Smederevo

Last updated

Smederevo

Смедерево
City of Smederevo
Tsrkva Sv. Georgija u Smederevu 3.jpg
Smederevo, Crkva Svetog Dorda, 13.jpg
Smederevo city administration.JPG
Smederevo building at the market.JPG
Smederevo, Gimnazija Smederevo, 04.jpg
Smederevska tvrdjava kanal.jpg
Obrenoviceva vila u Smederevu.jpg
From top: Republic Square, Church of Saint George, Courthouse in Smederevo, Town hall, Gymnasium in Smederevo, Smederevo Fortress, Obrenović Villa
Smederevo coat of arms.gif
Coat of arms
Municipalities of Serbia Smederevo.png
Location of the city of Smederevo within Serbia
Coordinates: 44°40′N20°56′E / 44.667°N 20.933°E / 44.667; 20.933 Coordinates: 44°40′N20°56′E / 44.667°N 20.933°E / 44.667; 20.933
Country Serbia
District Podunavlje
Settlements 28
Government
  MayorJovan Beč (SNS)
Area
  Urban42.03 km2 (16.23 sq mi)
  Administrative484.30 km2 (186.99 sq mi)
Elevation
72 m (236 ft)
Population
 (2011 census) [1]
  Rank 13th in Serbia
  Urban
64,175
  Urban density1,500/km2 (4,000/sq mi)
  Administrative
108,209
  Administrative density220/km2 (580/sq mi)
Time zone UTC+1 (CET)
  Summer (DST) UTC+2 (CEST)
Postal code
  • 11300
  • 11303
  • 11304
  • 11305
  • 11330
Area code +381(0)26
Car plates SD
Website www.smederevo.org.rs

Smederevo (Serbian Cyrillic : Смедерево, pronounced  [smêdereʋo] ( Loudspeaker.svg listen )) is a city and the administrative center of the Podunavlje District in eastern Serbia. It is situated on the right bank of the Danube, about 45 kilometres (28 miles) downstream of the Serbian capital, Belgrade.

Contents

According to the 2011 census, the city has a population of 64,105, with 108,209 people living in its administrative area.

Its history starts in the 1st century BC, after the conquest of the Roman Empire, when there existed a settlement by the name of Vinceia. The modern city traces its roots back to the late Middle Ages when it was the capital (1430–39, and 1444–59) of the last independent Serbian state before Ottoman conquest.

Smederevo is said to be the city of iron (Serbian: gvožđe) and grapes (grožđe).

Names

In Serbian, the city is known as Smederevo (Смедерево), in Latin, Italian, Romanian and Greek as Semendria, in Hungarian as Szendrő or Vég-Szendrő, in Turkish as Semendire.

The name of Smederevo was first recorded in the Charter of the Byzantine Emperor Basil II from 1019, in the part related to the Eparchy of Braničevo (a suffragan diocese of the Archdiocese of Ochrid. Another written record is found in the Charter of Duke Lazar of Serbia from 1381, by which he bestowed the Monastery of Ravanica and villages and properties 'to the Great Bogosav with the commune and heritage'’.

The Latin-Italian name also occurs in Belogradum et Semendria and Belgrado e Semendria, two of the short-lived 20th-century synonyms of the Latin titular bishopric of Belgrade, which was suppressed in 1948 in favor of the residential Latin Archdiocese of Belgrade (Beograd) and 'newly' established titular bishopric of Alba marittima.

Coat of arms

Smederevo Coat of Arms uses two shades of blue, which deviates from the heraldic principles (only one shade of every color, contrasting those). Also, the bar with the year 1430 is placed over the shield. Emblem elements are six white discs arranged 3 + 2 + 1, which represents grapes, Smederevo fortress, dark blue and white horizontal lines (representing the Danube).[ citation needed ]

History

Early

In the 7th millennium BC, the Starčevo culture existed for a millennia, succeeded by the 6th millennium BC Vinča culture that prospered in the region. The Paleo-Balkan tribes of Dacians and Thracians emerged in the area in the 2nd millennia BC, with the Celtic Scordisci raiding the Balkans in the 3rd century B.C.

The Roman Empire conquered Vinceia in the 1st century BC. It was organized into Moesia, later Moesia Superior, [2] and in the administrative reforms of Diocletian (244–311) it was part of the Diocese of Moesia, then the Diocese of Dacia. It was a principal town of Moesia Superior, near the confluence of Margus and Brongus rivers. [3] [4]

Middle Ages

The modern founder of the city was the Serbian Despot Đurađ Branković in the 15th century, who built Smederevo Fortress in 1430 as the new Serbian capital. Smederevo was the residence of the Branković house and the capital of the Serbian Despotate from 1430 until 1439, when it was conquered by the Ottoman Empire after a siege lasting two months.

Sanjak of Smederevo

In 1444, in accordance with the terms of the Peace of Szeged between the Kingdom of Hungary and the Ottoman Empire the Sultan returned Smederevo to Đurađ Branković, who was allied to John Hunyadi. On 22 August 1444 the Serb prince peacefully took possession of the evacuated town. When Hunyadi broke the peace treaty, Đurađ Branković remained neutral. Serbia became a battleground between the Kingdom of Hungary and the Ottomans, and the angry Branković captured Hunyadi after his defeat at the Second Battle of Kosovo in 1448. Hunyadi was imprisoned in Smederevo fortress for a short time.

Inside Smederevo Fortress Smederevska tvrdjava 3.jpg
Inside Smederevo Fortress

In 1454 Sultan Mehmed II besieged Smederevo and devastated Serbia. The town was liberated by Hunyadi. In 1459 Smederevo was again captured by the Ottomans after the death of Branković. The town became a Turkish border-fortress, and played an important part in Ottoman–Hungarian Wars until 1526. Due to its strategic location, Smederevo was gradually rebuilt and enlarged. For a long period, the town was the capital of the Sanjak of Smederevo.

In autumn 1476, a joint army of Hungarians and Serbs tried to capture the fortress from the Ottomans. They built three wooden counter-fortresses, but after months of siege Sultan Mehmed II himself came to drive them away. After fierce fighting the Hungarians agreed to withdraw. In 1494 Pál Kinizsi tried to capture Smederevo from the Ottomans but he was stricken with palsy and died. In 1512 John Zápolya unsuccessfully laid siege to the town.

Modern

During the First Serbian Uprising in 1806, the city became the temporary capital of Serbia, as well as the seat of the Praviteljstvujušči sovjet, a government headed by Dositej Obradović. The first basic school was founded in 1806. During World War II, the city was occupied by German forces, who stored ammunition in the fortress. On 5 June 1941, a catastrophic explosion severely damaged the fortress, killing nearly 2,000 residents.

After World War II, Smederevo became an industrial and cultural center of Podunavlje district. Under the overall industrial development of Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, the city received a boost in infrastructure. Due to the ideal geographical position of Smederevo, socialist government supported building of roads, apartment buildings and tens of factories.

Some of the most notable factories built and renewed in period between 1950s until the end of 1980s were Zelvoz (Heroj Srba during the period of SFRJ), renewed in 1966. and a new steel plant built on outskirts of Smederevo at that time, Sartid (MKS during the period of SFRJ) which was completely operational in 1971.

Smederevo - panorama.jpg
Panorama of the city along the Danube

Settlements

Aside the city of Smederevo, the administrative area includes the following 27 settlements (number of population according to 2011 census in brackets [1] ):

Economy

Smederevo has a recent history of heavy industry and manufacturing, which is a result of intense industrialization of the region during the 1950s-1960s era. Previously, this entire geographical region had a heavy focus on agricultural production.

The city is home to the only operating steel mill in the country - Železara Smederevo, previously known as Sartid, which is situated in the suburb of Radinac. This was privatized and sold to U.S. Steel in 2003 for $33 million. [5] Following the global economic crisis, U.S. Steel sold the plant to the government of Serbia for a symbolic $1 to avoid closing the plant. The plant was renamed Železara Smederevo and at the time employed 5,400 workers. [6] In 2016, the Serbian government managed to strike a deal with a Chinese conglomerate Hesteel Group, which purchased the effective assets for $46 million. [7]

The "Milan Blagojević" home appliance factory is the second largest industry company in the city. Smederevo is also an agricultural area, with significant production of fruit and vines. However, the large agricultural combine "Godomin" has been in financial difficulty since the 1990s and is almost defunct as of 2005. The grape variety known as Smederevka is named after the city. The "Ishrana" factory is an important supplier of bakery products in northern and eastern Serbia.[ citation needed ]

A U.S.-Dutch consortium, Comico Oil, planned to build a $250 million oil refinery in the industrial zone of the city in 2012. [8] However, the consortium lost its permit to build the refinery after it failed to meet payment deadlines for the land lease a year later. [9]

As of September 2017, Smederevo has one of 14 free economic zones established in Serbia. [10]

Transportation

The river traffic infrastructure of the city of Smederevo consists of Danube waterway, old port, marina, new port, terminal for liquid Naftna Industrija Srbije loads, as well as smaller piers (gravel pits) which are located along the bank in the industrial zone.[ citation needed ] The port is registered for international traffic and is located in the very center of the city of Smederevo.

It has reloading capacities which can realize 1.5 million freight tons a year.[ citation needed ] By 2019, the Government of Serbia invested 9.5 million euros for new railway construction built for the needs of Port of Smederevo. [11] It was also announced that starting in 2020, the Government of Serbia plans to invest 93 million euros for the construction of new Port Terminal. [11] [12]

Tourism

Karadorde's mulberry, under which Karadorde received the city keys during the 1805 uprising. Karadordev dud.jpg
Karađorđe's mulberry, under which Karađorđe received the city keys during the 1805 uprising.

Among the main tourist attractions in the city are the Smederevo Fortress and the Obrenović Villa.

There is an old white mulberry tree in the center of Smederevo. Called Karađorđev dud ("Karađorđe's mulberry"), it is estimated to be over 300 years old. Though there are no historical sources to specifically confirm that, it is believed that under this tree dizdar Muharem Guša, Ottoman commander of the fortress, handed over the keys to the city to Karađorđe on 8 November 1805, after the city was liberated during the First Serbian Uprising. In May 2018 the tree was declared a natural monument of the III category, as the first "living" monument in Smederevo. The three is supported by metallic pipes, but there is an initiative that two sculptures, shaped like a male and female hand, should be installed instead. [13]

Demographics

Hotel Grand - Regija Smederevo building at the market.JPG
Hotel Grand – Regija

In the 2011 census, there was 108,209 residents in the city administrative area, [14] of which 101,908 were Serbs and 2,369 were Romani. [15]

Twin towns

Smederevo is twinned with:

See also

Related Research Articles

Vršac City in Vojvodina, Serbia

Vršac is a city and the administrative center of the South Banat District in the autonomous province of Vojvodina, Serbia. As of 2011, the city urban area has a population of 35,701, while the city administrative area has 52,026 inhabitants. It is located in the geographical region of Banat.

John Hunyadi Regent-Governor of the Kingdom of Hungary

John Hunyadi was a leading Hungarian military and political figure in Central and Southeastern Europe during the 15th century. According to most contemporary sources, he was the member of a noble family of Wallachian ancestry. He mastered his military skills on the southern borderlands of the Kingdom of Hungary that were exposed to Ottoman attacks. Appointed voivode of Transylvania and head of a number of southern counties, he assumed responsibility for the defense of the frontiers in 1441.

Podunavlje District District of Serbia

The Podunavlje District is one of nine administrative districts of Southern and Eastern Serbia. It expands across the central parts of Serbia. According to the 2011 census results, it has a population of 199,395 inhabitants, and the administrative center is the city of Smederevo.

Battle of Kosovo (1448) 1448 battle between Hungarian-led Crusaders and the Ottoman Empire

The Second Battle of Kosovo was a land battle between a Hungarian-led Crusader army and the Ottoman Empire at Kosovo Polje. It was the culmination of a Hungarian offensive to avenge the defeat at Varna four years earlier.

Đurađ Branković Despot of the Serbian Kingdom of Rascia (1377-1456) (ruled 1427-1456)

Đurađ Branković was the Serbian Despot from 1427 to 1456. He was one of the last Serbian medieval rulers. He was a participant in the battle of Ankara (1402) and Ottoman Interregnum (1403-1413). During his reign, the despotate was a vassal of both Ottoman sultans as well as Hungarian kings. Despot George was neutral during the Polish-Lithuanian (1444) and Hungarian-Wallachian (1448) crusades. In 1455, he was wounded and imprisoned during clashes with the Hungarians, after which the young Sultan Mehmed II launched the siege of Belgrade and its large Hungarian garrison. Despot Đurađ died at the end of 1456, due to complications stemming from the wound. After his death, Serbia, Bosnia and Albania became practically annexed by sultan Mehmed II, which only ended after centuries of additional conquests of Byzantine lands. Đurađ attained a large library of Serbian, Slavonic, Latin, and Greek manuscripts. He made his capital Smederevo a centre of Serbian culture. He was the first of the Branković dynasty to hold the Serbian monarchy.

Serbian Despotate 15th c. Serbian state

The Serbian Despotate was a medieval Serbian state in the first half of the 15th century. Although the Battle of Kosovo in 1389 is generally considered the end of medieval Serbia, the Despotate, a successor of the Serbian Empire and Moravian Serbia, lasted for another 60 years, experiencing a cultural and political renaissance before it was conquered by the Ottomans in 1459. Before its conquest the Despotate nominally had a suzerain status to the Byzantine Empire, Ottoman Empire, and Kingdom of Hungary.

Vršac Castle

Vršac Castle formerly known as "Vršac Tower" is a medieval fortress near Vršac, Vojvodina, Serbia. Only Donjon tower remained from the entire complex, but in 2009 reconstruction started, to recreate the entire Vršac Castle.

Irene Kantakouzene

Irene Kantakouzene, known simply as Despotess Jerina, was the wife of Serbian Despot Đurađ Branković. In Serbian folk legends, she is the founder of many fortresses in Serbia.

Ulrich II, Count of Celje

Ulrich II, or Ulrich of Celje, was the last Princely Count of Celje. At the time of his death, he was captain general and de facto regent of Hungary, ban (governor) of Slavonia, Croatia and Dalmatia and feudal lord of vast areas in present-day Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia, Austria, and Slovakia. He was also a claimant to the Bosnian throne. This accumulation of power prompted his assassination by the hands of the Hunyadi clan which plunged Hungary into civil unrest that was resolved a year later by the sudden death of king Ladislas the Posthumous and the election of Matthias Corvinus, Ulrich's son-in-law, as king. Ulrich's possessions in the Holy Roman Empire were inherited by the Habsburg Emperor Frederick III, while his possessions in Hungary were reverted to the crown.

Smederevo Fortress Fortress in Serbia

The Smederevo Fortress is a medieval fortified city in Smederevo, Serbia, which was the temporary capital of Serbia in the Middle Ages. It was built between 1427 and 1430 on the order of Despot Đurađ Branković, the ruler of the Serbian Despotate. It was further fortified by the Ottoman Empire, which had taken the city in 1459.

Crusade of Varna

The Crusade of Varna was an unsuccessful military campaign mounted by several European leaders to check the expansion of the Ottoman Empire into Central Europe, specifically the Balkans between 1443 and 1444. It was called by Pope Eugene IV on 1 January 1443 and led by King Władysław III of Poland, John Hunyadi, Voivode of Transylvania, and Duke Philip the Good of Burgundy.

The Treaty of Edirne and the Peace of Szeged were two halves of a peace treaty between Sultan Murad II of the Ottoman Empire and King Vladislaus of the Kingdom of Hungary. Despot Đurađ Branković of the Serbian Despotate was a party to the proceedings. The treaty brought an end to the Christian crusade against the Ottomans with significant gains. Within a month Vladislaus abjured his oath at the urging of the papacy and the crusade continued. On November 10, 1444 it ended in disaster at the Battle of Varna where the crusaders were wiped out and Vladislaus killed.

The Battle of Hermannstadt, also known as the Battle of Sibiu or the Battle of Szeben, was fought between the army of the Hungarian Kingdom and the Ottoman Empire on March 18 and March 22, 1442, near Marosszentimre and Hermannstadt (Szeben),. The Hungarian forces were commanded by John Hunyadi. Hermannstadt was Hunyadi's third victory over the Ottomans after the relief of Smederevo in 1437 and the defeat of Ishak Beg midway between Semendria and Belgrade in 1441.

Helena Palaiologina was a Byzantine princess who married Serbian Despot Lazar Branković, who ruled from 1456 until his death in 1458. After Smederevo fell to the Ottoman Turks on 20 June 1459, she fled Serbia for the Greek island of Leukas, where she converted to Catholicism.

In the medieval Serbian states, the privileged class consisted of nobility and clergy, distinguished from commoners, part of the feudal society. The Serbian nobility were roughly grouped into magnates, the upper stratum, and the lesser nobility (vlasteličići). Serbia followed the government model established by the Byzantine Empire.

Siege of Golubac

The siege of Golubac was a military conflict between the Hungarian–Wallachian–Lithuanian alliance and the Ottoman Empire in May 1428. This siege was the first battle in Hungarian military history in which the Hungarian army used significant artillery. However, they could not capture Golubac and were defeated by the Ottoman main army, led by Sultan Murad II. After the battle, most of Serbia and Bosnia was conquered by the Ottoman Army.

The HBIS GROUP Serbia Iron & Steel, commonly known as the Hesteel Serbia or Železara Smederevo, is a Serbian steel manufacturing conglomerate with the headquarters in Belgrade. It operates with facilities in Radinac, Smederevo (harbor), Šabac (tinplate) and Kučevo.

Siege of Novo Brdo (1440–41)

The siege of Novo Brdo was a military blockade of Novo Brdo, an important fortified mining town in the Serbian Despotate, by the forces of the Ottoman Empire. The siege began in 1440 and lasted until the capture of the fortress on 27 June 1441. During the siege, the Serbian garrison was supported by the local community of citizens of the Republic of Ragusa.

Battle of Zlatitsa

The Battle of Zlatitsa was fought on 12 December 1443 between the Ottoman Empire and Serbian Hungarian troops in the Balkans. The battle was fought at Zlatitsa Pass near the town of Zlatitsa in the Balkan Mountains, Ottoman Empire. The impatience of the king of Poland and the severity of the winter then compelled Hunyadi to return home, but not before he had utterly broken the Sultan's power in Bosnia, Herzegovina, Serbia, Bulgaria, and Albania.

Battle of Kunovica

The Battle of Kunovica or Battle at Kunovitsa was the battle between crusaders led by John Hunyadi and armies of the Ottoman Empire which took place on 2 or 5 January 1444 near mountain Kunovica between Pirot and Niš.

References

  1. 1 2 Comparative overview of the number of population in 1948, 1953, 1961, 1971, 1981, 1991, 2002 and 2011, pod2.stat.gov.rs; accessed 15 October 2016.
  2. p. 317. author. 1839. p.  317 . Retrieved 31 August 2012 via Internet Archive.
  3. William Smith (1857). Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography. Little, Brown & Company. p. 1310.
  4. Aaron Arrowsmith, A grammar of ancient geography: compiled for the use of King's College School (1832), p. 108, Hansard (London)
  5. Reuters Editorial. "Serbia looks east for quick steel plant sale". Reuters. Retrieved 15 October 2016.
  6. "Serbia buys U.S. Steel plant; Price: $1". CBSNews. 31 January 2012. Retrieved 15 October 2016.
  7. Insajder. "Zelezara Smederevo steel mill: China's offer accepted". Insajder.net. Retrieved 15 October 2016.
  8. "Comico Oil Wins Permit to Build $250 Million Refinery in Serbia". Bloomberg L.P. 13 March 2012.
  9. "Serb City Scraps Comico Oil Refinery Project on Deadline". Bloomberg L.P. 5 February 2013.
  10. Mikavica, A. (3 September 2017). "Slobodne zone mamac za investitore". politika.rs (in Serbian). Retrieved 17 March 2019.
  11. 1 2 "Mihajlović: Smederevo će biti čvorište za teretni saobraćaj". danas.rs (in Serbian). Beta. Retrieved 28 December 2019.
  12. "Predviđena ulaganja od pola milijarde evra u razvoj luka u Srbiji". b92.net (in Serbian). Tanjug. 24 December 2019. Retrieved 28 December 2019.
  13. Olivera Milošević (31 May 2018). "Karađorđev dud postao prirodno dobro" [Karađorđećs mulberry became natural monument]. Politika (in Serbian). p. 12.
  14. Census in the city of Smederevo, pop-stat.mashke.org; accessed 15 October 2016. (in Serbian)
  15. "Microsoft Word - tekst, REV.GN.doc" (PDF). Retrieved 15 October 2016.
  16. POTPISAN SPORAZUM O BRATIMLJENJU SMEDEREVA I TANGŠANA (latin) / ПОТПИСАН СПОРАЗУМ О БРАТИМЉЕЊУ СМЕДЕРЕВА И ТАНГШАНА (cyrillic) smederevskenovine.rs(in Serbian)
  17. Ozvaničena saradnja Tangšana i Smedereva danas.rs(in Serbian)
  18. Ozvaničena saradnja Tangšana i Smedereva podunavlje.info(in Serbian)

Sources

Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Semendria"  . Encyclopædia Britannica . 24 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 616.