Skyr

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A German journalist eating a portion of skyr in 1934. De Duitse journaliste Anita Joachim geniet van een portie skyr, Bestanddeelnr 190-0483.jpg
A German journalist eating a portion of skyr in 1934.
Vanilla skyr. Skyr.is med vanillu.jpg
Vanilla skyr.
Varieties of flavored skyr. 17-08-05-Supermarkt-Bonus-Keflavik-RalfR-DSC 2367.jpg
Varieties of flavored skyr.

Skyr ( /ˈskɪər/ SKEER; Icelandic pronunciation:  [ˈscɪːr̥] ) is an Icelandic cultured dairy product. It has the consistency of strained yogurt, but a milder flavor. Skyr can be classified as a fresh sour milk cheese (similar to curd cheese eaten in Germany and Russia) but is consumed like a yogurt. [1] It has been a part of Icelandic cuisine for centuries. [2]

Contents

Skyr has a slightly sour dairy flavor, with a hint of residual sweetness. It is traditionally served cold, either plain or with cream. Commercial manufacturers of skyr have added flavors such as vanilla or fruit. [3]

History

A staple of Icelandic diet since the Viking age, [4] Skyr is mentioned in a number of medieval Icelandic sources, including Egil's saga and Grettis saga. It is unclear how similar this was to modern-day skyr, as no detailed descriptions of skyr exist from this period. Culinary historian Hallgerður Gísladóttir has suggested that skyr was known throughout Scandinavia at the time of the settlement of Iceland, but eventually forgotten outside of Iceland. [5]

The word skyr is related to the English word shear (to cut), referring to how the dairy is split into the liquid whey and the thick skyr. [6]

Nutrition

Skyr is a high-protein, low-fat product made from low-fat milk, varying slightly between brands. Unflavored skyr has roughly 13 g protein, 4 g carbohydrates, and 0.2 g fat per 100 g. [7]

Uses

Skyr is usually mixed with sugar and milk. A traditional Icelandic dish exists which consists of roughly equal amounts of skyr and porridge. Skyr is often mixed with jam or fruit for a dessert, with prepared fish for dinner, or with cereals for breakfast. Contemporary uses include using skyr as a cheesecake topping and as an ingredient in milkshake or fruit smoothies.

Production

Skyr is made from skimmed milk which has been brought close to a boiling point and then cooled down to 37 °C (99 °F). [8] A small portion of a previous batch of skyr is then added to the warm milk to introduce the essential culture (the active bacterial culture), and with the addition of rennet the milk starts to curdle. [8] It is left to ferment for 5 hours before being cooled down to 18 °C (64 °F). [8] After pasteurization the product is strained through fabric to remove the liquid whey. [8] [2]

Bacteria such as Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus play an important role in the fermentation of skyr. [8] They also play a major role in the production of yogurt, but the yeast which is active in the low temperature step ensures that the dairy becomes a skyr and not a yogurt. [8]

Commerce

Skyr is commonly consumed in Iceland. [9] Efforts at marketing it outside of Iceland began in 2005 when it was exported to the U.S. and sold at Whole Foods. [10] [11] Licensed production began the next year in Denmark and Scotland. [10] Mjólkursamsalan (the major dairy cooperative in Iceland) and its associates registered "skyr" as a trademark in some countries, but this was later ruled to be invalid, as "skyr" was found to be a generic term like "milk". [12] [13]

The commercial distribution of skyr outside of Iceland increased in the 2010s, with marketing as a low-sugar, no-fat, high-protein product consumed as a snack. [14] In 2012, 80% of exported Icelandic skyr went to Finland and 20% to the U.S. [15] Numerous skyr parlors were opened in Finland in 2019. [16]

See also

Notes

    Related Research Articles

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    Yogurt A food produced by bacterial fermentation of milk

    Yogurt also spelled yoghurt, yogourt or yoghourt, is a food produced by bacterial fermentation of milk. The bacteria used to make yogurt are known as yogurt cultures. Fermentation of sugars in the milk by these bacteria produces lactic acid, which acts on milk protein to give yogurt its texture and characteristic tart flavor. Cow's milk is the milk most commonly used to make yogurt. Milk from water buffalo, goats, ewes, mares, camels, yaks and plant milks are also used to produce yogurt. The milk used may be homogenized or not. It may be pasteurized or raw. Each type of milk produces substantially different results.

    Whey Liquid remaining after milk has been curdled and strained

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    Strained yogurt

    Strained yogurt, Greek yogurt, yogurt cheese, sack yogurt, or kerned yogurt is yogurt that has been strained to remove most of its whey, resulting in a thicker consistency than regular unstrained yogurt, while still preserving the distinctive sour taste of yogurt. Like many types of yogurt, strained yogurt is often made from milk that has been enriched by boiling off some of its water content, or by adding extra butterfat and powdered milk. In Europe and North America, it is often made from low-fat or fat-free cow's milk. In Iceland, a similar product named skyr is made.

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    Ymer (dairy product)

    Ymer is a Danish soured milk product which has been known since 1930. It is made by fermenting whole milk with the bacterial culture Lactococcus lactis. When producing fermented milk products such as yogurt, ymer, filmjölk, skyr, qvark and A-38, and also when producing cheese, one can add lactic acid bacteria which convert milk sugar in the milk into lactic acid and other substances. Acidity makes the milk thicker, gives it a tart flavor, and increases the shelf life by several days.

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    References

    1. Guðmundur Guðmundsson (23 February 2007). "Hnigfræði og smásæ bygging skyrs: Abstract" (in Icelandic and English). Archived from the original on 10 July 2012. Retrieved 25 April 2012.
    2. 1 2 "About the production of skyr" (in Icelandic). Mjólkursamsalan. 6 February 2005. Archived from the original on 6 February 2005.
    3. Severson, Kim (14 September 2005). "Iceland woos America with lamb and skyr". New York Times . Retrieved 25 June 2018.
    4. Gudmundsson, Gudmundur; Kristbergsson, Kristberg (2016), McElhatton, Anna; El Idrissi, Mustapha Missbah (eds.), "Modernization of Skyr Processing: Icelandic Acid-Curd Soft Cheese", Modernization of Traditional Food Processes and Products, Integrating Food Science and Engineering Knowledge Into the Food Chain, Boston, MA: Springer US, pp. 45–53, doi:10.1007/978-1-4899-7671-0_5, ISBN   978-1-4899-7671-0 , retrieved 29 March 2021
    5. Hallgerður Gísladóttir (1999). Íslensk matarhefð (in Icelandic). Reykjavík: Mál og menning. p. 73. ISBN   978-9979-3-1846-0.
    6. Ásgeir Blöndal Magnússon (1989). Icelandic Etymological Dictionary (in Icelandic). ISBN   9789979654018.
    7. "Nutritional values for KEA skyr hrært". Mjólkursamsalan (in Icelandic). Retrieved 26 February 2019.
    8. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Björn Sigurður Gunnarsson (11 April 2003). "Hvernig er skyrgerillinn til kominn?". Vísindavefurinn (in Icelandic). Retrieved 26 February 2019.
    9. "Icelandic skyr now makes up 2% of the US yogurt market". Icelandmag. Fréttablaðið. 23 March 2017. Retrieved 26 February 2019.
    10. 1 2 "Ársskýrla Auðhumlu 2006" (PDF). 2006. p. 13.
    11. "Sigurför skyrsins". Morgunblaðið. 26 August 2005. p. 8.
    12. "MS missir spón úr aski sínum: Skyr er vörutegund en ekki vörumerki". Stundin. Retrieved 14 January 2021.
    13. "Arla lagði MS í deilu um skyr í Finnlandi". RÚV (in Icelandic). 28 September 2017. Retrieved 14 January 2021.
    14. "Welcome to skyr, the Viking 'superfood' waking up Britain". the Guardian. 27 November 2016. Retrieved 14 January 2021.
    15. "Skyr selt erlendis fyrir 650 milljónir - Viðskiptablaðið". www.vb.is. Retrieved 14 January 2021.
    16. "Finnar óðir í ísey skyr: 25 barir opnaðir í landinu". hringbraut.frettabladid.is. Retrieved 14 January 2021.