Last updated

Coordinates: 0°33′07″N77°34′48″W / 0.552°N 77.58°W / 0.552; -77.58 Soche is a 3,955-metre-high (12,976 ft) dacitic volcano in Ecuador and is located on the northern end of a secondary volcanic chain. Constructed on a Paleozoic substratum, it contains an eastwards-opening caldera in the summit region. A large eruption in 6650 BCE generated ashfall into Colombia and two lava domes in the caldera. [1] The ash- and lapilli-fall is about a metre thick in the Interandean valley and the neighbouring cordilleras and most likely represented a long-lasting obstacle for human population. [2] Earlier eruptive events involving a lava flow that was subsequently offset by a fault zone named the Cayambe-Chingual fault by 110m occurred 9.67 ka BP, [3] and another involving a pyroclastic flow was dated at 37.22 ± 0.63 ka BP. [4]

Geographic coordinate system Coordinate system

A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position; alternatively, a geographic position may be expressed in a combined three-dimensional Cartesian vector. A common choice of coordinates is latitude, longitude and elevation. To specify a location on a plane requires a map projection.

Volcano A rupture in the crust of a planetary-mass object that allows hot lava, volcanic ash, and gases to escape from a magma chamber below the surface

A volcano is a rupture in the crust of a planetary-mass object, such as Earth, that allows hot lava, volcanic ash, and gases to escape from a magma chamber below the surface.

Ecuador Republic in South America

Ecuador, officially the Republic of Ecuador, is a country in northwestern South America, bordered by Colombia on the north, Peru on the east and south, and the Pacific Ocean on the west. Ecuador also includes the Galápagos Islands in the Pacific, about 1,000 kilometres (620 mi) west of the mainland. The capital city is Quito, which is also the largest city.

Related Research Articles

Almolonga mountain in Guatemala

The Almolonga volcano, usually called "Cerro Quemado" is an andesitic stratovolcano in the south-western department of Quetzaltenango in Guatemala. The volcano is located near the town of Almolonga, just south of Quetzaltenango, Guatemala's second largest city.

Cerro Tuzgle stratovolcano in the Susques Department of Jujuy Province in Argentina

Cerro Tuzgle is a dormant stratovolcano in the Susques Department of Jujuy Province in Argentina. Tuzgle is a prominent volcano of the back-arc of the Andes and lies about 280 kilometres (170 mi) east of the main volcanic arc. Part of the Central Volcanic Zone of the Andes, it is 5,486 metres (17,999 ft) high above sea level and was constructed during different stages over a caldera and lava domes. Some major lava flows emanate from the summit crater, and one confirmed and one possible flank collapse unit as well as an ignimbrite sheet are associated with this volcano.

Cordón del Azufre mountain

Cordón del Azufre is a small, inactive complex volcano located in the Central Andes, at the border of Argentina and Chile. The centre contains a series of craters and lava flows covering a surface area of 60 square kilometres (23 sq mi). A western component with four craters aligned in a north–south direction on a 5-kilometre-long (3.1 mi) ridge forms the oldest part. The eastern component is formed by lava flows and craters in Argentina, and the youngest part la Moyra volcano in the western component generated a lava flow that advanced 6 kilometres (3.7 mi) westwards. Weakly porphyritic Andesite and dacite form the rocks of the volcano. No activity, including fumarolic activity, has been recorded at Cordón del Azufre, but the appearance and radiometric age of the lava flows suggest a recent age.

Payún Matrú mountain in Argentina

Payun Matru is a shield volcano in Argentina, located in the Reserva Provincial La Payunia of the Malargüe Department, to the south of the Mendoza Province. It is located in the back-arc region of the Andean Volcanic Belt, which formed through processes associated with the subduction of the Nazca Plate beneath the South American Plate. Together with other volcanic fields such as the Llancanelo volcanic field, Nevado volcanic field and Salado Basin volcanic field it forms the Payenia volcanic province. Payún Matrú is part of the Reserva Provincial La Payunia and has been proposed to become a World Heritage Site.

Ampato dormant Peruvian volcano

Ampato is a dormant 6,288-metre (20,630 ft) stratovolcano in the Andes of southern Peru. It lies about 70–75 kilometres (43–47 mi) northwest of Arequipa and is part of a north-south chain that includes the volcanoes Hualca Hualca and Sabancaya, the last of which has been active in historical time.

Quetrupillán mountain in Cautín Province Chile

Quetrupillán is a stratovolcano located in the La Araucanía Region of Chile. It is situated between Villarrica and Lanín volcanoes, within Villarrica National Park. Geologically, Quetrupillán is located in a tectonic basement block between the main traces of Liquiñe-Ofqui Fault and Reigolil-Pirihueico Fault.

Purico complex mountain in Chile

The Purico complex is a Pleistocene volcanic complex in Chile close to Bolivia, formed by an ignimbrite, several lava domes and stratovolcanoes and one maar. It is one of the Chilean volcanoes of the Andes, and more specifically the Chilean segment of the Central Volcanic Zone, one of the four volcanic belts which make up the Andean Volcanic Belt. The Central Volcanic Zone spans Peru, Bolivia, Chile and Argentina and includes 44 active volcanoes as well as the Altiplano-Puna volcanic complex, a system of large calderas and ignimbrites of which Purico is a member of. Licancabur to the north, La Pacana southeast and Guayaques to the east are separate volcanic systems.

Sollipulli mountain

Sollipulli is an ice-filled volcanic caldera and volcanic complex, which lies southeast of the small town of Melipeuco in the La Araucanía Region, Chile. It is part of the Southern Volcanic Zone of the Andes, one of the four volcanic belts in the Andes chain.

Uturunku stratovolcano

Uturunku is a dormant volcano in the Cordillera de Lípez in Potosí Department, Bolivia. It is located in the Sur Lípez Province, San Pablo de Lípez Municipality. It is in the Central Volcanic Zone of the Andes, and its highest summit is 6,008 metres (19,711 ft) above sea level. The volcano has two summits, with a fumarole field between them. The volcano's landforms include lava domes and lava flows.

Andagua volcanic field mountain

The Andagua volcanic field is a volcanic field in southern Peru. Located between the Coropuna and Sabancaya volcanoes, it is formed from a number of lava domes and scoria cones that have generated lava flows. Activity ranges from the early Pleistocene until historical times.

Cerro Blanco (volcano) mountain in Argentina

Cerro Blanco is a caldera in the Andes of the Catamarca Province in Argentina. Part of the Central Volcanic Zone of the Andes, it is a volcano collapse structure located at an altitude of 4,670 metres (15,320 ft) in a depression. The caldera is associated with a less well defined caldera to the south and several lava domes.

Cerro Guacha

Cerro Guacha is a Miocene caldera in southwestern Bolivia's Sur Lípez Province. Part of the volcanic system of the Andes, it is considered to be part of the Central Volcanic Zone (CVZ), one of the three volcanic arcs of the Andes, and its associated Altiplano-Puna volcanic complex (APVC). A number of volcanic calderas occur within the latter.

Kari-Kari is a Miocene caldera in the Potosi department, Bolivia. It is part of the El Fraile ignimbrite field of the Central Volcanic Zone of the Andes. Volcanic activity in the Central Volcanic Zone has generated 44 volcanic centres with postglacial activity and a number of calderas, including the Altiplano-Puna volcanic complex.

Negra Muerta volcanic complex

Negra Muerta is a caldera in Argentina. It is part of the volcanic centres of the Andean Volcanic Belt, which has formed a number of calderas in large ignimbrite producing eruptions. These calderas include Aguas Calientes, Cerro Panizos, Galan, Negra Muerta and La Pacana. Some of these volcanic centres appear to be associated with large fault zones that cross the Puna.

Negro de Chorrillos is a volcano in the Andes.

Pairique volcanic complex is a volcanic complex in the Jujuy Province, Argentina.

TulTul, Del Medio and Pocitos are three volcanoes in Argentina.

Wheelwright caldera is a caldera in Chile. It is variously described as being between 11 kilometres (6.8 mi) and 22 kilometres (14 mi) wide and lies in the Central Volcanic Zone of the Andes. A lake lies within the caldera, which is among the largest of the Central Andes. The caldera lies in the region of Ojos del Salado, the world's tallest volcano.

Yanaurcu is a volcano in Ecuador. It consists of two Pleistocene lava domes reaching a maximum elevation of 4,535 metres (14,879 ft) and are of andesitic composition and older Pliocene volcanics.

Tata Sabaya mountain

Tata Sabaya is a 5,430-metre (17,810 ft) high volcano in Bolivia. It is part of the Central Volcanic Zone, one of several volcanic belts in the Andes which are separated by gaps without volcanic activity. This section of the Andes was volcanically active since the Jurassic, with an episode of strong ignimbritic volcanism occurring during the Miocene. Tata Sabaya lies in a thinly populated region north of the Salar de Coipasa salt pan.


  1. "Soche". Global Volcanism Program . Smithsonian Institution.
  2. Hall, Minard L.; Mothes, Patricia A. (2008). "Volcanic impediments in the progressive development of pre-Columbian civilizations in the Ecuadorian Andes". Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research. 176 (3): 344–355. doi:10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2008.01.039. ISSN   0377-0273.
  3. Tibaldi, A.; Rovida, A.; Corazzato, C. (2007). "Late Quaternary kinematics, slip-rate and segmentation of a major Cordillera-parallel transcurrent fault: The Cayambe-Afiladores-Sibundoy system, NW South America". Journal of Structural Geology. 29 (4): 664–680. doi:10.1016/j.jsg.2006.11.008. ISSN   0191-8141.
  4. Egbue, Obi; Kellogg, James (2010). "Pleistocene to Present North Andean "escape"". Tectonophysics. 489 (1–4): 248–257. doi:10.1016/j.tecto.2010.04.021. ISSN   0040-1951.