Social Democratic Party
Parti Social Démocrate
The Social Democratic Party (Luxembourgish : Sozialdemokratesch Partei, French : Parti Social Démocrate, German : Sozialdemokratische Partei), abbreviated to PSD, was a social democratic political party in Luxembourg, active between 1971 and 1984.
French is a Romance language of the Indo-European family. It descended from the Vulgar Latin of the Roman Empire, as did all Romance languages. French evolved from Gallo-Romance, the spoken Latin in Gaul, and more specifically in Northern Gaul. Its closest relatives are the other langues d'oïl—languages historically spoken in northern France and in southern Belgium, which French (Francien) has largely supplanted. French was also influenced by native Celtic languages of Northern Roman Gaul like Gallia Belgica and by the (Germanic) Frankish language of the post-Roman Frankish invaders. Today, owing to France's past overseas expansion, there are numerous French-based creole languages, most notably Haitian Creole. A French-speaking person or nation may be referred to as Francophone in both English and French.
German is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe. It is the most widely spoken and official or co-official language in Germany, Austria, Switzerland, South Tyrol (Italy), the German-speaking Community of Belgium, and Liechtenstein. It is also one of the three official languages of Luxembourg and a co-official language in the Opole Voivodeship in Poland. The languages which are most similar to German are the other members of the West Germanic language branch: Afrikaans, Dutch, English, the Frisian languages, Low German/Low Saxon, Luxembourgish, and Yiddish. There are also strong similarities in vocabulary with Danish, Norwegian and Swedish, although those belong to the North Germanic group. German is the second most widely spoken Germanic language, after English.
Social democracy is a political, social and economic ideology that supports economic and social interventions to promote social justice within the framework of a liberal democratic polity and a capitalist economy. The protocols and norms used to accomplish this involve a commitment to representative and participatory democracy; measures for income redistribution and regulation of the economy in the general interest; and welfare state provisions. Social democracy thus aims to create the conditions for capitalism to lead to greater democratic, egalitarian and solidaristic outcomes. Due to longstanding governance by social democratic parties and their influence on socioeconomic policy development in the Nordic countries, in policy circles social democracy has become associated with the Nordic model in the latter part of the 20th century.
The PSD was founded in March 1971 as a secession of the right wing of the Luxembourg Socialist Workers' Party (LSAP) which had a centrist orientation.The group left the LSAP in opposition to the rising leftist faction in the LSAP, which opposed forming coalitions with the Christian Social People's Party (CSV) and championed coalitions with the Communist Party at communal level.
The Luxembourg Socialist Workers' Party, abbreviated to LSAP or POSL, is a social-democratic political party in Luxembourg. The LSAP is the second-largest party in the Chamber of Deputies, having won 13 of 60 seats at the 2013 general election, and has one seat in the European Parliament. The LSAP is currently part of the Bettel-Schneider government, with Etienne Schneider of the LSAP serving as Deputy Prime Minister. Since March 2014 the party's President has been Claude Haagen.
In politics, centrism—the centre or the center —is a political outlook or specific position that involves acceptance or support of a balance of a degree of social equality and a degree of social hierarchy, while opposing political changes which would result in a significant shift of society strongly to either the left or the right.
The Christian Social People's Party, abbreviated to CSV or PCS, is the largest political party in Luxembourg. The party follows a Christian-democratic ideology and, like most parties in Luxembourg, is strongly pro-European. The CSV is a member of the European People's Party (EPP) and the Centrist Democrat International (CDI).
The split was led by Henry Cravatte, who had been ejected as President of the LSAP in May 1970. In total, six of the LSAP's eighteen MPs joined the new party, including Albert Bousser and Astrid Lulling. One-sixth of the LSAP's communal councillors also defected.
Henry Cravatte was a Luxembourgish politician. Cravatte was Deputy Prime Minister from 1964 until 1969, and also served as President of the Luxembourg Socialist Workers' Party.
Albert Bousser was a Luxembourgish politician, railway inspector, and trade unionist.
Astrid Lulling is a politician in Luxembourg, and was a Member of the European Parliament for the Christian Social People's Party, part of the European People's Party.
The party competed in the 1974 election, taking 9.2% of the vote and winning five seats, to draw level with the Communist Party, which had been the long-held fourth party in Luxembourgian politics. In that election, the LSAP formed a coalition with the Democratic Party. In 1979, the PSD lost three of their seats to a resurgent CSV. In the European election held on the same day, the PSD failed to win a seat, but did beat the Communist Party into fifth place.
The Communist Party of Luxembourg, abbreviated to KPL or PCL, is a communist party in Luxembourg.
The Democratic Party, abbreviated to DP, is the major liberal political party in Luxembourg. One of the three major parties, the DP sits on the centre-right, holding moderate market liberal views combined with a strong emphasis on civil liberties, human rights, and internationalism.
Before it fought another election, the party disbanded, in 1984. Some of its members, including Cravatte, returned to the LSAP, whilst others, such as Lulling, joined the CSV,thereby completing their political metamorphosis from left to right.
The politics of Luxembourg takes place in a framework of a parliamentary representative democratic monarchy, whereby the Prime Minister of Luxembourg is the head of government, and the multi-party system. Executive power is under the constitution of 1868, as amended, exercised by the government, by the Grand Duke and the Council of Government (cabinet), which consists of a prime minister and several other ministers. Usually the prime minister is the leader of the political party or coalition of parties having the most seats in parliament. Legislative power is vested in both the government and parliament. The judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature.
General elections were held in Luxembourg on 13 June 2004, alongside European Parliament elections. The ruling Christian Social People's Party (CSV) of Prime Minister Jean-Claude Juncker won the election, increasing its number of seats to its highest since before 1989 and its share of the vote to levels not seen since the 1959 election.
The Party of Socialists and Democrats is a social-democratic and democratic socialist political party in San Marino. It is a member of the Socialist International and its current-day Italian counterpart is the Democratic Party.
Paul Wilwertz was a Luxembourgian politician for the Luxembourg Socialist Workers' Party (LSAP). He was Mayor of Luxembourg City for five years, as well as sitting in the Chamber of Deputies and holding positions in the government.
The Santer-Poos I Ministry was the government of Luxembourg between 20 July 1984 and 14 July 1989. It was the first of three led by Prime Minister Jacques Santer. Throughout the ministry, the Deputy Prime Minister was Jacques Poos.
The European Parliament election of 2009 in Luxembourg was the election of the delegation from Luxembourg to the European Parliament in 2009. It was held on the same day as the elections to the national legislature, the Chamber of Deputies.
General elections were held in Luxembourg on 7 June 2009, together with the 2009 election to the European Parliament. All sixty members of the Chamber of Deputies were elected for five years. The polls were topped by the Christian Social People's Party, which built upon its already high number of seats to achieve a commanding victory, with the highest vote share and number of seats of any party since 1954. Incumbent Prime Minister Jean-Claude Juncker, who is longest serving head of government in the European Union, renewed the coalition agreement with Deputy Prime Minister and Luxembourg Socialist Workers' Party leader Jean Asselborn and formed the Juncker-Asselborn Ministry II, which was sworn-in on 23 July 2009.
The 2005 Luxembourgian communal elections were held on 9 October 2005. Elections are held every six years across all of Luxembourg's then-118 communes.
Diekirch communal council is the local council for the commune of Diekirch, in north-eastern Luxembourg.
Juncker–Asselborn Ministry II was the government of Luxembourg between 23 July 2009 and 11 July 2013. It was led by, and named after, Prime Minister Jean-Claude Juncker and Deputy Prime Minister Jean Asselborn. It was formed on 23 July 2009, after the 2009 election to the Chamber of Deputies. It fell after the withdrawal of the Luxembourg Socialist Workers' Party from the government; Prime Minister Juncker submitted his resignation to the Grand Duke on 11 July 2013, and a snap election was called.
The Santer-Poos III Ministry was the government of Luxembourg between 13 July 1994 and 26 January 1995. It was the third of three led by, and named after, Prime Minister Jacques Santer. Throughout the ministry, the Deputy Prime Minister was Jacques Poos.
The second Werner-Schaus Ministry was the government of Luxembourg between 6 February 1969 and 15 June 1974. Throughout the ministry, the Deputy Prime Minister was Eugène Schaus, replacing Henry Cravatte, who had been Deputy Prime Minister in the Werner-Cravatte Ministry.
The Werner-Cravatte Ministry was the government of Luxembourg between 15 July 1964 and 6 February 1969. Throughout the ministry, the Deputy Prime Minister was Henry Cravatte, replacing Eugène Schaus, who had been Deputy Prime Minister in the first Werner-Schaus Ministry. It was a coalition between the Christian Social People's Party (CSV), and the Luxembourg Socialist Workers' Party (LSAP).
Early general elections were held in Luxembourg on 20 October 2013. The elections were called after Prime Minister Jean-Claude Juncker, at the time the longest serving head of government in the European Union, announced his resignation over a spy scandal involving the Service de Renseignement de l'Etat (SREL). The review found Juncker deficient in his control over the service.
General elections were held in Luxembourg on 14 October 2018. All 60 seats of the Chamber of Deputies were elected.