Social Democratic Party of Germany

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Social Democratic Party of Germany

Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands
AbbreviationSPD
LeaderCo-Leaders:
General Secretary Lars Klingbeil
Deputy Leaders Klara Geywitz
Hubertus Heil
Kevin Kühnert
Serpil Midyatli
Anke Rehlinger
Founded23 May 1863(158 years ago) (1863-05-23)
Merger ofGeneral German Workers' Association
Social Democratic Workers' Party of Germany
Headquarters Willy-Brandt-Haus D-10911 Berlin, Germany
Newspaper Vorwärts
Student wing Juso-Hochschulgruppen
Youth wing Jusos
Women's wingAssociation of Social Democratic Women
Paramilitary wing Reichsbanner Schwarz-Rot-Gold (1924–1933)
Membership (Nov. 2020)Decrease2.svg 404,305 [1]
Ideology
Political position Centre-left [2]
European affiliation Party of European Socialists
International affiliation Progressive Alliance
European Parliament group Progressive Alliance of Socialists and Democrats
Colours  Red
Bundestag
152 / 709
Bundesrat
21 / 69
State Parliaments
465 / 1,868
European Parliament
16 / 96
Ministers-president of states
7 / 16
Party flag
Flag of the Social Democratic Party of Germany.svg
Website
spd.de

The Social Democratic Party of Germany (German : Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands, SPD; [zoˈtsi̯aːldemoˌkʁaːtɪʃə paʁˌtaɪ ˈdɔʏtʃlants] ) is a social democratic [3] [4] [5] political party in Germany. It is one of the two major contemporary political parties in Germany along with the Christian Democratic Union of Germany (CDU).

Contents

Saskia Esken and Norbert Walter-Borjans have been the party's leaders since the 2019 leadership election. It is the second-largest party in the Bundestag with 152 out of 709 seats, having won 20.5% of votes cast at the 2017 federal election. The SPD is a junior member of the federal government along with the CDU/CSU which was first formed after the 2013 election and renewed in 2017. The SPD is a member of 11 of the 16 German state governments and is a leading partner in seven of them.

Established in 1863, the SPD is by far the oldest existing political party represented in the Bundestag and was one of the first Marxist-influenced parties in the world. From the 1890s through the early 20th century, the SPD was Europe's largest Marxist party and was consistently the most popular party in Germany. [6] During the First World War, the party split between a pro-war mainstream and the anti-war Independent Social Democratic Party, of which some members went on to form the Communist Party of Germany (KPD). The SPD played a leading role in the German Revolution of 1918–1919 and was chiefly responsible for the foundation of the Weimar Republic. SPD politician Friedrich Ebert served as the first President of Germany and the SPD was the strongest party until 1932. After the rise of the Nazi Party to power it was the only party in the Reichstag to vote against the Enabling Act of 1933; the SPD was subsequently banned, and operated in exile as the Sopade.

After the Second World War, the SPD was re-established. In East Germany, it was forced to merge with the KPD to form the Socialist Unity Party of Germany. In West Germany, the SPD became one of two major parties alongside the CDU/CSU. In the Godesberg Program, the SPD dropped its commitment to Marxism, becoming a big tent party of the centre-left. The SPD led the federal government from 1969 to 1982 and again from 1998 to 2005. It served as a junior partner to the CDU/CSU from 1966 to 1969, 2005 to 2009 and again since 2013.

The SPD holds pro-EU stances and is a member of the Party of European Socialists and sits with the Progressive Alliance of Socialists and Democrats group in the European Parliament. [7] [8] With 16 MEPs, it is the third largest party in the group. The SPD was a founding member of the Socialist International, but the party left in 2013 after criticising its acceptance of authoritarian parties. The SPD subsequently founded the Progressive Alliance [9] [10] [11] and was joined by numerous other parties around the world. Previously, the SPD was a founding member of both the Second International and the Labour and Socialist International.

History

SPD membership statistics (in thousands) since 1945 SPD Mitgliederentwicklung.svg
SPD membership statistics (in thousands) since 1945

The SPD finds its origins in the General German Workers' Association, founded in 1863, and the Social Democratic Workers' Party, founded in 1869. The two groups merged in 1875 to create the Socialist Workers' Party of Germany (Sozialistische Arbeiterpartei Deutschlands). From 1878 to 1890, the Anti-Socialist Laws banned any grouping or meeting that aimed at spreading socialist principles, but the party still gained support in elections. In 1890, when the ban was lifted and it could again present electoral lists, the party adopted its current name. The SPD was the largest Marxist party in Europe and consistently the most popular party in German federal elections from 1890 onwards, although it was surpassed by other parties in terms of seats won in the Reichstag due to the electoral system. [12]

In the years leading up to World War I, the SPD remained ideologically radical in official principle, although many party officials tended to moderation in everyday politics. According to Roger Eatwell and Anthony Wright, the SPD became a party of reform, with social democracy representing "a party that strives after the socialist transformation of society by the means of democratic and economic reforms". They emphasise this development as central to understanding 20th-century social democracy, of which the SPD was a major influence. [13] In the 1912 federal election, the SPD won 34.8% of votes and finally became the largest party in the Reichstag with 110 seats, although it was still excluded from government. [14] Despite the Second International's agreement to oppose militarism, [15] the SPD supported the German war effort and adopted a policy, known as Burgfriedenspolitik , of refraining from calling strikes or criticising the government. [16] [17] Internal opposition to the policy grew throughout the war. Anti-war members were expelled in 1916 and 1917, leading to the formation of the Independent Social Democratic Party of Germany (USPD). [18]

The SPD played a key role in the German Revolution of 1918–1919. On 9 November 1918, leading SPD member Friedrich Ebert was appointed Chancellor and fellow Social Democrat Philipp Scheidemann proclaimed Germany a republic. [19] The government introduced a large number of reforms in the following months, introducing various civil liberties and labor rights. [20] The SPD government, committed to parliamentary liberal democracy, utilised military force against more radical communist groups, leading to a permanent split between the SPD and the USPD (later the Communist Party of Germany). [21] The SPD was the largest party during the first 13 years of the new Weimar Republic. It decisively won the 1919 federal election with 37.9% of votes, and Ebert became the first President in February. [22] The position of Chancellor was held by Social Democrats until the 1920 federal election, when the SPD lost a substantial portion of its support, falling to 22% of votes. After this, the SPD yielded the Chancellery to other parties, although it remained part of the government until 1924. Ebert died in 1925 and was succeeded by conservative Paul von Hindenburg. After making gains in the 1928 federal election, the SPD's Hermann Müller became Chancellor. [23]

Germany was struck hard by the Great Depression and, unable to negotiate an effective response to the crisis, Müller resigned in 1930. The SPD was politically sidelined as the Nazi Party gained popularity and conservatives dominated the government, assisted by President von Hindenburg's frequent use of emergency powers. The Reichsbanner Schwarz-Rot-Gold , the SPD's paramilitary wing, was frequently involved in violent confrontations with the Nazi Sturmabteilung. [24] The Nazis overtook the SPD as the largest party in July 1932 and Adolf Hitler was appointed Chancellor in January 1933. Of the parties present in the Reichstag during the passage of the Enabling Act of 1933, the SPD was the only one to vote against; most of the Communist deputies had been arrested ahead of the vote. [25] The SPD was formally banned in June. Many members were subsequently imprisoned and killed by the Nazi government while others fled the country. In exile, the party used the name Sopade. [26]

After the end of World War II, the re-establishment of the SPD was permitted in the Western occupation zones in 1945. In the Soviet occupation zone, the SPD was forcibly merged with the Communist Party in 1946 to form the Socialist Unity Party of Germany (SED). The SED became the ruling party of East Germany until 1989. [27] In West Germany, the SPD became one of two major parties, alongside the Christian Democratic Union (CDU). In the inaugural 1949 federal election, it placed second with 29.2% of votes and led the opposition to the CDU government. [28] In its 1959 Godesberg Program, the party dropped its commitment to Marxism and sought to appeal to middle-class voters, becoming a big tent party of the centre-left. [29]

After 17 years in opposition, the SPD became the junior partner in a grand coalition with the CDU/CSU which lasted from 1966 to 1969. After the 1969 federal election, the SPD's Willy Brandt became Chancellor in a coalition with the liberal Free Democratic Party (FDP). His government sought to normalise relations with East Germany and the Eastern Bloc, a policy known as Ostpolitik . [30] The party achieved its best ever result of 45.8% in 1972, one of only three occasions in which it formed the largest Bundestag faction. [31] After Brandt's resignation in 1974, his successor Helmut Schmidt served as Chancellor until 1982, when the SPD returned to opposition. [32] During the Peaceful Revolution in East Germany, the East German SPD was refounded. It merged with the West German party in 1990, shortly before German reunification. [33]

The SPD returned to government under Gerhard Schröder after the 1998 federal election in a coalition with The Greens. [34] This government was re-elected in 2002, but defeated in 2005. [35] The SPD then became junior partner of a grand coalition with the CDU/CSU until 2009. After a term in opposition, they again served as junior partner to the CDU/CSU from 2013 federal election. [36] This arrangement was renewed after the 2017 federal election. [37]

Party platform

The SPD was established as a Marxist party in 1875. However, the Social Democrats underwent a major shift in policies - reflected in the differences between the Heidelberg Program of 1925 which called for "the transformation of the capitalist system of private ownership of the means of production to social ownership" [38] and the Godesberg Program of 1959 which aimed to broaden the Party's voter base and to move its political position toward the centre. [39] After World War II (1939-1945), the SPD under the chairmanship (1946-1952) of Kurt Schumacher re-established itself as a socialist party representing the interests of the working class and of trade unions. With the 1959 Godesberg Program, the party evolved from a socialist working-class party to a modern social-democratic party working within liberal capitalism. The SPD's current Hamburg Programme, adopted in 2007, describes democratic socialism as "an order of economy, state and society in which the civil, political, social and economic fundamental rights are guaranteed for all people, all people live a life without exploitation, oppression and violence, that is in social and human security" and as a "vision of a free, just and solidary society", the realization of which is emphasized as a "permanent task". Social democracy serves as the "principle of action". [40]

Sigmar Gabriel, Vice-Chancellor of Germany (2013-2018) and former chairman of the SPD SPD Bundesparteitag Leipzig 2013 by Moritz Kosinsky 021.jpg
Sigmar Gabriel, Vice-Chancellor of Germany (2013–2018) and former chairman of the SPD

The current party platform of the SPD espouses the goal of social democracy, which it envisions as a societal arrangement in which freedom and social justice are paramount. According to the party platform, freedom, justice and social solidarity form the basis of social democracy.

Internal factions

The SPD is mostly composed of members belonging to either of the two main wings, namely the Keynesian social democrats and Third Way "moderate" social democrats belonging to the Seeheimer Kreis. While the more moderate Seeheimer Kreis generally support the Agenda 2010 programs introduced by Chancellor Gerhard Schröder, the Keynesian social democrats continue to defend classical left-wing policies and the welfare state. The classical left-wing of the SPD claims that in recent years the welfare state has been curtailed through reform programs such as the Agenda 2010, Hartz IV, and the more economic liberal stance of the SPD which were endorsed by centrist social democrats. [42] [43] In reaction to Agenda 2010, in 2005 an inner-party dissident movement developed which led ultimately to the foundation of the new party Labour and Social Justice – The Electoral Alternative (Arbeit & soziale Gerechtigkeit – Die Wahlalternative, WASG). The WASG later merged into The Left (Die Linke) in 2007. [44]

The Parlamentarische Linke comprises left-wing SPD Members of the German Bundestag.

Base of support

Social structure

Before World War II, as the main non-revolutionary left-wing party the Social Democrats fared best among non-Catholic workers as well as intellectuals favouring social progressive causes and increased economic equality. Led by Kurt Schumacher after World War II, the SPD initially opposed both the social market economy and Konrad Adenauer's drive towards Western integration fiercely, but after Schumacher's death it accepted the social market economy and Germany's position in the Western alliance in order to appeal to a broader range of voters. It still remains associated with the economic causes of unionised employees and working class voters. In the 1990s, the left and moderate wings of the party drifted apart, culminating in a secession of a significant number of party members which later joined the socialist party WASG, which later merged into The Left (Die Linke).

Geographic distribution

2017 federal election SPD results Btw17spd.svg
2017 federal election SPD results

Geographically, much of the SPD's current-day support comes from large cities, especially of northern and western Germany and Berlin. As of 2019, 10 of the country's 15 biggest cities are led by SPD mayors. The metropolitan area of the Ruhr Area, where coal mining and steel production were once the biggest sources of revenues, have provided a significant base for the SPD in the 20th century. In the Free Hanseatic City of Bremen, the SPD has governed without interruption since 1949. In southern Germany, the SPD typically garners less support except in the largest cities. At the 2009 federal election, the party lost its only constituency in the entire state of Bavaria (in Munich).

Small town and rural support comes especially from the traditionally Protestant areas of northern Germany and Brandenburg (with notable exceptions such as Western Pomerania where CDU leader Angela Merkel has her constituency) and a number of university towns. A striking example of the general pattern is the traditionally Catholic Emsland, where the Social Democrats generally gain a low percentage of votes, whereas the Reformed Protestant region of East Frisia directly to the north, with its strong traditional streak of anti-Catholicism, is one of their strongest constituencies. Further south, the SPD also enjoys solid support in northern Hesse, parts of Palatinate and the Saarland. The social democrats are weakest in the south-eastern states of Bavaria, Saxony and Thuringia, where the party's percentage of votes dropped to single-digit figures in the 2018 and 2019 elections.

Election results

Election results and governments since 1949 German parliamentary elections diagram de.svg
Election results and governments since 1949

The SPD, at times called SAPD, participated in general elections determining the members of parliament. For the elections until 1933, the parliament was called Reichstag, except for the one of 1919 which was called the National Assembly and since 1949 the parliament is called Bundestag. Note that changes in borders (1871, 1919, 1920, 1949, 1957 and 1990) varied the number of eligible voters whereas electoral laws also changed the ballot system (only constituencies until 1912, only party lists until 1949 and a mixed system thereafter), the suffrage (women vote since 1919; minimum active voting age was 25 till 1918, 20 till 1946, 21 till 1972 and 18 since), the number of seats (fixed or flexible) and the length of the legislative period (three or four years). The list begins after the SPD was formed in 1875, when labour parties unified to only form the SPD (then SAPD, current name since 1890).

Imperial Germany (Reichstag)

ElectionVotes %Seats+/–Government
1877 493,4479.1 (#4)
13 / 397
Opposition
1878 437,1587.6 (#5)
9 / 397
Decrease2.svg 4Opposition
1881 311,9616.1 (#7)
13 / 397
Increase2.svg 4Opposition
1884 549,9909.7 (#5)
24 / 397
Increase2.svg 11Opposition
1887 763,10210.1 (#5)
11 / 397
Decrease2.svg 13Opposition
1890 1,427,32319.7 (#1)
35 / 397
Increase2.svg 24Opposition
1893 1,786,73823.3 (#1)
44 / 397
Increase2.svg 9Opposition
1898 2,107,07627.2 (#1)
56 / 397
Increase2.svg 12Opposition
1903 3,010,77131.7 (#1)
81 / 397
Increase2.svg 25Opposition
1907 3,259,02928.9 (#1)
43 / 397
Decrease2.svg 38Opposition
1912 4,250,39934.8 (#1)
110 / 397
Increase2.svg 67Opposition
Coalition
Coalition

Weimar Republic (Reichstag)

ElectionVotes %Seats+/–Government
1919 11,509,04837.9 (#1)
165 / 423
Increase2.svg 55Coalition
1920 6,179,99121.9 (#1)
102 / 459
Decrease2.svg 63External support
Coalition
External support
Coalition
Opposition
May 1924 6,008,90520.5 (#1)
100 / 472
Decrease2.svg 2Opposition
Dec 1924 7,881,04126.0 (#1)
131 / 493
Increase2.svg 31Opposition
External support
Opposition
1928 9,152,97929.8 (#1)
153 / 491
Increase2.svg 22Coalition
1930 8,575,24424.5 (#1)
143 / 577
Decrease2.svg 10Opposition
Jul 1932 7,959,71221.6 (#2)
133 / 608
Decrease2.svg 10Opposition
Nov 1932 7,247,90120.4 (#2)
121 / 584
Decrease2.svg 12Opposition
Mar 1933 7,181,62918.3 (#2)
120 / 667
Decrease2.svg 1Opposition
Nov 1933
Banned. The National Socialist German Workers Party was the sole legal party.
1936
Banned. The National Socialist German Workers Party was the sole legal party.
1938
Banned. The National Socialist German Workers Party was the sole legal party.

Federal parliament (Bundestag)

ElectionConstituencyParty listSeats+/–Government
Votes %Votes %
1949 6,934,97529.2 (#2)
131 / 402
Opposition
1953 8,131,25729.5 (#2)7,944,94328.8 (#2)
162 / 509
Increase2.svg 22Opposition
1957 11,975,40032.0 (#2)11,875,33931.8 (#2)
181 / 519
Increase2.svg 19Opposition
1961 11,672,05736.5 (#1)11,427,35536.2 (#1)
203 / 521
Increase2.svg 22Opposition
1965 12,998,47440.1 (#1)12,813,18639.3 (#1)
217 / 518
Increase2.svg 14 CDU/CSU–SPD
1969 14,402,37444.0 (#1)14,065,71642.7 (#1)
237 / 518
Increase2.svg 20SPD–FDP
1972 18,228,23948.9 (#1)17,175,16945.8 (#1)
242 / 518
Increase2.svg 5SPD–FDP
1976 16,471,32143.7 (#1)16,099,01942.6 (#1)
224 / 518
Decrease2.svg 18SPD–FDP
1980 16,808,86144.5 (#1)16,260,67742.9 (#1)
228 / 519
Increase2.svg 4SPD–FDP
1983 15,686,03340.4 (#2)14,865,80738.2 (#1)
202 / 520
Decrease2.svg 26Opposition
1987 14,787,95339.2 (#1)14,025,76337.0 (#1)
193 / 519
Decrease2.svg 9Opposition
1990 16,279,98035.2 (#2)15,545,36633.5 (#2)
239 / 662
Increase2.svg 46Opposition
1994 17,966,81338.3 (#1)17,140,35436.4 (#1)
252 / 672
Increase2.svg 13Opposition
1998 21,535,89343.8 (#1)20,181,26940.9 (#1)
298 / 669
Increase2.svg 43SPD–Greens
2002 20,059,96741.9 (#1)18,484,56038.5 (#1) [45]
251 / 603
Decrease2.svg 47SPD–Greens
2005 18,129,10038.4 (#1)16,194,66534.2 (#1)
222 / 614
Decrease2.svg 29 CDU/CSU–SPD
2009 12,077,43727.9 (#2)9,988,84323.0 (#2)
146 / 622
Decrease2.svg 76Opposition
2013 12,835,93329.4 (#2)11,247,28325.7 (#2)
193 / 630
Increase2.svg 42 CDU/CSU–SPD
2017 11,426,61324.6 (#2)9,538,36720.5 (#2)
153 / 709
Decrease2.svg 40 CDU/CSU–SPD

European Parliament

ElectionVotes %Seats+/–
1979 11,370,04540.8 (#1)
33 / 81
1984 9,296,41737.4 (#2)
32 / 81
Decrease2.svg 1
1989 10,525,72837.3 (#1)
30 / 81
Decrease2.svg 2
1994 11,389,69732.2 (#1)
40 / 99
Increase2.svg 10
1999 8,307,08530.7 (#2)
33 / 99
Decrease2.svg 7
2004 5,547,97121.5 (#2)
23 / 99
Decrease2.svg 10
2009 5,472,56620.8 (#2)
23 / 99
Steady2.svg 0
2014 7,999,95527.2 (#2)
27 / 96
Increase2.svg 4
2019 5,914,95315.8 (#3)
16 / 96
Decrease2.svg 11

State Parliaments (Länder)

State parliamentElectionVotes %Seats+/–Government
Baden-Württemberg 2021 535,46211.0 (#3)
19 / 143
Steady2.svg 0Opposition
Bavaria 2018 1,317,9429.7 (#5)
22 / 205
Decrease2.svg 20Opposition
Berlin 2016 352,36921.6 (#1)
38 / 160
Decrease2.svg 10SPD–Left–Greens
Brandenburg 2019 331,23826.2 (#1)
25 / 88
Decrease2.svg 5SPD–CDU–Greens
Bremen 2019 365,31524.9 (#2)
23 / 84
Decrease2.svg 7SPD–Greens–Left
Hamburg 2020 1,554,76039.0 (#1)
54 / 121
Decrease2.svg 4SPD–Greens
Hesse 2018 570,16619.8 (#3)
29 / 137
Decrease2.svg 8Opposition
Lower Saxony 2017 1,413,99036.9 (#1)
55 / 137
Increase2.svg 6SPD–CDU
Mecklenburg-Vorpommern 2016 246,39330.6 (#1)
28 / 71
Decrease2.svg 2SPD–CDU
North Rhine-Westphalia 2017 2,649,20531.2 (#2)
69 / 199
Decrease2.svg 30Opposition
Rhineland-Palatinate 2021 691,05535.7 (#1)
39 / 101
Steady2.svg 0SPD–Greens–FDP
Saarland 2017 157,84129.6 (#2)
17 / 51
Steady2.svg 0CDU–SPD
Saxony 2019 167,2897.7 (#5)
10 / 119
Decrease2.svg 8CDU–Greens–SPD
Saxony-Anhalt 2021 89,4758.4 (#4)
9 / 87
Decrease2.svg 2TBD
Schleswig-Holstein 2017 400,63527.2 (#2)
21 / 73
Decrease2.svg 1Opposition
Thuringia 2019 90,9848.2 (#4)
8 / 90
Decrease2.svg 4Left–SPD–Greens

Results timeline

Year Flag of Germany.svg
DE
Flag of Europe.svg
EU
Flag of Baden-Wurttemberg.svg
BW
Flag of Bavaria (lozengy).svg
BY
Flag of Berlin.svg
BE
Flag of Brandenburg.svg
BB
Flag of Bremen.svg
HB
Flag of Hamburg.svg
HH
Flag of Hesse.svg
HE
Flag of Lower Saxony.svg
NI
Flag of Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania.svg
MV
Flag of North Rhine-Westphalia.svg
NW
Flag of Rhineland-Palatinate.svg
RP
Flag of Saarland.svg
SL
Flag of Saxony.svg
SN
Flag of Saxony-Anhalt (state).svg
ST
Flag of Schleswig-Holstein.svg
SH
Flag of Thuringia.svg
TH
Flagge Grossherzogtum Baden (1891-1918).svg
SB
Flag of Wurttemberg-Baden.svg
WB
Flagge Konigreich Wurttemberg.svg
WH
1946N/AN/A31.928.6
  
48.7
    
[lower-alpha 1] 47.6
  
43.142.7 [lower-alpha 1] [lower-alpha 1] [lower-alpha 1] [lower-alpha 1]
194722.4
  
   20.8Decrease2.svg 41.7     43.432.034.332.843.8
1948   Increase2.svg64.5
   
               
194929.2Decrease2.svg 42.8
1950Increase2.svg 33.0
  
Decrease2.svg 28.0
  
Decrease2.svg 44.7N/A Increase2.svg 44.4N/AIncrease2.svg 32.3N/AN/ADecrease2.svg 27.5N/A
1951   Decrease2.svg 39.1 Decrease2.svg 33.7Decrease2.svg 34.0
195228.0
   
      Decrease2.svg 32.4
  
1953Decrease2.svg 28.8    Increase2.svg 45.2
1954Increase2.svg 28.1Decrease2.svg 44.6Decrease2.svg 42.6Increase2.svg 34.5Increase2.svg 33.2
1955      Increase2.svg 47.8  Increase2.svg 35.2Decrease2.svg 31.7Decrease2.svg 20.1
1956Increase2.svg 28.9         
1957Increase2.svg 31.8    Increase2.svg 53.9   
1958Increase2.svg 30.8Increase2.svg 52.6  Increase2.svg 46.9Increase2.svg 39.2Increase2.svg 35.9
1959  Increase2.svg 54.9  Increase2.svg 39.5Increase2.svg 34.9
  
1960Increase2.svg 35.3     Increase2.svg 30.0
1961Increase2.svg 36.2Increase2.svg 57.4
1962Increase2.svg 35.3  Increase2.svg 50.8Increase2.svg 43.3Increase2.svg 39.2
1963Increase2.svg 61.9Decrease2.svg 54.7  Increase2.svg 44.9Increase2.svg 40.7
1964Increase2.svg 37.3      
  
1965Increase2.svg 39.3Increase2.svg 40.7
1966    Increase2.svg35.8Increase2.svg59.0Increase2.svg51.0Increase2.svg 49.5
1967Decrease2.svg 56.9Decrease2.svg 46.0  Decrease2.svg 43.1  Decrease2.svg 36.8Increase2.svg 39.4
1968Decrease2.svg 29.0      
1969Increase2.svg 42.7  
1970  Decrease2.svg 33.3Decrease2.svg 55.3Decrease2.svg 45.9Increase2.svg 46.3Decrease2.svg 46.1Increase2.svg 40.8
1971Decrease2.svg 50.4Increase2.svg55.3       Increase2.svg 40.5Increase2.svg 41.0
1972Increase2.svg45.8Increase2.svg37.6  
1973  
1974Decrease2.svg 30.2Decrease2.svg 45.0Decrease2.svg 43.2Decrease2.svg 43.1
  
1975Decrease2.svg 42.6Decrease2.svg 48.8    Decrease2.svg 45.1Decrease2.svg 38.5Increase2.svg 41.8Decrease2.svg 40.1
1976Decrease2.svg 42.6Decrease2.svg 33.3     
1977  
1978Increase2.svg 31.4Increase2.svg 51.5Increase2.svg 44.3Decrease2.svg 42.2
197940.8Increase2.svg 42.7
  
Decrease2.svg 48.8   Increase2.svg 42.3Increase2.svg 41.7
1980Increase2.svg 42.9Decrease2.svg 32.5 Increase2.svg 48.4Increase2.svg 45.4
1981  Decrease2.svg 38.3 
1982Increase2.svg 31.9Decrease2.svg 42.7Decrease2.svg 42.8Decrease2.svg 36.5
Increase2.svg 51.3
1983Decrease2.svg 38.2Increase2.svg 51.3 Increase2.svg 46.2Decrease2.svg 39.6Increase2.svg 43.7
1984Decrease2.svg 37.4Decrease2.svg 32.4  
  
1985Decrease2.svg 32.4Increase2.svg52.1Increase2.svg 49.2
1986Decrease2.svg 27.5Decrease2.svg 41.7Increase2.svg 42.1  
1987Decrease2.svg 37.0Decrease2.svg 50.5Increase2.svg 45.0Decrease2.svg 40.2Decrease2.svg 38.8Increase2.svg 45.2
1988Decrease2.svg 32.0   Increase2.svg54.8
1989Decrease2.svg 37.3Increase2.svg 37.3
  
 
1990Decrease2.svg 33.5Decrease2.svg 26.0Decrease2.svg 30.438.2Increase2.svg 44.227.0Decrease2.svg 50.0Increase2.svg54.419.126.022.8
1991     Decrease2.svg 38.8Increase2.svg 48.0
 
Increase2.svg 40.8   Increase2.svg 44.8 
1992Decrease2.svg 29.4       Decrease2.svg 46.2
1993  Decrease2.svg 40.4 
1994Increase2.svg 36.4Decrease2.svg 32.2Increase2.svg 30.0Increase2.svg54.1  Increase2.svg 44.3Increase2.svg 29.5Decrease2.svg 49.4Decrease2.svg 16.6Increase2.svg 34.0Increase2.svg29.6
1995Decrease2.svg 23.6 Decrease2.svg 33.4Decrease2.svg 38.0   Decrease2.svg 46.0     
1996Decrease2.svg 25.1        Decrease2.svg 39.8Decrease2.svg 39.8
1997Decrease2.svg 36.2    
1998Increase2.svg 40.9Decrease2.svg 28.7  Increase2.svg47.9Increase2.svg 34.3Increase2.svg35.9
1999  Decrease2.svg 30.7Decrease2.svg 22.4
  
Decrease2.svg 39.3Increase2.svg 42.6Decrease2.svg 39.4   Decrease2.svg 44.4Decrease2.svg 10.7 Decrease2.svg 18.5
2000    Decrease2.svg 42.8Increase2.svg 43.1
2001Increase2.svg 33.3  Increase2.svg 36.5  Increase2.svg 44.8  
Increase2.svg 29.7
2002Decrease2.svg 38.5  Increase2.svg40.6  Decrease2.svg 20.0
2003  Decrease2.svg 19.6Decrease2.svg 42.3Decrease2.svg 29.1Decrease2.svg 33.4  
2004Decrease2.svg 21.5Decrease2.svg 31.9  Decrease2.svg 30.5Decrease2.svg 30.8Decrease2.svg 9.8Decrease2.svg 14.5
2005Decrease2.svg 34.2  Decrease2.svg 37.1  Decrease2.svg 38.7
2006  Decrease2.svg 25.2Increase2.svg 30.8Decrease2.svg 30.2Increase2.svg45.6Increase2.svg 21.4  
2007  Decrease2.svg 36.7     
2008Decrease2.svg 18.6  Increase2.svg 34.1Increase2.svg 36.7Decrease2.svg 30.3
2009Decrease2.svg 23.0Decrease2.svg 20.8Increase2.svg 33.0Decrease2.svg 23.7Decrease2.svg 24.5Increase2.svg 10.4Decrease2.svg 25.4Increase2.svg 18.5
2010  Decrease2.svg 34.5
  
  
2011Decrease2.svg 23.1Decrease2.svg 28.3Increase2.svg 38.6Increase2.svg 48.4Increase2.svg 35.6Decrease2.svg 35.7Increase2.svg 21.5
2012         Increase2.svg 39.1  Increase2.svg 30.6  Increase2.svg 30.4
2013Increase2.svg 25.7Increase2.svg 20.6Increase2.svg 30.7Increase2.svg 32.6       
2014  Increase2.svg 27.3Decrease2.svg 31.9  Increase2.svg 12.4Decrease2.svg 12.4
2015  Decrease2.svg 32.8Decrease2.svg 45.6     
2016Decrease2.svg 12.7Decrease2.svg 21.6    Decrease2.svg 30.6Increase2.svg 36.2Decrease2.svg 10.6
2017Decrease2.svg 20.5   Increase2.svg 36.9  Decrease2.svg 31.2   Decrease2.svg 29.6   Decrease2.svg 27.3
2018  Decrease2.svg 9.7Decrease2.svg 19.8    
2019Decrease2.svg 15.8Decrease2.svg 26.2Decrease2.svg 24.9Decrease2.svg 7.7Decrease2.svg 8.2
2020      Decrease2.svg 39.2      
2021TBDDecrease2.svg 11.0TBD  TBDDecrease2.svg 35.7
   
Decrease2.svg 8.4TBD
Year Flag of Germany.svg
DE
Flag of Europe.svg
EU
Flag of Baden-Wurttemberg.svg
BW
Flag of Bavaria (lozengy).svg
BY
Flag of Berlin.svg
BE
Flag of Brandenburg.svg
BB
Flag of Bremen.svg
HB
Flag of Hamburg.svg
HH
Flag of Hesse.svg
HE
Flag of Lower Saxony.svg
NI
Flag of Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania.svg
MV
Flag of North Rhine-Westphalia.svg
NW
Flag of Rhineland-Palatinate.svg
RP
Flag of Saarland.svg
SL
Flag of Saxony.svg
SN
Flag of Saxony-Anhalt (state).svg
ST
Flag of Schleswig-Holstein.svg
SH
Flag of Thuringia.svg
TH
Bold indicates best result to date.
  Present in legislature (in opposition)
  Junior coalition partner
  Senior coalition partner

Party leadership

The federal leader is supported by six Deputy Leaders and the party executive.

The current leaders are Saskia Esken and Norbert Walter-Borjans. The previous leader was Andrea Nahles. She announced her pending resignation on 2 June 2019.

As Germany is a federal republic, each of Germany's states have their own SPD party at the state level. The current leaders of the SPD state parties are the following:

StateLeaderSeatsGovernment
Baden-Württemberg Andreas Stoch
19 / 143
Opposition
Bavaria Natascha Kohnen
22 / 205
Opposition
Berlin Franziska Giffey
Saleh Raed
38 / 160
Coalition
Brandenburg Dietmar Woidke
25 / 88
Coalition
Bremen Sascha Karolin Aulepp
30 / 83
Coalition
Hamburg Melanie Leonhard
51 / 121
Coalition
Hesse Nancy Faeser
37 / 110
Opposition
Lower Saxony Stephan Weil
55 / 137
Coalition
Mecklenburg-Vorpommern Manuela Schwesig
26 / 71
Coalition
North Rhine-Westphalia Thomas Kutschaty
69 / 199
Opposition
Rhineland-Palatinate Roger Lewentz
39 / 101
Coalition
Saarland Anke Rehlinger
17 / 51
Coalition
Saxony Martin Dulig
18 / 126
Coalition
Saxony-Anhalt Juliane Kleemann
Andreas Schmidt  [ de ]
11 / 87
Coalition
Schleswig-Holstein Serpil Midyatli
21 / 73
Opposition
Thuringia Georg Maier
13 / 91
Coalition

Notes

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 The eastern sections of the SPD were forcibly merged into the SED prior to the 1946 elections in the eastern zone.

See also

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Further reading