Haakon the Good, succeeded Harald to become kings after his death.
Following these killings, Skalla-Grímr and Kveldúlfr set out for Iceland. Kveldúlfr fell sick and died early in the voyage. Before he died, he commanded his son to put his casket in the ocean, and to settle wherever he found the casket. Skalla-Grímr did as his father directed, and when he arrived in Iceland, he discovered the casket had come ashore in the Mýrar district, near Borg.Skalla-Grímr built his house at Borg, and settled the entire region.
Iceland is a Nordic island country in the North Atlantic, with a population of 348,580 and an area of 103,000 km2 (40,000 sq mi), making it the most sparsely populated country in Europe. The capital and largest city is Reykjavík, with Reykjavík and the surrounding areas in the southwest of the country being home to over two-thirds of the population. Iceland is volcanically and geologically active. The interior consists of a plateau characterised by sand and lava fields, mountains, and glaciers, and many glacial rivers flow to the sea through the lowlands. Iceland is warmed by the Gulf Stream and has a temperate climate, despite a high latitude just outside the Arctic Circle. Its high latitude and marine influence keep summers chilly, with most of the archipelago having a tundra climate.
Mýrasýsla or Mýrar is a county in Iceland, located in the Western Region of the country. Settlements include Borgarnes with a population of around 1,800 — Hvanneyri and Bifröst with around 250 inhabitants each, and Kleppjárnsreykir with around 50 inhabitants.
Borg á Mýrum is a farm and church estate due west of Borgarnes township in Iceland. Its recorded history reaches back to the settlement of Iceland. One of the country's original settlers was Skallagrímur Kveldúlfsson, who claimed the area around Borg as his land, built a farm and made his home there. His son Egill Skallagrímsson then continued to live and farm at Borg á Mýrum.
Skalla-Grímr lived to an old age and died at Borg.
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Skalla-Grímr was a prolific poet, and composed this stanza:
Nú's hersis hefnd
við hilmi efnd;
gengr ulfr ok örn
of ynglings börn.
Flugu höggvin hræ
Hallvarðs á sæ.
Grár slítr undir
ari Snarfara. 
Now the nobleman (Kveldúlfr) has exacted revenge upon the king (Harald Fairhair);
now wolf and eagle tread on the king's children.
The hewn corpses of Hallvarðr (Hallvarðr Harðfari and his people, that is the enemies) flew into the sea;
the grey eagle tears the wounds of Snarfari (Sigtryggr Snarfari was the brother of Hallvarðr Harðfari).
- Cite error: The named reference
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According to the late scholar Bjarni Einarsson this poem, by using end rhyme, "if authentic" is a unique phenomenon in late ninth-century Old Norse poetry.
Egil's Saga or Egill's saga is an Icelandic saga on the lives of the clan of Egill Skallagrímsson, an Icelandic farmer, viking and skald. The saga spans the years c. 850–1000 and traces the family history from Egil's grandfather to his offspring.
A mansǫngr is a form of Icelandic poetry. In scholarly usage it has often been applied to medieval skaldic love-poetry; and it is used of lyric openings to rímur throughout the Icelandic literary tradition.
The blood eagle is a ritualized method of execution, detailed in late skaldic poetry. According to the two instances mentioned in the Sagas, the victims were placed in a prone position, their ribs severed from the spine with a sharp tool, and their lungs pulled through the opening to create a pair of "wings". There is continuing debate about whether the ritual was a literary invention, a mistranslation of the original texts, or an authentic historical practice.
Egill Skallagrímsson was a Viking-Age poet, warrior and farmer. He is known mainly as the protagonist of Egil's Saga. Egil's Saga historically narrates a period from approximately 850 to 1000 CE and is believed to have been written between 1220 and 1240 CE.
The Færeyinga Saga, the saga of the Faroe Islands, is the story of how the Faroe Islanders were converted to Christianity and became a part of Norway.
Tora Magnusdatter was a daughter of King Magnus III of Norway.
Jón korpur Hrafnsson son of Þuríður Sturludóttir and Hrafn Oddsson. His mother, Þuríður, was a direct descendant of Þóra Magnúsdóttir daughter of Magnus III of Norway a direct descendant of Harald Fairhair founder of the Fairhair dynasty the first royal dynasty of the united Norway, and a branch of the Ynglings. His father, Hrafn, on the other hand was a direct descendant of Skalla-Grímr father of skald and Viking Egill Skallagrímsson. With the birth of Jón korpur Hrafnsson the warring clans of the Fairhair dynasty and Skalla-Grímr were genetically united in Iceland.
Höfuðlausn or the "Head's Ransom" is a skaldic poem attributed to Egill Skalla-Grímsson in praise of king Eirik Bloodaxe.
Sonatorrek is a skaldic poem in 25 stanzas by Egill Skallagrímsson. The work laments the death of two of the poet's sons, Gunnar, who died of a fever, and Böðvarr, who drowned during a storm. It is preserved in a few manuscripts of Egils saga Skalla-Grímssonar, ch. 78. According to the saga, after Egill placed Böðvarr in the family burial mound, he locked himself in his bed-chamber, determined to starve himself to death. Egill’s daughter Thorgerd diverted him from this plan in part by convincing him to compose a memorial poem for Böðvarr, to be carved on a rune-staff.
Guthormr Sindri is a 10th-century Norwegian skald. He was a court-poet of king Haraldr Fairhair (hárfagri) and his sons, Hálfdan the Black (svarti) and Hákon the Good (góði), for whom he composed the Hákonardrápa.
Ketil Thorkelsson, better known by his nickname Ketil Trout or Ketil Salmon was a Norwegian hersir of the late ninth century who settled in Iceland around 900 CE. He appears in Egils saga, the Landnámabók, and other Icelandic sources.
Hallbjorn Halftroll or Hallbjorn Ulfsson was an early ninth century Norwegian hersir. He was the father of Ketil Trout of Hrafnista. He is mentioned in the Ketils saga hœngs as well as Egils saga and the Landnámabók. He was Norwegian-Sami.
Olvir Hnufa or Ölvir hnúfa was a Norwegian hersir and skald of the late ninth and early tenth centuries, known from, among other sources, Egil's Saga, Skaldatal and the Prose Edda. Olvir was the son of the viking Berle-Kari and brother-in-law of Kveldulf Bjalfason, who married Olvir's sister Salbjorg Karadottir; he was thus uncle to Skallagrim and Thorolf Kveldulfsson and great uncle to the famous poet Egil Skallagrimsson. Olvir also had a brother named Eyvind Lambi. Olvir was a prominent member of the court of King Harald Fairhair, who united Norway under his rule in the late ninth or early tenth century. Among other famous skalds, he served as one of King Harald's court poets. He also served as a warrior in Harald's retinue, and fought at the pivotal Battle of Hafrsfjord on the king's flagship. He is best known for his involvement in the conflict between Harald and Olvir's kinsman Thorolf Kveldulfsson, which ended with the latter's death. Only a few fragments of Olvir's poetry survive.
Berle-Kari was a viking chieftain who lived in ninth-century Norway. His home was at Berle, in present-day Bremanger in Sogn og Fjordane county. Landnámabók names him as the son of Vemund, and brother of Skjoldolf, one of the early settlers of Iceland.
Eyvind Lambi or Eyvind Lamb was a Norwegian Viking and hersir of the late ninth and early tenth centuries, known from, among other sources, Egils saga. Eyvind was the son of the Viking Berle-Kari and brother-in-law of Kveldulf Bjalfason, who married Eyvind's sister Salbjorg Karadottir; he was thus uncle to Skalla-Grímr and Thorolf Kveldulfsson and great uncle to the famous poet Egill Skallagrímsson. Eyvind also had a brother named Olvir Hnufa, who became a famous skald at the court of King Harald I of Norway.
Atli the Slender was a ninth-century Norwegian jarl mentioned in several Old Norse sources, including Heimskringla and Egils saga.
Bjǫrn Ketilsson, nicknamed the Easterner, was a Norwegian Viking of the 9th century, son of Ketill 'Flatnose' Bjǫrnsson and Yngvild Ketilsdottir. He emigrated to Iceland following his father Ketill's expulsion from Norway by King Harald Fairhair and the seizure of their lands in the north of Norway.