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The practice of slavery in Vietnam persisted since the Hồng Bàng period. Vietnam has been both a source and a destination for slaves.
During the Hồng Bàng period, the society was divided into three classes consisting of kings, citizens and slaves. A slave, the lowest class, served the aristocracy.
During the Chinese domination period, Vietnamese girls were sold as sex slaves to the Chinese.A large trade developed where the native girls of Nam Viet were enslaved and brought north to the Chinese. Southern Yue girls were sexually eroticized in Chinese literature and in poems written by Chinese who were exiled to the south.
The Vietnamese enslaved enemy prisoners of war including the Chinese and Cham.
During the Lý dynasty, Vietnam raided Song dynasty to enslave Chinese, who were forced to serve in the Vietnamese army as soldiers.Vietnamese Buddhist Temples received Cham slaves who were prisoners of war.
After the Cham–Vietnamese War (1471) Cham prisoners were given as slaves to Vietnamese estates.They were all eventually ordered to be killed due to a royal order.
Emperor Lê Thánh Tông was aggressive in his relations with foreign countries including China and Malacca and cracked down on foreign trade and contacts, enforcing an isolationist policy. A large amount of trade between Guangdong and Vietnam happened during his reign. Early accounts recorded that the Vietnamese captured Chinese whose ships had blown off course and detained them. Young Chinese men were selected by the Vietnamese for castration to become eunuch slaves to the Vietnamese. It has been speculated by modern historians that the Chinese who were captured and castrated by the Vietnamese were involved in trade between China and Vietnam instead of actually being blown off course by the wind and they were punished as part of a crackdown on illegal foreign trade by Vietnam.Records show that the Vietnamese performed castration in a painful procedure by removing the entire genitalia with both penis and testicles being cut off with a sharp knife or metal blade. The procedure was agonizing since the entire penis was cut off. The young man's thighs and abdomen would be tied and others would pin him down on a table. The genitals would be sterilized with pepper water and then cut off. A tube would be then inserted into the urethra to allow urination during healing. Any facial hair such as the beard would fall off and the eunuch's voice would become like a girl's. The eunuchs served as slaves to the Vietnamese palace women in the harem like the consorts, concubines, maids, Queen, and Princesses, doing most of the work. The only man allowed in the Palace was the Emperor, the only others allowed were his women and the eunuchs since they were not able to have sexual relations with the women. The eunuchs were assigned to do work for the palace women like massaging and applying make up to the women and preparing them for sex with the Emperor.
Several Malay envoys from the Malacca Sultanate were attacked and captured in 1469 by Annam (Vietnam) as they were returning to Malacca from China. The Vietnamese enslaved and castrated the young from among the captured.
A 1472 entry in the Ming Shilu reported that when some Chinese from Nanhai county escaped back to China after their ship had been blown off course into Vietnam, where they had been forced to serve as soldiers in Vietnam's military. The escapees also reported that they found out up to 100 Chinese men remained captives in Vietnam after they were caught and castrated by the Vietnamese after their ships were blown off course into Vietnam. The Chinese Ministry of Revenue responded by ordering Chinese civilians and soldiers to stop going abroad to foreign countries.China's relations with Vietnam during this period were marked by the punishment of prisoners by castration.
A 1499 entry in the Ming Shilu recorded that thirteen Chinese men from Wenchang including a young man named Wu Rui were captured by the Vietnamese after their ship was blown off course while traveling from Hainan to Guangdong's Qin subprefecture (Qinzhou), after which they ended up near the coast of Vietnam, during the Chenghua Emperor's rule (1447 - 1487). Twelve of them were enslaved to work as agricultural laborers, while the youngest, Wu Rui (吳瑞) was selected for castration since he was the only young man and he became a eunuch attendant at the Vietnamese imperial palace in Thăng Long. After years of service, he was promoted at the death of the Vietnamese ruler in 1497 to a military position in northern Vietnam. A soldier told him of an escape route back to China and Wu Rui escaped to Longzhou. The local chief planned to sell him back to the Vietnamese, but Wu was rescued by the Pingxiang magistrate and then was sent to Beijing to work as a eunuch in the palace.
The Đại Việt sử ký toàn thư records that in 1467 in An Bang province of Dai Viet (now Quảng Ninh Province) a Chinese ship blew off course onto the shore. The Chinese were detained and not allowed to return to China as ordered by Le Thanh Tong.This incident may be the same one where Wu Rui was captured.
The Vietnamese enslaved "barbarian" uplanders in Cochinchina.
Since the 1980s, some women from Vietnam have become victims of kidnapping, the bride-buying trade, and human trafficking and prostitution in China.The present-day struggle of the Vietnamese female victims of "bride-brokers" can be summarized by the larger-than-life poem known as "The Tale of Kieu," which narrates the story of a female protagonist of Vietnam who was purchased by foreigners and was violated, yet kept fighting back against her captors and offenders.
Human traffickers, such as in Bangkok, trick, kidnap and detain the women for the purpose of raping them, making them surrogate mothers, and selling their babies to clients in Taiwan.
Gaya was a Korean confederacy of territorial polities in the Nakdong River basin of southern Korea, growing out of the Byeonhan confederacy of the Samhan period.
Li Hui, courtesy name De'ang, was an official of the state of Shu Han during the Three Kingdoms period of China. After refusing Liu Zhang's service, Li joined Liu Bei early in his campaign to pacify Yi province. After Liu Bei's death, Li Hui proved his talents during Zhuge Liang's Southern Campaign and was appointed the area commander in the south. He set the standard for his successors, such as Ma Zhong, for sound governance. After Shu-Han's co-regent Li Yan was removed from office, Li Hui was promoted again and sent to Hanzhong to assist in the Northern Expeditions but died a year later.
Bu Zhi, courtesy name Zishan, was an official and military general of the state of Eastern Wu during the Three Kingdoms period of China. Originally a scholar of humble background, he became a subordinate of the warlord Sun Quan in the late Eastern Han dynasty and gradually rose through the ranks. Between 210 and 220, he served as the governor of the remote and restive Jiao Province in southern China. During the Battle of Xiaoting/Yiling of 221–222, he quelled local uprisings in Sun Quan's territories in southern Jing Province and maintained peace in the area. After Sun Quan became emperor in 229, Bu Zhi oversaw the Wu armed forces guarding the Wu–Shu border at Xiling for about 20 years. During this time, he also gave advice to Sun Quan's first heir apparent, Sun Deng, and spoke up for officials affected by Lü Yi's abuses of power. In 246, he became the fourth Imperial Chancellor of Wu, but died in office in the following year.
Chen Li was the second and the last emperor of the Dahan regime during the latter Yuan Dynasty of China. Chen Li ruled from 1363–64.
The Jingnan campaign, or Jingnan rebellion, was a three-year civil war from 1399–1402 in the early years of the Ming dynasty of China. It occurred between two descendants of the Ming dynasty's founder Zhu Yuanzhang: his grandson Zhu Yunwen by his first son, and Zhu Yuanzhang's fourth son Zhu Di, the Prince of Yan. Though Zhu Yunwen had been the chosen crown prince of Zhu Yuanzhang and been made emperor upon the death of his grandfather in 1398, friction began immediately after Yuanzhang's death. Zhu Yunwen began arresting Zhu Yuanzhang's other sons immediately, seeking to decrease their threat. But within a year open military conflict began, and the war continued until the forces of the Prince of Yan captured the imperial capital Nanjing. The fall of Nanjing was followed by the demise of Zhu Yunwen, aka the Jianwen Emperor and Zhu Di was thus crowned the Ming Dynasty's third emperor, the Yongle Emperor.
Liu Chang, originally Liu Jixing (劉繼興), was the fourth, last and youngest Chinese emperor of Southern Han during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period, reigning from 958 until his country was annexed by the Song dynasty in 971.
The tributary system of China, or Cefeng system was a network of loose international relations focused on China which facilitated trade and foreign relations by acknowledging China's predominant role in East Asia. It involved multiple relationships of trade, military force, diplomacy and ritual. The other nations had to send a tributary envoy to China on schedule, who would kowtow to the Chinese emperor as a form of tribute, and acknowledge his superiority and precedence. The other countries followed China's formal ritual in order to keep the peace with the more powerful neighbor and be eligible for diplomatic or military help under certain conditions. Political actors within the tributary system were largely autonomous and in almost all cases virtually independent.
Wu Rui was a Hainanese eunuch in 15th century Lê Dynasty Đại Việt during Emperor Le Thanh Tong's rule at the Imperial Citadel of Thang Long. He was forcibly castrated and enslaved as a young man by the Vietnamese after his ship was blown off course into Vietnam.
Sojunghwa, meaning "Little China", is a 17-century Korean term referring to a politico-cultural ideology and phenomenon in which various Korean, Vietnamese and Japanese regimes identified themselves as "China" and regarded themselves to be legitimate successors to the Chinese civilization. Informed by the traditional Chinese concepts of Sinocentrism and Hua–Yi distinction, this belief became more apparent after the Manchu-led Qing dynasty had superseded the Han-led Ming dynasty in China proper, as Joseon Korea and Tokugawa Japan, among others, perceived that "barbarians" had ruined the center of world civilization.
Geng Bingwen (1334–1403) was a Ming dynasty general. He participated in the Jingnan Campaign on the side of the Jianwen Emperor. He committed suicide.
Jiang Xu, courtesy name Boyi, was a military general who lived in the late Eastern Han dynasty of China. He is best known for his involvement in the conflict between the warlord Ma Chao and the Han central government in the 210s CE.
Ziqi was a kingdom established by the Wuman in southwestern China during the Song dynasty. The territory of Ziqi included parts of modern-day Guizhou, Guangxi and Yunnan provinces of China.
Xun Xu, courtesy name Gongzeng, was an official, musician, writer and painter who lived during the late Three Kingdoms period and early Jin dynasty of China. Born in the influential Xun family, he was a great-grandson of Xun Shuang and a distant maternal relative of Zhong Yao's family. he served as an official in the state of Wei in the late Three Kingdoms era before serving under the Jin dynasty.
Cao Biao, courtesy name Zhuhu, was an imperial prince of the Cao Wei state in the Three Kingdoms period of China.
Tie Xuan (1366–1402), courtesy name Dingshi (鼎石), was born in Dengzhou, Henan during the Yuan dynasty and was a Semu Hui. He served as a loyal officer to the deposed Ming-dynasty emperor Jianwen. During the Jingnan Campaign, when the Prince of Yan Zhu Di rebelled against his nephew, the Jianwen Emperor, Tie Xuan refused to support Zhu Di. He was sentenced to death by having his limbs torn off and fried in oil. Later generations honored him for his unyielding loyalty. In various regions of China, there are temples set up in Tie's honor to offer rituals to him. In the Southern Ming period, he was honored with the title of Grand Protector 太保 and given the posthumous name Zhongxiang (忠襄). Later, during Qianlong's reign in the Qing dynasty, he was given the posthumous name Zhongding (忠定).
Sun Huan (194–234), courtesy name Jiming, was a military general of the state of Eastern Wu during the Three Kingdoms period. He was the fourth son of Sun Jing, uncle of Sun Quan, the founding emperor of Wu, and a younger brother of Sun Jiao (孫皎).
Abakan Palace Ruins is a Chinese architecture styled palace located in Abakan, Khakassia, Russia dating back more than 2000 years ago to the Han dynasty. It was excavated by Russian archaeologists. The palace was administered by the Xiongnu and the Han dynasty in the old Jiankun region of China. It is around 1000km from the modern Buryat city of Ulan-Ude. Various other nomadic tribes have lived here like the modern Yenisei and ancient Dingling. Some believe it may be a palace for Li Ling and his Hun wife. Others contend it was actually Lü Fang's (卢芳) palace.
Tao Huang, courtesy name Shiying, was a military officer of Eastern Wu during the Three Kingdoms period and later for the Jin dynasty (266–420). Tao Huang was most notable for his thirty years administration of Jiaozhou during Wu and Jin. He was also responsible for Wu's victory against Jin during the latter's campaign in Jiao between 268 and 271, one of the few major victories Wu had over Jin in the final years of the Three Kingdoms.
Cai Mo, courtesy name Daoming, was a Chinese politician during the Jin dynasty (266–420). He was an amorous opposer to the dynasty's attempts to reclaim the north from the barbarians that had overrun it during the start of the 4th century. He continued to argue against the northern expeditions made by Jin even as Later Zhao's descended into self-destruction in 349 but in 350, he found himself in trouble for refusing an office issued by the emperor. As a result, he was banished from office as punishment and spent the rest of his life in retirement.
Wang Hun (223–297), courtesy name Xuanchong, was a Chinese military general and politician of Cao Wei during the Three Kingdoms period and Western Jin dynasty period. He spent most of his early career serving at the eastern borders of Jin and Eastern Wu, where he occasionally battled with the southern state. He was most known for his role in the Conquest of Wu between 279 and 280, during which he destroyed Wu's main forces under Zhang Ti, as well as his subsequent dispute with Wang Jun, who he accused of going against orders by capturing Jianye on his own and stealing Wang Hun's chance at glory. Despite the controversy surrounding him following the conquest, he remained an accomplished and well-respected figure within the state.
此外,沿海平民在海上航行或捕撈漁獵,遇風漂流至越南者時有發生。如成化十三年, 廣東珠池奉御陳彜奏:南海縣民遭風飄至安南被編入軍隊及被閹禁者超過 100 人。5成化中, 海南文昌人吳瑞與同鄉劉求等 13 人到欽州做生意,遇風飄至安南,當局將他們"俱發屯田, 以瑞獨少,宮之"。6... 6《明孝宗實錄》卷一百五十三,弘治十二年八月辛卯。
Simplified Chinese:○满剌加国使臣端亚妈剌的那查等奏成化五年本国使臣微者然那入贡还至当洋被风漂至安南国微者然那与其傔从俱为其国所杀其余黥为官奴而幼者皆为所害又言安南据占城城池欲并吞满剌加之地本国以皆为王臣未敢兴兵与战适安南使臣亦来朝端亚妈剌的那查乞与廷辨兵部尚书陈钺以为此已往事不必深校宜戒其将来 上乃因安南使臣还谕其王黎灏曰尔国与满剌加俱奉正朔宜修睦结好藩屏王室岂可自恃富强以干国典以贪天祸满剌加使臣所奏朝廷虽未轻信尔亦宜省躬思咎畏天守法自保其国复谕满剌加使臣曰自古圣王之驭四夷不追咎于既往安南果复侵陵尔国宜训练士马以御之 Traditional Chinese:○滿剌加國使臣端亞媽剌的那查等奏成化五年本國使臣微者然那入貢還至當洋被風漂至安南國微者然那與其傔從俱為其國所殺其餘黥為官奴而幼者皆為所害又言安南據占城城池欲併吞滿剌加之地本國以皆為王臣未敢興兵與戰適安南使臣亦來朝端亞媽剌的那查乞與廷辨兵部尚書陳鉞以為此已往事不必深校宜戒其將來 上乃因安南使臣還諭其王黎灝曰爾國與滿剌加俱奉正朔宜修睦結好藩屏王室豈可自恃富強以幹國典以貪天禍滿剌加使臣所奏朝廷雖未輕信爾亦宜省躬思咎畏天守法自保其國複諭滿剌加使臣曰自古聖王之馭四夷不追咎于既往安南果複侵陵爾國宜訓練士馬以禦之
Simplified Chinese:○癸亥广东守珠池奉御陈彝奏南海县民为风飘至安南国被其国王编以为军其后逸归言中国人飘泊被留及所为阉禁者百余人奏下户部请移文巡抚镇守等官禁约军民人等毋得指以□贩私通番国且令守珠军人设法堤备从之 Traditional Chinese:○癸亥廣東守珠池奉禦陳彝奏南海縣民為風飄至安南國被其國王編以為軍其後逸歸言中國人飄泊被留及所為閹禁者百余人奏下戶部請移文巡撫鎮守等官禁約軍民人等毋得指以□販私通番國且令守珠軍人設法堤備從之
Simplified Chinese:○金星昼见于辰位○辛卯吴瑞者广东文昌县人成化中与同乡刘求等十三人于钦州贸易遭风飘至安南海边罗者得之送本国求等俱发屯田以瑞独少宫之弘治十年国王黎灏卒瑞往东津点军得谅山卫军杨三知归路缘山行九日达龙州主头目韦琛家谋告守备官送还琛不欲久之安南国知之恐泄其国事遣探儿持百金为赎琛少之议未决而凭祥州知州李广宁闻之卒兵夺送于分守官都御史邓廷瓒遣送至京礼部请罪琛为边人之戒奖广宁为土官之劝从之瑞送司礼监给役 Traditional Chinese:○金星晝見於辰位○辛卯吳瑞者廣東文昌縣人成化中與同鄉劉求等十三人於欽州貿易遭風飄至安南海邊羅者得之送本國求等俱發屯田以瑞獨少宮之弘治十年國王黎灝卒瑞往東津點軍得諒山衛軍楊三知歸路緣山行九日達龍州主頭目韋琛家謀告守備官送還琛不欲久之安南國知之恐洩其國事遣探兒持百金為贖琛少之議未決而憑祥州知州李廣寧聞之卒兵奪送於分守官都御史鄧廷瓚遣送至京禮部請罪琛為邊人之戒獎廣寧為土官之勸從之瑞送司禮監給役
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