Skolt Sami language

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Skolt Sami
nuõrttsääʹmǩiõll
PronunciationIPA:  [ɕa̟ːmc͡çjɘhlː]
Native to Finland, Russia
Ethnicity Skolts
Native speakers
320 (1995–2007) [1]
Latin
Official status
Recognised minority
language in
Finland; Norway [2]
Language codes
ISO 639-2 sms
ISO 639-3 sms
Glottolog skol1241 [3]
Sami languages large.png
Skolt Sami is 6 on this regional map of Sami languages.
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.

Skolt Sami (sääʹmǩiõll [ɕa̟ːmc͡çjɘhlː] , "the Sámi language", or nuõrttsääʹmǩiõll [nwɘrhtːɕa̟ːmc͡çjɘhlː] , "the Eastern Sámi language", if a distinction needs to be made between it and the other Sami languages) is a Uralic, Sami language that is spoken by the Skolts, with approximately 300 speakers in Finland, mainly in Sevettijärvi and approximately 20–30 speakers of the Njuõʹttjäuʹrr (Notozero) dialect [4] in an area surrounding Lake Lovozero in Russia. Skolt Sami also used to be spoken in the Neiden area of Norway. [4] It is written using a modified Roman orthography which was made official in 1973.

Contents

The term Skolt was coined by representatives of the majority culture and has negative connotation which can be compared to the term Lapp. Nevertheless, it is used in cultural and linguistic studies. [5]

Sami dialects and settlements in Russia:
Skolt (Russian Notozersky) Sami dialects and settlements in Russia map.svg
Sami dialects and settlements in Russia:
  Skolt (Russian Notozersky)

History

Road sign for A'vv, the Skolt Sami museum in Neiden, Norway A'vv sign 2.jpg
Road sign for Äʹvv, the Skolt Sami museum in Neiden, Norway

On Finnish territory Skolt Sami was spoken in four villages before the Second World War. In Petsamo, Skolt Sami was spoken in Suonikylä and the village of Petsamo. This area was ceded to Russia in the Second World War, and the Skolts were evacuated to the villages of Inari, Sevettijärvi and Nellim in the Inari municipality.

On the Russian (then Soviet) side the dialect was spoken in the now defunct Sami settlements of Motovsky, Songelsky, Notozero (hence its Russian name – the Notozersky dialect). Some speakers still may live in the villages of Tuloma and Lovozero.

On Norwegian territory Skolt Sami was spoken in the Sør-Varanger area with a cultural centre in Neiden. The language is not spoken as mother tongue any more in Norway.

Status

A quadrilingual street sign in Inari in (from top to bottom) Finnish, Northern Saami, Inari Saami, and Skolt Saami. Inari is the only municipality in Finland with 4 official languages. SAKK galba.jpg
A quadrilingual street sign in Inari in (from top to bottom) Finnish, Northern Saami, Inari Saami, and Skolt Saami. Inari is the only municipality in Finland with 4 official languages.
The village workshop in Sevettijarvi Ce'vetjaau'r tuajjportt.jpg
The village workshop in Sevettijärvi

Finland

In Finland, Skolt Sami is spoken by approximately 400 people. According to Finland's Sami Language Act (1086/2003), Skolt Sami is one of the three Sami languages that the Sami can use when conducting official business in Lapland. It is an official language in the municipality of Inari, and elementary schools there offer courses in the language, both for native speakers and for students learning it as a foreign language. Only a small number of youths learn the language and continue to use it actively.[ citation needed ] Skolt Sami is thus a seriously endangered language, even more seriously than Inari Sami, which has a nearly equal number of speakers and is even spoken in the same municipality. In addition, there are a lot of Skolts living outside of this area, particularly in the capital region.

Use

Media

From 1978 to 1986, the Skolts had a quarterly called Sääʹmođđâz published in their own language. [6] Since 2013, a new magazine called Tuõddri peeʹrel has been published once a year. [7]

The Finnish news program Yle Ođđasat featured a Skolt Sami speaking newsreader for the first time on August 26, 2016. Otherwise Yle Ođđasat presents individual news stories in Skolt Sami every now and then. [8] In addition, there have been various TV programs in Skolt Sámi on YLE such as the children's TV series Binnabánnaš.

Religion

The first book published in Skolt Sami was an Eastern Orthodox prayer book (Risttoummi moʹlidvaǩeʹrjj, Prayerbook for the Orthodox) in 1983. [9]

Music

Like Inari Sami, Skolt Sami has recently borne witness to a new phenomenon, namely it is being used in rock songs sung by Tiina Sanila-Aikio, who has published two full-length CDs in Skolt Sami to date.

Education

In 1993, language nest programs for children younger than 7 were created. For quite some time these programs received intermittent funding, resulting in some children being taught Skolt Sami, while others were not. In spite of all the issues these programs faced, they were crucial in creating the youngest generations of Skolt Sami speakers. In recent years, these programs have been reinstated.

In addition, 2005 was the first time that it was possible to use Skolt Sami in a Finnish matriculation exam, albeit as a foreign language. In 2012, Ville-Riiko Fofonoff (Skolt Sami : Läärvan-Oʹlssi-Peâtt-Rijggu-Vääʹsǩ-Rijggu-Ville-Reeiǥaž) was the first person to use Skolt Sami for the mother tongue portion of the exam; for this, he won the Skolt of the Year Award the same year. [10]

Writing system

Skolt Sami uses the ISO basic Latin alphabet with the addition of some special characters:

LetterPhoneme(s)
A a/ɑ/
 â/ɐ/
B b/b/
C c/t͡s/
Č č/t͡ʃ/
Ʒ ʒ/d͡z/
Ǯ ǯ/d͡ʒ/
D d/d/
Đ đ/ð/
E e/e/, /ɛ/
F f/f/
G g/ɡ/
Ǧ ǧ/ɟ͡ʝ/
Ǥ ǥ/ɣ/
H h/x/
I i/i/, /j/
J j/ʝ/
K k/k/
Ǩ ǩ/c͡ç/
L l/l/
M m/m/
N n/n/
Ŋ ŋ/ŋ/
O o/o/
Õ õ/ɘ/
P p/p/
R r/r/
S s/s/
Š š/ʃ/
T t/t/
U u/u/, /w/
V v/v/
Z z/z/
Ž ž/ʒ/
Å å/ɔ/
Ä ä/a/

Notes:

Additional marks are used in writing Skolt Sami words:

Phonology

Special features of this Sami language include a highly complex vowel system and a suprasegmental contrast of palatalized vs. non-palatalized stress groups; palatalized stress groups are indicated by a "softener mark", represented by the modifier letter prime (ʹ).

Vowels

The system of vowel phonemes is as follows:

front central back
close iu
close-mid eɘo
open-mid ɛɐɔ
open aɑ

Skolt Sami has vowel length, but it co-occurs with contrasts in length of the following consonant(s). Before a long consonant, vowels are short, while before a short consonant vowels are long (written with a doubled letter). For example, leʹtt ‘vessel’ vs. leeʹtt ‘vessels’.

The vowels can combine to form twelve opening diphthongs:

front front to central back to front back to central back
close to close-mid ieue
close to open-mid
close to open ua
close-mid to open-mid
close-mid to open ea

Like the monophtongs, all diphthongs can be short or long, but this is not indicated in spelling. Short diphthongs are distinguished from long ones by both length and stress placement: short diphthongs have a stressed second component, whereas long diphthongs have stress on the first component.

Diphthongs may also have two variants depending on whether they occur in a plain or palatalized environment. This has a clearer effect with diphthongs whose second element is back or central. Certain inflectional forms, including the addition of the palatalizing suprasegmental, also trigger a change in diphthong quality. [11]

plainpalatalized
iõʹ
ieʹ
eäʹ
uõʹ
ueʹ
uäʹ

Consonants

The inventory of consonant phonemes is the following:

Labial Dental / Alveolar Postalveolar Palatal Velar
plain sibilant sibilant
Nasal m n ɲ ŋ
Plosive /
affricate
voiceless p t t͡s t͡ʃ c͡ç k
voiced b d d͡z d͡ʒ ɟ͡ʝ ɡ
Fricative voiceless f s ʃ x
voiced v ð z ʒ ʝ ɣ
Trill r
Approximant central w j
lateral l ʎ

Consonants may be phonemically short or long (geminate) both word-medially or word-finally; both are exceedingly common. Long and short consonants also contrast in consonant clusters, cf. kuõskkâd 'to touch' : kuõskâm 'I touch'. A short period of voicelessness or h, known as preaspiration, before geminate consonants is observed, much as in Icelandic, but this is not marked orthographically, e.g. joʹǩǩe 'to the river' is pronounced [jo̟hk̟k̟e].

Suprasegmentals

There is one phonemic suprasegmental, the palatalizing suprasegmental that affects the pronunciation of an entire syllable. In written language the palatalizing suprasegmental is indicated with a free-standing acute accent between a stressed vowel and the following consonant, as follows:

vääʹrr 'mountain, hill' (suprasegmental palatalization present)
cf. väärr 'trip' (no suprasegmental palatalization)

The suprasegmental palatalization has three distinct phonetic effects:

Stress

Skolt Sami has four different types of stress for words:

The first syllable of any word is always the primary stressed syllable in Skolt Sami as Skolt is a fixed-stress language. In words with two or more syllables, the final syllable is quite lightly stressed (tertiary stress) and the remaining syllable, if any, are stressed more heavily than the final syllable, but less than the first syllable (secondary stress).

Using the abessive and the comitative singular in a word appears to disrupt this system, however, in words of more than one syllable. The suffix, as can be expected, has tertiary stress, but the penultimate syllable also has tertiary stress, even though it would be expected to have secondary stress.

Zero stress can be said to be a feature of conjunctions, postpositions, particles and monosyllabic pronouns.

Grammar

Skolt Sami is a synthetic, highly inflected language that shares many grammatical features with the other Uralic languages. However, Skolt Sami is not a typical agglutinative language like many of the other Uralic languages are, as it has developed considerably into the direction of a fusional language, much like Estonian. Therefore, cases and other grammatical features are also marked by modifications to the root and not just marked with suffixes. Many of the suffixes in Skolt Sami are portmanteau morphemes that express several grammatical features at a time.

Umlaut

Umlaut is a pervasive phenomenon in Skolt Sami, whereby the vowel in the second syllable affects the quality of the vowel in the first. The presence of absence of palatalisation can also be considered an umlaut effect, since it is also conditioned by the second-syllable vowel, although it affects the entire syllable rather than the vowel alone. Umlaut is complicated by the fact that many of the second-syllable vowels have disappeared in Skolt Sami, leaving the umlaut effects as their only trace.

The following table lists the Skolt Sami outcomes of the Proto-Samic first-syllable vowel, for each second-syllable vowel.

Proto*ā, *ō*ë, *u*i
Skoltaeâ, ue
ââʹõõʹ
*oååʹo
*iei
*uou
ääʹa
*eaeäʹ, iẹʹieʹ
*ieieʹiõʹ
*oauäʹ, uẹʹueʹ
*uoueʹuõʹ

Some notes:

As can be seen, palatalisation is present before original second-syllable and *i, and absent otherwise. Where they survive in Skolt Sami, both appear as e, so only the umlaut effect can distinguish them. The original short vowels , *u and *i have a general raising and backing effect on the preceding vowel, while the effect of original and is lowering. Original is fronting (palatalising) without having an effect on height.

Nouns

Cases

Skolt Sami has 9 cases in the singular (7 of which also have a plural form), although the genitive and accusative are often the same.

The following table shows the inflection of čuäcc ('rotten snag') with the single morphemes marking noun stem, number, and case separated by hyphens for better readability. The last morpheme marks for case, i marks the plural, and a is due to epenthesis and does not have a meaning of its own. [12]

 SingularPlural
Nominativečuäcc [t͡ʃwatt͡s]čuäʒʒ [t͡ʃwadd͡z]
Genitivečuäʒʒ [t͡ʃwahdd͡z]čuäʒʒ-a-i [t͡ʃwahdd͡zɑj]
Accusativečuäʒʒ [t͡ʃwahdd͡z]čuäʒʒ-a-i-d [t͡ʃwahdd͡zɑjd]
Illativecuåc'c-u [t͡ɕwɔ̟htʲt͡su]čuäʒʒ-a-i-d [t͡ʃwahdd͡zɑjd]
Locativečuäʒʒ-a-st [t͡ʃwahdd͡zɑst]čuäʒʒ-a-i-n [t͡ʃwahdd͡zɑjn]
Comitativečuäʒʒ-a-in [t͡ʃwahdd͡zɑjn]čuäʒʒ-a-i-vui´m [t͡ʃwahdd͡zɑjvʲɥi̟m]
Abessivečuäʒʒ-tää [t͡ʃwahdd͡ztaː]čuäʒʒ-a-i-tää [t͡ʃwahdd͡zɑjtaː]
Essivečuäcc-a-n [t͡ʃwahtt͡sɑn]
Partitivečuäcc-a-d [t͡ʃwahtt͡sɑd]
Nominative

Like the other Uralic languages, the nominative singular is unmarked and indicates the subject or a predicate. The nominative plural is also unmarked and always looks the same as the genitive singular.

Genitive

The genitive singular is unmarked and looks the same as the nominative plural. The genitive plural is marked by an -i. The genitive is used:

  • to indicate possession (Tuʹst lij muu ǩeʹrjj. 'You have my book.')
  • to indicate number, if said the number is between 2 and 6. (Sieʹzzest lij kuõʹhtt põõrt. 'My father's sister (my aunt) has two houses.')
  • with prepositions (rääi + [GEN]: 'by something', 'beyond something')
  • with most postpositions. (Sij mõʹnne ääkkäd årra. 'They went to your grandmother's (house).', 'They went to visit your grandmother.')

The genitive has been replacing the partitive for some time and is nowadays more commonly used in its place.

Accusative

The accusative is the direct object case and it is unmarked in the singular. In the plural, its marker is -d, which is preceded by the plural marker -i, making it look the same as the plural illative. The accusative is also used to mark some adjuncts, e.g. obb tääʹlv ('the entire winter').

Locative

The locative marker in the singular is -st and -n in the plural. This case is used to indicate:

  • where something is (Kuäʹđest lij ǩeʹrjj: 'There is a book in the kota.')
  • where it is coming from (Niõđ puõʹtte domoi Čeʹvetjääuʹrest: 'The girls came home from Sevettijärvi.')
  • who has possession of something (Suʹst lij čâustõk: 'He/she has a lasso.')

In addition, it is used with certain verbs:

  • to ask someone s.t. : kõõččâd [+loc]
Illative

The illative marker actually has three different markers in the singular to represent the same case: -a, -e and -u. The plural illative marker is -d, which is preceded by the plural marker -i, making it look the same as the plural accusative. This case is used to indicate:

  • where something is going
  • who is receiving something
  • the indirect object
Comitative

The comitative marker in the singular is -in and -vuiʹm in the plural. The comitative is used to state with whom or what something was done:

  • Njääʹlm sekstet leeiʹnin. The mouth is wiped with a piece of cloth.
  • Vuõʹlǧǧem paaʹrnivuiʹm ceerkvest. I left church with the children.
  • Vuõʹlǧǧem vueʹbbinan ceerkvest. I left church with my sister.

To form the comitative singular, use the genitive singular form of the word as the root and -in. To form the comitative plural, use the plural genitive root and -vuiʹm.

Abessive

The abessive marker is -tää in both the singular and the plural. It always has a tertiary stress.

  • Vuõʹlǧǧem paaʹrnitää ceerkvest. I left church without the children.
  • Sij mõʹnne niõđtää põʹrtte. They went in the house without the girl.
  • Sij mõʹnne niõđitää põʹrtte. They went in the house without the girls.
Essive

The dual form of the essive is still used with pronouns, but not with nouns and does not appear at all in the plural.

Partitive

The partitive is only used in the singular and can always be replaced by the genitive. The partitive marker is -d.

1. It appears after numbers larger than six:

  • kääuʹc čâustõkkâd: 'eight lassos'

This can be replaced with kääʹuc čâustõõǥǥ.

2. It is also used with certain postpositions:

  • kuäʹtte'd vuâstta: 'against a kota'

This can be replaced with kuäʹđ vuâstta'

3. It can be used with the comparative to express that which is being compared:

  • kåʹlled pueʹrab: 'better than gold'

This would nowadays more than likely be replaced by pueʹrab ko kåʹll

Pronouns

Personal pronouns

The personal pronouns have three numbers: singular, plural and dual. The following table contains personal pronouns in the nominative and genitive/accusative cases.

 EnglishnominativeEnglishgenitive
First person (singular)Imonmymuu
Second person (singular)you (thou)tonyour, yourstuu
Third person (singular)he, shesonhis, hersuu
First person (dual)we (two)muänaourmuännai
Second person (dual)you (two)tuänayourtuännai
Third person (dual)they (two)suänatheirssuännai
First person (plural)wemijourmij
Second person (plural)youtijyourtij
Third person (plural)theysijtheirsij

The next table demonstrates the declension of a personal pronoun he/she (no gender distinction) in various cases:

 SingularDualPlural
Nominativesonsuänasij
Genitivesuusuännaisij
Accusativesuusuännaidsiʹjjid
Illativesuʹnnesuännaidsiʹjjid
Locativesuʹstsuännastsiiʹst
Comitativesuinsuännainsiʹjjivuiʹm
Abessivesuutääsuännaitääsiʹjjitää
Essivesuuʹnensuännan
Partitivesuuʹđed

Possessive markers

Next to number and case, Skolt Sami nouns also inflect for possession. However, usage of possessive affixes seems to decrease among speakers. The following table shows possessive inflection of the word muõrr ('tree'). [13]

Possessor
1st Person Singular1st Person Plural2nd P. Sg.2nd P. Pl.3rd P. Sg.3rd P. Pl.
PossessedSingularNominativemuõrrammuõrrâmmuõrradmuõrrâdmuõrrâsmuõrrâz
Accusative/

Genitive

muõrranmuõrrânmuõradmuõrâdmuõrâsmuõrâz
Illativemuõr'rsanmuõr'rseenmuõr'rsadmuõr'rseedmuõr'rsesmuõr'rseez
Locativemuõrstanmuõrsteenmuõrstadmuõrsteedmuõrstesmuõrsteez
Comitativemuõrinanmuõrineenmuõrinadmuõrineedmuõrinesmuõrineez
Abessivemuõrrantäämuõrrântäämuõradtäämuõrâdtäämuõrâstäämuõrâztää
Essivemuõr'rnanmuõr'rneenmuõrr'rnadmuõr'rneedmuõr'rnesmuõr'rneez
PluralNominativemuõrranmuõrrânmuõradmuõrâdmuõrâsmuõrâz
Accusative/

Genitive/

Illative

muõrräänmuõreenmuõräädmuõreedmuõreesmuõreez
Locativemuõrinanmuõrineenmuõrinadmuõrineedmuõrinesmuõrineez
Comitativemuõräänvui´mmuõreenvui´mmuõräädvui´mmuõreedvui´mmuõreesvui´mmuõreezvui´m
Abessivemuõrääntäämuõreentäämuõräädtäämuõreedtäämuõreestäämuõreeztää

Verbs

Skolt Sami verbs inflect (inflection of verbs is also referred to as conjugation) for person, mood, number, and tense. A full inflection table of all person-marked forms of the verb kuullâd ('to hear') is given below. [14]

Non-pastPastPotentialConditionalImperative
1st Person Singularkuulamkuʹllemkuulžemkuulčem-
2nd P. Sg.kuulakkuʹlliǩkuulžiǩkuulčiǩkuul
3rd P. Sg.koollkuulikuulâžkuulčikoolas
1st Person Pluralkuullâpkuulimkuulžepkuulčimkuullâp
2nd P. Pl.kuullveʹtedkuulidkuulžidkuulčidkuullâd
3rd P. Pl.koʹllekuʹllekuulžekuulčekollaz
4th Personkuulâtkuʹlleškuulžetkuulčeš-

It can be seen that inflection involves changes to the verb stem as well as inflectional suffixes. Changes to the stem are based on verbs being categorized into several inflectional classes. [15] The different inflectional suffixes are based on the categories listed below.

Person

Skolt Sami verbs conjugate for four grammatical persons:

  • first person
  • second person
  • third person
  • fourth person, also called the indefinite person

Mood

Skolt Sami has 5 grammatical moods:

Number

Skolt Sami verbs conjugate for two grammatical numbers:

Unlike other Sami varieties, Skolt Sami verbs do not inflect for dual number. Instead, verbs occurring with the dual personal pronouns appear in the corresponding plural form.

Tense

Skolt Sami has 2 simple tenses:

  • past (Puõʹttem škoouʹle jåhtta. 'I came to school yesterday.')
  • non-past (Evvan puätt mu årra täʹbbe. 'John is coming to my house today.')

and 2 compound tenses:

Non-finite verb forms

The verb forms given above are person-marked, also referred to as finite. In addition to the finite forms, Skolt Sami verbs have twelve participial and converb forms, as well as the infinitive, which are non-finite. These forms are given in the table below for the verb kuullâd ('to hear'). [16]

Verb form
Infinitivekuullâd
Action Participlekuullâm
Present Participlekuulli
Past Participlekuullâm
Passive Participlekullum
Progressive Participlekuullmen
Temporal Participlekuuleen
Instrumental Participlekulleeʹl
Abessive Participlekuulkani
Negative converbkuul, kullu, kuulže, kuulče (all forms exist, they underlie idiolectal variation)

Auxiliary verbs

Skolt Sami has two auxiliary verbs, one of which is lee´d (glossed as 'to be'), the other one is the negative auxiliary verb (see the following paragraph).

Inflection of lee´d is given below. [17]

Non-pastPastPotentialConditionalImperative
1st Person Singularleämle´jjemleʹžžemleʹččem
2nd P. Sg.leäkle´jjiǩleʹžžiǩleʹččiǩleäk'ku
3rd P. Sg.lijleäileežžleʹččileäǥǥas
1st Person Pluralleä´pleeiʹmleʹžžepleʹččimleäk'kap
2nd P. Pl.leä´pedleeiʹdleʹžžveʹtedleʹččidleäk'ku
3rd P. Pl.lie, liâ (both forms exist, they underlie idiolectal variation)leʹjjeleʹžželeʹččeleäk'kaz
4th Personleätleʹjješleʹžžetleʹččeš

Lee'd is used, for example, to assign tense to lexical verbs in the conditional or potential mood which are not marked for tense themselves:

  • Jiõm âʹte mon ni kõõjjče, jos mon teâđčem, leʹččem veär raajjâm ouddâl.

(negation (1st P. Sg.) – then – 1st P. Sg. – even – ask (negated conditional) – if – 1st P. Sg. – know (1st P. Sg. conditional) – be (1st P. Sg. conditional) – soup – make (past participle, no tense marking) – before)

'I wouldn't even ask if I knew, if I had made soup before!' [18]

Negative verb

Skolt Sami, like Finnish, the other Sami languages and Estonian, has a negative verb. In Skolt Sami, the negative verb conjugates according to mood (indicative, imperative and optative), person (1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th) and number (singular and plural).

PersonIndicativeImperativeOptative
1Singularjiõm
Pluraljeäʹpjeälˈlap
2Singularjiõkjeäʹl
Pluraljeäʹpedjieʹlˈled
3Singularijjeälas
Pluraljie ~ jiâjeälˈlas
4jeäʹt

Note that ij + leat is usually written as iʹlla, iʹlleäkku, iʹllää or iʹllä and ij + leat is usually written as jeäʹla or jeäʹlä.

Unlike the other Sami languages, Skolt Sami no longer has separate forms for the dual and plural of the negative verb and uses the plural forms for both instead.

Word order

Declarative clauses

The most frequent word order in simple, declarative sentences in Skolt Sami is subject–verb–object (SVO). However, as cases are used to mark relations between different noun phrases, and verb forms mark person and number of the subject, Skolt Sami word order allows for some variation. [19]

An example of an SOV sentence would be:

  • Neezzan suâjjkååutid kuårru. (woman (Pl., Nominative) – protection (Sg., Nominative) + skirt (Pl., Accusative) – sew (3rd P. Pl., Past)) 'The women sewed protective skirts.'

Intransitive sentences follow the order subject-verb (SV):

  • Jääuʹr kâʹlmme. (lake (Pl., Nominative) – freeze (3rd P. Pl., Present)) 'The lakes freeze.'

An exception to the SOV word order can be found in sentences with an auxiliary verb. While in other languages, an OV word order has been found to correlate with the auxiliary verb coming after the lexical verb, [20] the Skolt Sami auxiliary verb lee'd ('to be') precedes the lexical verb. This has been related to the verb-second (V2) phenomenon which binds the finite verb to at most the second position of the respective clause. However, in Skolt Sami, this effect seems to be restricted to clauses with an auxiliary verb. [21]

An example of a sentence with the auxiliary in V2 position:

  • Kuuskõõzz leʹjje ääld poorrâm. (northern light (Pl., Nominative) – be (3rd P. Pl., Past) – female reindeer (Sg., Accusative) – eat (Past Participle)) 'The northern lights had eaten the female reindeer.'

Interrogative clauses

Polar questions

In Skolt Sami, polar questions, also referred to as yes-no questions, are marked in two different ways. Morphologically, an interrogative particle, -a, is added as an affix to the first word of the clause. Syntactically, the element which is in the scope of the question is moved to the beginning of the clause. If this element is the verb, subject and verb are inversed in comparison to the declarative SOV word order.

  • Vueʹlǧǧveʹted–a tuäna muu ooudâst eččan ääuʹd ool? (leave (2nd P. Pl., Present, Interrogative) – 2nd P. Dual Nominative – 1st P. Sg. Genitive – behalf – father (Sg. Genitive 1st P. Pl.) – grave (Sg. Genitive) – onto) 'Will the two of you go, on my behalf, to our father's grave?'

If an auxiliary verb is used, this is the one which is moved to the initial sentence position and also takes the interrogative affix.

  • Leäk–a ääʹvääm tõn uus? (be (2nd P. Sg., Present, Interrogative) – open (Past Participle) – that (Sg. Accusative) – door (Sg. Accusative)) 'Have you opened that door?'
  • Leäk–a ton Jefremoff? (be (2nd P. Sg., Interrogative) – 2nd P. Sg. Nominative – Jefremoff) 'Are you Mr. Jefremoff?'

A negated polar question, using the negative auxiliary verb, shows the same structure:

  • Ij–a kõskklumâs villjad puättam? (Negation 3rd P. Sg., Interrogative – middle – brother (Sg. Nominative, 2nd P. Sg.) – come (Past Participle)) 'Didn't your middle brother come?'

An example of the interrogative particle being added to something other than the verb, would be the following:

  • Võl–a lie mainnâz? (still (Interrogative) – be (3rd P. Sg., Present) – story (Pl., Nominative)) 'Are there still stories to tell?' [22]
Information questions

Information questions in Skolt Sami are formed with a question word in clause-initial position. There also is a gap in the sentence indicating the missing piece of information. This kind of structure is similar to Wh-movement in languages such as English. There are mainly three question words corresponding to the English 'what', 'who', and 'which' (out of two). They inflect for number and case, except for the latter which only has singular forms. It is noteworthy that the illative form of mii ('what') corresponds to the English 'why'. The full inflectional paradigm of all three question words can be found below. [23]

WhatWhoWhich
SingularNominativemiiǩiikuäbbaž
Accusativemâiʹdǩeänkuäbba
Genitivemõõnǩeänkuäbba
Illativemõõzz ('why')ǩeäzzkuäbbže
Locativemâʹstǩeäʹstkuäbbast
Comitativemõinǩeäinkuäbbain
Abessivemõntääǩeäntääkuäbbatää
Essivemââʹdenǩeäʹđenkuäbbžen
Partitivemââʹđedǩeäʹđedkuäbbžed
PluralNominativemõõkǩeäk-
Accusativemâidǩeäid-
Genitivemââiǩeäi-
Illativemâidǩeäid-
Locativemâinǩeäin-
Comitativemââivuiʹmǩeäivuiʹm-
Abessivemââitääǩeäitää-

Some examples of information questions using one of the three question words:

  • Mâiʹd reäǥǥak? (what (Sg., Accusative) – cry (2nd P. Sg., Present)) 'What are you crying about?'
  • Mõõzz pueʹttiǩ? (what (Sg., Illative) – come (2nd P. Sg., Past)) 'Why did you come?'
  • Ǩii tuʹst leäi risttjeäʹnn? (who (Sg., Nominative) – 2nd P. Sg., Locative – be (3rd P. Sg., Past) – godmother (Sg., Nominative) 'Who was your godmother?'
  • Kuäbbaž alttad heibbad? (which (Sg., Nominative) – begin (3rd P. Sg., Present) – wrestle (Infinitive)) 'Which one of you will begin to wrestle?'

In addition to the above-mentioned, there are other question words which are not inflected, such as the following:

  • koʹst: 'where', 'from where'
  • koozz: 'to where'
  • kuäʹss: 'when'
  • mäʹhtt: 'how'
  • måkam: 'what kind'

An example sentence would be the following:

  • Koozz vuõʹlǧǧiǩ? (to where – leave (2nd P. Sg., Past)) 'Where did you go?' [24]

Imperative clauses

The Skolt Sami imperative generally takes a clause-initial position. Out of the five imperative forms (see above), those of the second person are most commonly used.

  • Puäʹđ mij årra kuâssa! (come (2nd P. Sg., Imperative) – 1st P. Pl., Genitive – way – on a visit) 'Come and visit us at our place!'

Imperatives in the first person form, which only exist as plurals, are typically used for hortative constructions, that is for encouraging the listener (not) to do something. These imperatives include both the speaker and the listener.

  • Äʹlǧǧep heibbad! (start (1st P. Pl., Imperative) – wrestle (Infinitive)) 'Let's start to wrestle!'

Finally, imperatives in the third person are used in jussive constructions, the mood used for orders and commands.

  • Kuärŋŋaz sij tieʹrm ool! (climb (3rd P. Pl., Imperative) – 3rd P. Pl., Nominative – hill (Sg., Genitive) – onto) 'Let them climb to the top of the hill!' [25]

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References

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  2. "To which languages does the Charter apply?". European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. Council of Europe. p. 5. Retrieved 3 April 2014.
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  4. 1 2 Sergejeva 2002, p. 107.
  5. Sergejeva 2002, p. 103.
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  11. Feist, Timothy (2010). A Grammar of Skolt Saami. Manchester. pp. 37–38.
  12. Feist, Timothy (2010). A Grammar of Skolt Saami. Manchester. pp. 137–138.
  13. Feist, Timothy (2010). A Grammar of Skolt Saami. Manchester. p. 175.
  14. Feist, Timothy (2010). A Grammar of Skolt Saami. Manchester. p. 115.
  15. Feist, Timothy (2010). A Grammar of Skolt Saami. Manchester. pp. 115–136.
  16. Feist, Timothy (2010). A Grammar of Skolt Saami. Manchester. p. 116.
  17. Feist, Timothy (2010). A Grammar of Skolt Saami. Manchester. p. 135.
  18. Feist, Timothy (2010). A Grammar of Skolt Saami. Manchester. p. 269.
  19. Feist, Timothy (2010). A Grammar of Skolt Saami. Manchester. pp. 278–281.
  20. Feist, Timothy (2010). A Grammar of Skolt Saami. Manchester. p. 284.
  21. Feist, Timothy (2010). A Grammar of Skolt Saami. Manchester. p. 282.
  22. Feist, Timothy (2010). A Grammar of Skolt Saami. Manchester. pp. 319–321.
  23. Feist, Timothy (2010). A Grammar of Skolt Saami. Manchester. pp. 325–326.
  24. Feist, Timothy (2010). A Grammar of Skolt Saami. Manchester. pp. 326–328.
  25. Feist, Timothy (2010). A Grammar of Skolt Saami. Manchester. pp. 329–330.

Bibliography