Democratic Bosnia and Herzegovina (1943–1946)
Demokratska Bosna i Hercegovina (Serbo-Croatian)
People's Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina (1946–1963)
Socialist Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina (1963–1992)
Socijalistička Republika Bosna i Hercegovina (Serbo-Croatian)
Anthem: "Hej Slaveni"/"Hej Sloveni"
"Хеј, Слaвени"/"Хеј, Слoвени"
(English: "Hey, Slavs")
Location of Bosnia and Herzegovina in Yugoslavia.
|Status||Constituent republic of Yugoslavia|
|Government||Titoist one-party socialist republic|
|Chairmen of the Presidency of Bosnia and Herzegovina|
• 1945–1946 (first)
• 1990–1992 (last)
|Chairman of the Council of Ministers of Bosnia and Herzegovina|
• 1945–1948 (first)
• 1990–1992 (last)
|Legislature||Parliament of Bosnia and Herzegovina|
|Historical era||Cold War|
|25 November 1943|
|18 November 1991|
• Republika Srpska formed
|9 January 1992|
|1 March 1992|
• Outbreak of Bosnian War
|5 April 1992|
|6 April 1992|
|1991||51,129 km2 (19,741 sq mi)|
|ISO 3166 code||BA|
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Bosnia and Herzegovina
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The Socialist Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Serbo-Croatian : Socijalistička Republika Bosna i Hercegovina / Социјалистичка Pепублика Босна и Херцеговина), commonly referred to as Socialist Bosnia or simply Bosnia, was one of the six constituent federal states forming the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. It was a predecessor of the modern-day Bosnia and Herzegovina, existing between 1945 and 1992, under a number of different formal names, including Democratic Bosnia and Herzegovina (1943–1946) and People's Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina (1946–1963).
Within Yugoslavia, Bosnia and Herzegovina was a unique federal state with no dominant ethnic group, as it was the case in other constituent states, all of which were also nation states of Yugoslavia's South Slavic ethnic groups. It was administered under strict terms of sanctioned consociationalism, known locally as "ethnic key" (Serbo-Croatian : nacionalni ključ / национални кључ), based on the balance of political representation of 3 largest ethnic groups (Bosnian Muslims, Croats and Serbs).
Sarajevo served as the capital city throughout its existence and remained the capital following independence. The Socialist Republic was dissolved in 1990 when it abandoned its socialist institutions and adopted liberal ones, as the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina which declared independence from Yugoslavia in 1992. The Government of Bosnia and Herzegovina was, up to 20 December 1990, in sole control of the League of Communists of Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Bosnian branch of League of Communists of Yugoslavia.
The borders of SR Bosnia and Herzegovina were almost identical to the one Condominium of Bosnia and Herzegovina had during the period of Austro-Hungarian rule that lasted until 1918. That year Bosnia became part of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes and divided into several banovinas (regional administrative units), namely parts of Vrbas, Drina, Zeta and Croatia banovinas. With the establishment of a People's Republic, its modern borders were delineated.
During a meeting of the State Anti-fascist Council for the National Liberation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (ZAVNOBiH) in Mrkonjić Grad on 25 November 1943.[ clarification needed ] In April 1945 its name was formalized as the Federal State of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Serbo-Croatian : Federalna Država Bosna i Hercegovina / Федерална Држава Босна и Херцеговина), a constituent unit of the Democratic Federal Yugoslavia. With DF Yugoslavia changing its name to the Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia on 29 November 1945 as well as the promulgation of the 1946 Yugoslav Constitution two months later in January, its constituent units also changed their respective names. FS Bosnia and Herzegovina thus became known as the People's Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Narodna Republika Bosna i Hercegovina / Народна Република Босна и Херцеговина).
This constitutional system lasted until the 1963 Yugoslav Constitution. On 7 April 1963, Yugoslavia was reconstituted as the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, and PR Bosnia and Herzegovina changed its name to the Socialist Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Socijalistička Republika Bosna i Hercegovina / Социјалистичка Република Босна и Херцеговина).
After independence on 1 March 1992, the country was renamed to the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina . Following the Dayton Agreement that was in force, it became simply a federated state known as Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1997.
Because of its central geographic position within the Yugoslav federation, post-war Bosnia was strategically selected as a base for the development of the military defense industry.This contributed to a large concentration of arms and military personnel in Bosnia; a significant factor in the war that followed the break-up of Yugoslavia in the 1990s. However, Bosnia's existence within Yugoslavia, for the large part, was peaceful and prosperous. Being one of the poorer republics in the early 1950s it quickly recovered economically, taking advantage of its extensive natural resources to stimulate industrial development. The Yugoslavian communist doctrine of "brotherhood and unity" particularly suited Bosnia's diverse and multi-ethnic society that, because of such an imposed system of tolerance, thrived culturally and socially. The improvements to cultural tolerance throughout Bosnia and Herzegovina culminated with the selection of Sarajevo to host the 1984 Winter Olympics.
Though considered a political backwater of the federation for much of the 50s and 60s, the 70s saw the ascension of a strong Bosnian political elite. While working within the communist system, politicians such as Džemal Bijedić, Branko Mikulić and Hamdija Pozderac reinforced and protected the sovereignty of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Their efforts proved key during the turbulent period following Tito's death in 1980, and are today considered some of the early steps towards Bosnian independence. However, the republic hardly escaped the increasingly nationalistic climate of the time unscathed.
Following the death of Tito in 1980, rising nationalist ideas primarily noted in Serbian academia, pressured Bosnia to deal with allegations of rising nationalism in their own society. One of the most controversial events that were taken by a Bosnian political leadership was a so-called Sarajevo process in 1983 where, under significant pressure from Serbia's political leadership, Bosnian political elite used their influence to secure convictions for several Bosniak nationalists as a type of a political sacrifice to gain political points in the fight against Serbian nationalists.
The Sarajevo process centered on convicting Alija Izetbegović for writing "The Islamic Declaration", a literary work which was in the Yugoslav communist regime considered a radical approach towards socialist ideals of former Yugoslavia that were based on suppression of nationalism and any violation of that doctrine was punishable by law. Such trials in the communist regime were quite common and a typical practice of suppressing the right to free speech. Bosnian politicians used this practice to reaffirm their political opposition to Serbian nationalist tendencies and in particular opposition to the politics of Slobodan Milošević who was trying to revert the constitutional amendments of the 1970s that awarded the Bosniaks the status of a constituent ethnicity.
The process also backfired as the Serbian lobby insisted that Bosnia was a "dark nation" where all those who oppose the government will be prosecuted, where Bosnian Muslim communists were prosecuting Muslim believers. That kind of propaganda attracted many Bosnian Muslims to their way of thinking. Others were interpreting the Sarajevo process as a way of removing the political amateurs who could end up disrupting the process of Bosnian independence.
With the fall of communism and the start of the break-up of Yugoslavia, the old communist doctrine of tolerance began to lose its strength, creating an opportunity for nationalist elements in the society to spread their influence.
On the first multi-party elections that took place in November 1990 in Bosnia and Herzegovina, the three largest ethnic parties in the country won: the Bosniak Party of Democratic Action, the Serbian Democratic Party and the Croatian Democratic Union of Bosnia and Herzegovina. After the elections, they formed a coalition government.
Parties divided the power along the ethnic lines so that the President of the Presidency of the Socialist Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina was a Bosniak, president of the Parliament was a Bosnian Serb and the prime minister a Bosnian Croat.
After Slovenia and Croatia declared independence from the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia in 1991, Bosnia and Herzegovina declared its sovereignty in October 1991 and organized a referendum on independence in March 1992. The decision of the Parliament of the Socialist Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina on holding the referendum was taken after the majority of Bosnian Serb members had left the assembly in protest.
These Bosnian Serb assembly members invited the Bosnian Serb population to boycott the referendum held on 29 February and 1 March 1992. The turnout in the referendum was 64-67% and the vote was 98% in favor of independence. Independence was declared on 5 March 1992 by the parliament. The referendum and the murder of two Bosnian Serb members of a wedding procession in Sarajevo the day prior to the referendum was utilized by the Bosnian Serb political leadership as a reason to start road blockades in protest.Further political and social deterioration, leading to the Bosnian War followed.
The Socialist Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina was renamed the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina on 8 April 1992,losing the adjective "Socialist". It established a multi-party system and began moving toward a fully capitalist economic system. The republic retained socialist realist symbols pending the end of the Yugoslav Wars. The republic was led by Alija Izetbegović in a fractious political environment. In 1992, the Republic declared independence from the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.
[ citation needed ]
Bosnia and Herzegovina, abbreviated BiH or B&H, sometimes called Bosnia–Herzegovina and often known informally as Bosnia, is a country in South and Southeast Europe, located within the Balkans. Sarajevo is the capital and largest city.
Bosnia and Herzegovina, sometimes referred to simply as Bosnia, is a country in Southeast Europe on the Balkan Peninsula. It has had permanent settlement since the Neolithic Age. By the early historical period it was inhabited by Illyrians and Celts. Christianity arrived in the 1st century, and by the 4th century the area became part of the Western Roman Empire. Germanic tribes invaded soon after, followed by Slavs in the 6th Century. In 1136, Béla II of Hungary invaded Bosnia and created the title "Ban of Bosnia" as an honorary title for his son Ladislaus II of Hungary. During this time, Bosnia became virtually autonomous, and was eventually proclaimed a kingdom in 1377. The Ottoman Empire followed in 1463 and lasted over 400 years. They wrought great changes to the political and administrative system, introduced land reforms, and class and religious distinctions. A series of uprisings began 1831, which culminated in the Herzegovinian rebellion, a widespread peasant uprising, in 1875. The conflict eventually forced the Ottomans to cede administration of the country to Austria-Hungary through the Treaty of Berlin in 1878. The establishment of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia in 1929 brought the redrawing of administrative regions into the Kingdom of Yugoslavia which purposely avoided all historical and ethnic lines, and removed any trace of Bosnian identity. The kingdom of Yugoslavia was conquered by Nazi forces in World War II, and Bosnia was ceded to the Independent State of Croatia (NDH), which led to widespread persecution and genocide. Three years of war began in 1992 which caused around 100,000 deaths and 2 million refugees.
Alija Izetbegović was a Bosnian politician, lawyer, Islamic philosopher and author, who in 1992 became the first president of the Presidency of the newly independent Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina. He served in this role until 1996, when he became a member of the Presidency of Bosnia and Herzegovina, serving until 2000.
The Yugoslav Wars were a series of separate but related ethnic conflicts, wars of independence, and insurgencies fought in the former Yugoslavia from 1991 to 2001, leading up to and resulting from the breakup of the Yugoslav federation in 1992. Its constituent republics declared independence due to unresolved tensions between ethnic minorities in the new countries, which fueled the wars.
Muslims as a designation for a particular ethnic group, refers to one of six officially recognized constituent peoples of Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. The term was adopted in 1971, as an official designation of ethnicity for Yugoslav Slavic Muslims, thus grouping together a number of distinct South Slavic communities of Islamic ethnocultural tradition, among them most numerous being the modern Bosniaks of Bosnia and Herzegovina, along with some smaller groups of different ethnicity, such as Gorani and Torbeši. This designation did not include Yugoslav non-Slavic Muslims, such as Albanians, Turks and Romani.
The Bosnian War was an international armed conflict that took place in Bosnia and Herzegovina between 1992 and 1995. The war is commonly seen as having started on 6 April 1992, following a number of earlier violent incidents. The war ended on 14 December 1995. The main belligerents were the forces of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina and those of Herzeg-Bosnia and Republika Srpska, proto-states led and supplied by Croatia and Serbia, respectively.
The Breakup of Yugoslavia occurred as a result of a series of political upheavals and conflicts during the early 1990s. After a period of political and economic crisis in the 1980s, constituent republics of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia split apart, but the unresolved issues caused bitter inter-ethnic Yugoslav wars. The wars primarily affected Bosnia and Herzegovina, neighbouring parts of Croatia and, some years later, Kosovo.
The Republika Srpska was a state in Southeastern Europe under the control of the Army of Republika Srpska during the Bosnian War. It claimed to be a sovereign state, though this claim was not recognized by the Bosnian government, the United Nations, or any other recognized state. For the first few months of its existence, it was known as the Serbian Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
The Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina was a state in Southeastern Europe, existing from 1992 to 1995. It is the direct legal predecessor to the modern-day state of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
The Croatian Republic of Herzeg-Bosnia was an unrecognised geopolitical entity and proto-state in Bosnia and Herzegovina. It was proclaimed on 18 November 1991 under the name Croatian Community of Herzeg-Bosnia as a "political, cultural, economic and territorial whole" in the territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
The Yugoslav wars were a series of violent conflicts in the territory of the former Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFRY) that took place between 1991 and 2001. This article is a timeline of relevant events preceding, during, and after the wars.
The Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina, often referred to as Bosnian Croats or Herzegovinian Croats, are the third most populous ethnic group in the country after Bosniaks and Serbs, and are one of the constitutive nations of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina have made significant contributions to the culture of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Most Croats declare themselves Roman Catholics and speakers of Croatian.
Adil Zulfikarpašić was a prominent Bosniak intellectual and politician who was the vice president of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina, during the Bosnian War of the 1990s, under Bosnia's first President Alija Izetbegović. After the war he retired from politics and opened the Bosniak Institute, a museum in Sarajevo focused on the Bosniak culture.
Bosniak nationalism or Bosniakdom is the nationalism that asserts the nationality of Bosniaks and promotes the cultural unity of the Bosniaks. It should not be confused with Bosnian nationalism often referred to as Bosniandom as Bosniaks are treated as a constituent people by the preamble of Constitution of Bosnia and Herzegovina, whereas people who identify as Bosnians for nationality are not. Bosniaks were formerly treated as Muslims for nationality in census data but this model was last used in the 1991 census.
This is a survey of the postage stamps and postal history of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Đurađ "Đuro" Pucar "Stari" was a Yugoslav and Bosnian politician.
An independence referendum was held in Bosnia and Herzegovina between 29 February and 1 March 1992, following the first free elections of 1990 and the rise of ethnic tensions that eventually led to the breakup of Yugoslavia. Independence was strongly favored by Bosniak and Bosnian Croat voters while Bosnian Serbs boycotted the referendum or were prevented from participating by Bosnian Serb authorities.
The partition of Bosnia and Herzegovina was discussed and attempted during the 20th century. The issue came to prominence during the Bosnian War, which also involved Bosnia and Herzegovina's largest neighbors, Croatia and Serbia. As of 2021, the country remains one state while internal political divisions of Bosnia and Herzegovina based on the 1995 Dayton Agreement remain in place.
The Dayton Agreement ended the Bosnian War and created the federal republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH), which consists of the Bosniak and Croat-inhabited Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (FBiH) and the Serb-inhabited Republika Srpska (RS). Although the Bosnian Serbs were viewed as "anti-Dayton" during the first years after the war, since 2000 they have been staunch supporters of the Dayton Agreement and the preservation of RS. Bosniaks generally view RS as illegitimate, and an independence referendum from BiH has been proposed in RS. The 2006 Montenegrin independence referendum and Kosovo's 2008 declaration of independence have raised the possibility of a referendum and unification with Serbia. In 2015, after a judicial and police crisis, the governing Alliance of Independent Social Democrats said that it would hold an independence referendum in 2018 if RS's autonomy was not preserved.
Around 2:30 p.m. on Sunday, 1 March 1992, a Bosnian Serb wedding procession in Sarajevo's old Muslim quarter of Baščaršija was attacked, resulting in the death of the father of the groom, Nikola Gardović, and the wounding of a Serbian Orthodox priest. The attack took place on the last day of a controversial referendum on Bosnia and Herzegovina's independence from Yugoslavia, in the early stages of the breakup of Yugoslavia and the Yugoslav Wars.