Sodium

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Sodium, 11Na
Na (Sodium).jpg
Sodium
Appearancesilvery white metallic
Standard atomic weight Ar°(Na)
Sodium in the periodic table
Hydrogen Helium
Lithium Beryllium Boron Carbon Nitrogen Oxygen Fluorine Neon
Sodium Magnesium Aluminium Silicon Phosphorus Sulfur Chlorine Argon
Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Iron Cobalt Nickel Copper Zinc Gallium Germanium Arsenic Selenium Bromine Krypton
Rubidium Strontium Yttrium Zirconium Niobium Molybdenum Technetium Ruthenium Rhodium Palladium Silver Cadmium Indium Tin Antimony Tellurium Iodine Xenon
Caesium Barium Lanthanum Cerium Praseodymium Neodymium Promethium Samarium Europium Gadolinium Terbium Dysprosium Holmium Erbium Thulium Ytterbium Lutetium Hafnium Tantalum Tungsten Rhenium Osmium Iridium Platinum Gold Mercury (element) Thallium Lead Bismuth Polonium Astatine Radon
Francium Radium Actinium Thorium Protactinium Uranium Neptunium Plutonium Americium Curium Berkelium Californium Einsteinium Fermium Mendelevium Nobelium Lawrencium Rutherfordium Dubnium Seaborgium Bohrium Hassium Meitnerium Darmstadtium Roentgenium Copernicium Nihonium Flerovium Moscovium Livermorium Tennessine Oganesson
Li

Na

K
neonsodiummagnesium
Atomic number (Z)11
Group group 1: hydrogen and alkali metals
Period period 3
Block   s-block
Electron configuration [ Ne ] 3s1
Electrons per shell2, 8, 1
Physical properties
Phase at  STP solid
Melting point 370.944  K (97.794 °C,208.029 °F)
Boiling point 1156.090 K(882.940 °C,1621.292 °F)
Density (at 20° C)0.9688 g/cm3 [3]
when liquid (at  m.p.)0.927 g/cm3
Critical point 2573 K, 35 MPa(extrapolated)
Heat of fusion 2.60  kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization 97.42 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity 28.230 J/(mol·K)
Vapor pressure
P (Pa)1101001 k10 k100 k
at T (K)5546176978029461153
Atomic properties
Oxidation states −1, 0, [4] +1 (a strongly basic oxide)
Electronegativity Pauling scale: 0.93
Ionization energies
  • 1st: 495.8 kJ/mol
  • 2nd: 4562 kJ/mol
  • 3rd: 6910.3 kJ/mol
  • (more)
Atomic radius empirical:186  pm
Covalent radius 166±9 pm
Van der Waals radius 227 pm
Sodium spectrum visible.png
Spectral lines of sodium
Other properties
Natural occurrence primordial
Crystal structure body-centered cubic (bcc)(cI2)
Lattice constant
Cubic-body-centered.svg
a = 428.74 pm (at 20 °C) [3]
Thermal expansion 69.91×10−6/K (at 20 °C) [3]
Thermal conductivity 142 W/(m⋅K)
Electrical resistivity 47.7 nΩ⋅m(at 20 °C)
Magnetic ordering paramagnetic [5]
Molar magnetic susceptibility +16.0×10−6 cm3/mol(298 K) [6]
Young's modulus 10 GPa
Shear modulus 3.3 GPa
Bulk modulus 6.3 GPa
Speed of sound thin rod3200 m/s(at 20 °C)
Mohs hardness 0.5
Brinell hardness 0.69 MPa
CAS Number 7440-23-5
History
Discovery and first isolation Humphry Davy (1807)
Symbol"Na": from New Latin natrium , coined from German Natron , 'natron'
Isotopes of sodium
Main isotopes [7] Decay
abun­dance half-life (t1/2) mode pro­duct
22Na trace 2.6019 y β+ 22Ne
23Na100% stable
24Natrace14.9560 h β 24Mg
Symbol category class.svg  Category: Sodium
| references

Sodium is a chemical element; it has symbol  Na (from Neo-Latin natrium) and atomic number  11. It is a soft, silvery-white, highly reactive metal. Sodium is an alkali metal, being in group 1 of the periodic table. Its only stable isotope is 23Na. The free metal does not occur in nature and must be prepared from compounds. Sodium is the sixth most abundant element in the Earth's crust and exists in numerous minerals such as feldspars, sodalite, and halite (NaCl). Many salts of sodium are highly water-soluble: sodium ions have been leached by the action of water from the Earth's minerals over eons, and thus sodium and chlorine are the most common dissolved elements by weight in the oceans.

Contents

Sodium was first isolated by Humphry Davy in 1807 by the electrolysis of sodium hydroxide. Among many other useful sodium compounds, sodium hydroxide (lye) is used in soap manufacture, and sodium chloride (edible salt) is a de-icing agent and a nutrient for animals including humans.

Sodium is an essential element for all animals and some plants. Sodium ions are the major cation in the extracellular fluid (ECF) and as such are the major contributor to the ECF osmotic pressure and ECF compartment volume.[ citation needed ] Loss of water from the ECF compartment increases the sodium concentration, a condition called hypernatremia. Isotonic loss of water and sodium from the ECF compartment decreases the size of that compartment in a condition called ECF hypovolemia.

By means of the sodium–potassium pump, living human cells pump three sodium ions out of the cell in exchange for two potassium ions pumped in; comparing ion concentrations across the cell membrane, inside to outside, potassium measures about 40:1, and sodium, about 1:10. In nerve cells, the electrical charge across the cell membrane enables transmission of the nerve impulse—an action potential—when the charge is dissipated; sodium plays a key role in that activity.

Characteristics

Physical

Emission spectrum for sodium, showing the D line Na-D-sodium D-lines-589nm.jpg
Emission spectrum for sodium, showing the D line

Sodium at standard temperature and pressure is a soft silvery metal that combines with oxygen in the air, forming sodium oxides. Bulk sodium is usually stored in oil or an inert gas. Sodium metal can be easily cut with a knife. It is a good conductor of electricity and heat. Due to having low atomic mass and large atomic radius, sodium is third-least dense of all elemental metals and is one of only three metals that can float on water, the other two being lithium and potassium. [8]

The melting (98 °C) and boiling (883 °C) points of sodium are lower than those of lithium but higher than those of the heavier alkali metals potassium, rubidium, and caesium, following periodic trends down the group. [9] These properties change dramatically at elevated pressures: at 1.5  Mbar, the color changes from silvery metallic to black; at 1.9 Mbar the material becomes transparent with a red color; and at 3 Mbar, sodium is a clear and transparent solid. All of these high-pressure allotropes are insulators and electrides. [10]

A positive flame test for sodium has a bright yellow color. Flametest--Na.swn.jpg
A positive flame test for sodium has a bright yellow color.

In a flame test, sodium and its compounds glow yellow [11] because the excited 3s electrons of sodium emit a photon when they fall from 3p to 3s; the wavelength of this photon corresponds to the D line at about 589.3 nm. Spin-orbit interactions involving the electron in the 3p orbital split the D line into two, at 589.0 and 589.6 nm; hyperfine structures involving both orbitals cause many more lines. [12]

Isotopes

Twenty isotopes of sodium are known, but only 23Na is stable. 23Na is created in the carbon-burning process in stars by fusing two carbon atoms together; this requires temperatures above 600 megakelvins and a star of at least three solar masses. [13] Two radioactive, cosmogenic isotopes are the byproduct of cosmic ray spallation: 22Na has a half-life of 2.6 years and 24Na, a half-life of 15 hours; all other isotopes have a half-life of less than one minute. [14]

Two nuclear isomers have been discovered, the longer-lived one being 24mNa with a half-life of around 20.2 milliseconds. Acute neutron radiation, as from a nuclear criticality accident, converts some of the stable 23Na in human blood to 24Na; the neutron radiation dosage of a victim can be calculated by measuring the concentration of 24Na relative to 23Na. [15]

Chemistry

Sodium atoms have 11 electrons, one more than the stable configuration of the noble gas neon. The first and second ionization energies are 495.8 kJ/mol and 4562 kJ/mol, respectively. As a result, sodium usually forms ionic compounds involving the Na+ cation. [16]

Metallic sodium

Metallic sodium is generally less reactive than potassium and more reactive than lithium. [17] Sodium metal is highly reducing, with the standard reduction potential for the Na+/Na couple being −2.71 volts, [18] though potassium and lithium have even more negative potentials. [19]

Salts and oxides

The structure of sodium chloride, showing octahedral coordination around Na and Cl centres. This framework disintegrates when dissolved in water and reassembles when the water evaporates. NaCl polyhedra.png
The structure of sodium chloride, showing octahedral coordination around Na and Cl centres. This framework disintegrates when dissolved in water and reassembles when the water evaporates.

Sodium compounds are of immense commercial importance, being particularly central to industries producing glass, paper, soap, and textiles. [20] The most important sodium compounds are table salt (NaCl), soda ash (Na2 CO3), baking soda (NaHCO3), caustic soda (NaOH), sodium nitrate (NaNO3), di- and tri-sodium phosphates, sodium thiosulfate (Na2 S2O3·5H2O), and borax (Na2 B 4O7·10H2O). [21] In compounds, sodium is usually ionically bonded to water and anions and is viewed as a hard Lewis acid. [22]

Two equivalent images of the chemical structure of sodium stearate, a typical soap Sodium stearate v2.svg
Two equivalent images of the chemical structure of sodium stearate, a typical soap

Most soaps are sodium salts of fatty acids. Sodium soaps have a higher melting temperature (and seem "harder") than potassium soaps. [21]

Like all the alkali metals, sodium reacts exothermically with water. The reaction produces caustic soda (sodium hydroxide) and flammable hydrogen gas. When burned in air, it forms primarily sodium peroxide with some sodium oxide. [23]

Aqueous solutions

Sodium tends to form water-soluble compounds, such as halides, sulfates, nitrates, carboxylates and carbonates. The main aqueous species are the aquo complexes [Na(H2O)n]+, where n = 4–8; with n = 6 indicated from X-ray diffraction data and computer simulations. [24]

Direct precipitation of sodium salts from aqueous solutions is rare because sodium salts typically have a high affinity for water. An exception is sodium bismuthate (NaBiO3), [25] which is insoluble in cold water and decomposes in hot water. [26] Because of the high solubility of its compounds, sodium salts are usually isolated as solids by evaporation or by precipitation with an organic antisolvent, such as ethanol; for example, only 0.35 g/L of sodium chloride will dissolve in ethanol. [27] Crown ethers, like 15-crown-5, may be used as a phase-transfer catalyst. [28]

Sodium content of samples is determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry or by potentiometry using ion-selective electrodes. [29]

Electrides and sodides

Like the other alkali metals, sodium dissolves in ammonia and some amines to give deeply colored solutions; evaporation of these solutions leaves a shiny film of metallic sodium. The solutions contain the coordination complex [Na(NH3)6]+, with the positive charge counterbalanced by electrons as anions; cryptands permit the isolation of these complexes as crystalline solids. Sodium forms complexes with crown ethers, cryptands and other ligands. [30]

For example, 15-crown-5 has a high affinity for sodium because the cavity size of 15-crown-5 is 1.7–2.2 Å, which is enough to fit the sodium ion (1.9 Å). [31] [32] Cryptands, like crown ethers and other ionophores, also have a high affinity for the sodium ion; derivatives of the alkalide Na are obtainable [33] by the addition of cryptands to solutions of sodium in ammonia via disproportionation. [34]

Organosodium compounds

The structure of the complex of sodium (Na , shown in yellow) and the antibiotic monensin-A Monensin2.png
The structure of the complex of sodium (Na , shown in yellow) and the antibiotic monensin-A

Many organosodium compounds have been prepared. Because of the high polarity of the C-Na bonds, they behave like sources of carbanions (salts with organic anions). Some well-known derivatives include sodium cyclopentadienide (NaC5H5) and trityl sodium ((C6H5)3CNa). [35] Sodium naphthalene, Na+[C10H8•], a strong reducing agent, forms upon mixing Na and naphthalene in ethereal solutions. [36]

Intermetallic compounds

Sodium forms alloys with many metals, such as potassium, calcium, lead, and the group 11 and 12 elements. Sodium and potassium form KNa2 and NaK. NaK is 40–90% potassium and it is liquid at ambient temperature. It is an excellent thermal and electrical conductor. Sodium-calcium alloys are by-products of the electrolytic production of sodium from a binary salt mixture of NaCl-CaCl2 and ternary mixture NaCl-CaCl2-BaCl2. Calcium is only partially miscible with sodium, and the 1-2% of it dissolved in the sodium obtained from said mixtures can be precipitated by cooling to 120 °C and filtering. [37]

In a liquid state, sodium is completely miscible with lead. There are several methods to make sodium-lead alloys. One is to melt them together and another is to deposit sodium electrolytically on molten lead cathodes. NaPb3, NaPb, Na9Pb4, Na5Pb2, and Na15Pb4 are some of the known sodium-lead alloys. Sodium also forms alloys with gold (NaAu2) and silver (NaAg2). Group 12 metals (zinc, cadmium and mercury) are known to make alloys with sodium. NaZn13 and NaCd2 are alloys of zinc and cadmium. Sodium and mercury form NaHg, NaHg4, NaHg2, Na3Hg2, and Na3Hg. [38]

History

Because of its importance in human health, salt has long been an important commodity, as shown by the English word salary, which derives from salarium, the wafers of salt sometimes given to Roman soldiers along with their other wages.[ citation needed ] In medieval Europe, a compound of sodium with the Latin name of sodanum was used as a headache remedy. The name sodium is thought to originate from the Arabic suda, meaning headache, as the headache-alleviating properties of sodium carbonate or soda were well known in early times. [39]

Although sodium, sometimes called soda, had long been recognized in compounds, the metal itself was not isolated until 1807 by Sir Humphry Davy through the electrolysis of sodium hydroxide. [40] [41] In 1809, the German physicist and chemist Ludwig Wilhelm Gilbert proposed the names Natronium for Humphry Davy's "sodium" and Kalium for Davy's "potassium". [42]

The chemical abbreviation for sodium was first published in 1814 by Jöns Jakob Berzelius in his system of atomic symbols, [43] [44] and is an abbreviation of the element's Neo-Latin name natrium, which refers to the Egyptian natron , [39] a natural mineral salt mainly consisting of hydrated sodium carbonate. Natron historically had several important industrial and household uses, later eclipsed by other sodium compounds. [45]

Sodium imparts an intense yellow color to flames. As early as 1860, Kirchhoff and Bunsen noted the high sensitivity of a sodium flame test, and stated in Annalen der Physik und Chemie: [46]

In a corner of our 60 m3 room farthest away from the apparatus, we exploded 3 mg of sodium chlorate with milk sugar while observing the nonluminous flame before the slit. After a while, it glowed a bright yellow and showed a strong sodium line that disappeared only after 10 minutes. From the weight of the sodium salt and the volume of air in the room, we easily calculate that one part by weight of air could not contain more than 1/20 millionth weight of sodium.

Occurrence

The Earth's crust contains 2.27% sodium, making it the seventh most abundant element on Earth and the fifth most abundant metal, behind aluminium, iron, calcium, and magnesium and ahead of potassium. [47] Sodium's estimated oceanic abundance is 10.8 grams per liter. [48] Because of its high reactivity, it is never found as a pure element. It is found in many minerals, some very soluble, such as halite and natron, others much less soluble, such as amphibole and zeolite. The insolubility of certain sodium minerals such as cryolite and feldspar arises from their polymeric anions, which in the case of feldspar is a polysilicate. In the universe, sodium is the 15th most abundant element with a 20,000 parts-per-billion abundance, [49] making sodium 0.002% of the total atoms in the universe.

Astronomical observations

Atomic sodium has a very strong spectral line in the yellow-orange part of the spectrum (the same line as is used in sodium-vapour street lights). This appears as an absorption line in many types of stars, including the Sun. The line was first studied in 1814 by Joseph von Fraunhofer during his investigation of the lines in the solar spectrum, now known as the Fraunhofer lines. Fraunhofer named it the "D" line, although it is now known to actually be a group of closely spaced lines split by a fine and hyperfine structure. [50]

The strength of the D line allows its detection in many other astronomical environments. In stars, it is seen in any whose surfaces are cool enough for sodium to exist in atomic form (rather than ionised). This corresponds to stars of roughly F-type and cooler. Many other stars appear to have a sodium absorption line, but this is actually caused by gas in the foreground interstellar medium. The two can be distinguished via high-resolution spectroscopy, because interstellar lines are much narrower than those broadened by stellar rotation. [51]

Sodium has also been detected in numerous Solar System environments, including Mercury's atmosphere, [52] the exosphere of the Moon, [53] and numerous other bodies. Some comets have a sodium tail, [54] which was first detected in observations of Comet Hale–Bopp in 1997. [55] Sodium has even been detected in the atmospheres of some extrasolar planets via transit spectroscopy. [56]

Commercial production

Employed in rather specialized applications, about 100,000 tonnes of metallic sodium are produced annually. [20] Metallic sodium was first produced commercially in the late nineteenth century [37] by carbothermal reduction of sodium carbonate at 1100 °C, as the first step of the Deville process for the production of aluminium: [57] [58] [59]

Na2CO3 + 2 C → 2 Na + 3 CO

The high demand for aluminium created the need for the production of sodium. The introduction of the Hall–Héroult process for the production of aluminium by electrolysing a molten salt bath ended the need for large quantities of sodium. A related process based on the reduction of sodium hydroxide was developed in 1886. [57]

Sodium is now produced commercially through the electrolysis of molten sodium chloride (common salt), based on a process patented in 1924. [60] [61] This is done in a Downs cell in which the NaCl is mixed with calcium chloride to lower the melting point below 700 °C. [62] As calcium is less electropositive than sodium, no calcium will be deposited at the cathode. [63] This method is less expensive than the previous Castner process (the electrolysis of sodium hydroxide). [64] If sodium of high purity is required, it can be distilled once or several times.

The market for sodium is volatile due to the difficulty in its storage and shipping; it must be stored under a dry inert gas atmosphere or anhydrous mineral oil to prevent the formation of a surface layer of sodium oxide or sodium superoxide. [65]

Uses

Though metallic sodium has some important uses, the major applications for sodium use compounds; millions of tons of sodium chloride, hydroxide, and carbonate are produced annually. Sodium chloride is extensively used for anti-icing and de-icing and as a preservative; examples of the uses of sodium bicarbonate include baking, as a raising agent, and sodablasting. Along with potassium, many important medicines have sodium added to improve their bioavailability; though potassium is the better ion in most cases, sodium is chosen for its lower price and atomic weight. [66] Sodium hydride is used as a base for various reactions (such as the aldol reaction) in organic chemistry.

Metallic sodium is used mainly for the production of sodium borohydride, sodium azide, indigo, and triphenylphosphine. A once-common use was the making of tetraethyllead and titanium metal; because of the move away from TEL and new titanium production methods, the production of sodium declined after 1970. [20] Sodium is also used as an alloying metal, an anti-scaling agent, [67] and as a reducing agent for metals when other materials are ineffective.

Note the free element is not used as a scaling agent, ions in the water are exchanged for sodium ions. Sodium plasma ("vapor") lamps are often used for street lighting in cities, shedding light that ranges from yellow-orange to peach as the pressure increases. [68] By itself or with potassium, sodium is a desiccant; it gives an intense blue coloration with benzophenone when the desiccate is dry. [69]

In organic synthesis, sodium is used in various reactions such as the Birch reduction, and the sodium fusion test is conducted to qualitatively analyse compounds. [70] Sodium reacts with alcohols and gives alkoxides, and when sodium is dissolved in ammonia solution, it can be used to reduce alkynes to trans-alkenes. [71] [72] Lasers emitting light at the sodium D line are used to create artificial laser guide stars that assist in the adaptive optics for land-based visible-light telescopes. [73]

Heat transfer

NaK phase diagram, showing the melting point of sodium as a function of potassium concentration. NaK with 77% potassium is eutectic and has the lowest melting point of the NaK alloys at -12.6 degC. Phase diagram potassium sodium s l.svg
NaK phase diagram, showing the melting point of sodium as a function of potassium concentration. NaK with 77% potassium is eutectic and has the lowest melting point of the NaK alloys at −12.6 °C.

Liquid sodium is used as a heat transfer fluid in sodium-cooled fast reactors [75] because it has the high thermal conductivity and low neutron absorption cross section required to achieve a high neutron flux in the reactor. [76] The high boiling point of sodium allows the reactor to operate at ambient (normal) pressure, [76] but drawbacks include its opacity, which hinders visual maintenance, and its strongly reducing properties. Sodium will explode in contact with water, although it will only burn gently in air. [77]

Radioactive sodium-24 may be produced by neutron bombardment during operation, posing a slight radiation hazard; the radioactivity stops within a few days after removal from the reactor. [78] If a reactor needs to be shut down frequently, NaK is used. Because NaK is a liquid at room temperature, the coolant does not solidify in the pipes. [79]

In this case, the pyrophoricity of potassium requires extra precautions to prevent and detect leaks. [80] Another heat transfer application is poppet valves in high-performance internal combustion engines; the valve stems are partially filled with sodium and work as a heat pipe to cool the valves. [81]

Biological role

Biological role in humans

In humans, sodium is an essential mineral that regulates blood volume, blood pressure, osmotic equilibrium and pH. The minimum physiological requirement for sodium is estimated to range from about 120 milligrams per day in newborns to 500 milligrams per day over the age of 10. [82]

Diet

Sodium chloride, also known as edible salt or table salt [83] [84] (chemical formula NaCl), is the principal source of sodium (Na) in the diet, and is used as seasoning and preservative in such commodities as pickled preserves and jerky; for Americans, most sodium chloride comes from processed foods. [85] Other sources of sodium are its natural occurrence in food and such food additives as monosodium glutamate (MSG), sodium nitrite, sodium saccharin, baking soda (sodium bicarbonate), and sodium benzoate. [86]

The U.S. Institute of Medicine set its tolerable upper intake level for sodium at 2.3 grams per day, [87] but the average person in the United States consumes 3.4 grams per day. [88] The American Heart Association recommends no more than 1.5 g of sodium per day. [89]

The Committee to Review the Dietary Reference Intakes for Sodium and Potassium, which is part of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, has determined that there isn't enough evidence from research studies to establish Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) and Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) values for sodium. As a result, the committee has established Adequate Intake (AI) levels instead, as follows. The sodium AI for infants of 0–6 months is established at 110 mg/day, 7–12 months: 370 mg/day; for children 1–3 years: 800 mg/day, 4–8 years: 1,000 mg/day; for adolescents: 9–13 years - 1,200 mg/day, 14–18 years 1,500 mg/day; for adults regardless of their age or sex: 1,500 mg/day. [90]

Sodium chloride (NaCl) contains approximately 39.34% of elemental sodium (Na) the total mass. This means that 1 gram of sodium chloride contains approximately 393.4 mg of elemental sodium. [91]

For example, to find out how much sodium chloride contains 1500 mg of elemental sodium (the value of 1500 mg sodium is the adequate intake (AI) for an adult), we can use the proportion:

393.4 mg Na : 1000 mg NaCl = 1500 mg Na : x mg NaCl

Solving for x gives us the amount of sodium chloride that contains 1500 mg of elemental sodium:

x = (1500 mg Na × 1000 mg NaCl) / 393.4 mg Na = 3812.91 mg

This mean that 3812.91 mg of sodium chloride contain 1500 mg of elemental sodium. [91]

High sodium consumption

High sodium consumption is unhealthy, and can lead to alteration in the mechanical performance of the heart. [92] High sodium consumption is also associated with chronic kidney disease, high blood pressure, cardiovascular diseases, and stroke. [92]

High blood pressure

There is a strong correlation between higher sodium intake and higher blood pressure. [93] Studies have found that lowering sodium intake by 2 g per day tends to lower systolic blood pressure by about two to four mm Hg. [94] It has been estimated that such a decrease in sodium intake would lead to 9–17% fewer cases of hypertension. [94]

Hypertension causes 7.6 million premature deaths worldwide each year. [95] Since edible salt contains about 39.3% sodium [96] —the rest being chlorine and trace chemicals; thus, 2.3 g sodium is about 5.9 g, or 5.3 ml, of salt—about one US teaspoon. [97] [98]

One study found that people with or without hypertension who excreted less than 3 grams of sodium per day in their urine (and therefore were taking in less than 3 g/d) had a higher risk of death, stroke, or heart attack than those excreting 4 to 5 grams per day. [99] Levels of 7 g per day or more in people with hypertension were associated with higher mortality and cardiovascular events, but this was not found to be true for people without hypertension. [99] The US FDA states that adults with hypertension and prehypertension should reduce daily sodium intake to 1.5 g. [98]

Physiology

The renin–angiotensin system regulates the amount of fluid and sodium concentration in the body. Reduction of blood pressure and sodium concentration in the kidney result in the production of renin, which in turn produces aldosterone and angiotensin, which stimulates the reabsorption of sodium back into the bloodstream. When the concentration of sodium increases, the production of renin decreases, and the sodium concentration returns to normal. [100] The sodium ion (Na+) is an important electrolyte in neuron function, and in osmoregulation between cells and the extracellular fluid. This is accomplished in all animals by Na+/K+-ATPase, an active transporter pumping ions against the gradient, and sodium/potassium channels. [101] Sodium is the most prevalent metallic ion in extracellular fluid. [102]

In humans, unusually low or high sodium levels in the blood is recognized in medicine as hyponatremia and hypernatremia. These conditions may be caused by genetic factors, ageing, or prolonged vomiting or diarrhea. [103]

Biological role in plants

In C4 plants, sodium is a micronutrient that aids metabolism, specifically in regeneration of phosphoenolpyruvate and synthesis of chlorophyll. [104] In others, it substitutes for potassium in several roles, such as maintaining turgor pressure and aiding in the opening and closing of stomata. [105] Excess sodium in the soil can limit the uptake of water by decreasing the water potential, which may result in plant wilting; excess concentrations in the cytoplasm can lead to enzyme inhibition, which in turn causes necrosis and chlorosis. [106]

In response, some plants have developed mechanisms to limit sodium uptake in the roots, to store it in cell vacuoles, and restrict salt transport from roots to leaves. [107] Excess sodium may also be stored in old plant tissue, limiting the damage to new growth. Halophytes have adapted to be able to flourish in sodium rich environments. [107]

Safety and precautions

Sodium
Hazards
GHS labelling:
GHS-pictogram-flamme.svg GHS-pictogram-acid.svg
Danger
H260, H314
P223, P231+P232, P280, P305+P351+P338, P370+P378, P422 [108]
NFPA 704 (fire diamond)
NFPA 704.svgHealth 3: Short exposure could cause serious temporary or residual injury. E.g. chlorine gasFlammability 2: Must be moderately heated or exposed to relatively high ambient temperature before ignition can occur. Flash point between 38 and 93 °C (100 and 200 °F). E.g. diesel fuelInstability 2: Undergoes violent chemical change at elevated temperatures and pressures, reacts violently with water, or may form explosive mixtures with water. E.g. white phosphorusSpecial hazard W: Reacts with water in an unusual or dangerous manner. E.g. sodium, sulfuric acid
3
2
2
W

Sodium forms flammable hydrogen and caustic sodium hydroxide on contact with water; [110] ingestion and contact with moisture on skin, eyes or mucous membranes can cause severe burns. [111] [112] Sodium spontaneously explodes in the presence of water due to the formation of hydrogen (highly explosive) and sodium hydroxide (which dissolves in the water, liberating more surface). However, sodium exposed to air and ignited or reaching autoignition (reported to occur when a molten pool of sodium reaches about 290 °C, 554 °F) [113] displays a relatively mild fire.

In the case of massive (non-molten) pieces of sodium, the reaction with oxygen eventually becomes slow due to formation of a protective layer. [114] Fire extinguishers based on water accelerate sodium fires. Those based on carbon dioxide and bromochlorodifluoromethane should not be used on sodium fire. [112] Metal fires are Class D, but not all Class D extinguishers are effective when used to extinguish sodium fires. An effective extinguishing agent for sodium fires is Met-L-X. [112] Other effective agents include Lith-X, which has graphite powder and an organophosphate flame retardant, and dry sand. [115]

Sodium fires are prevented in nuclear reactors by isolating sodium from oxygen with surrounding pipes containing inert gas. [116] Pool-type sodium fires are prevented using diverse design measures called catch pan systems. They collect leaking sodium into a leak-recovery tank where it is isolated from oxygen. [116]

Liquid sodium fires are more dangerous to handle than solid sodium fires, particularly if there is insufficient experience with the safe handling of molten sodium. In a technical report for the United States Fire Administration, [117] R. J. Gordon writes (emphasis in original)

Once ignited, sodium is very difficult to extinguish. It will react violently with water, as noted previously, and with any extinguishing agent that contains water. It will also react with many other common extinguishing agents, including carbon dioxide and the halogen compounds and most dry chemical agents. The only safe and effective extinguishing agents are completely dry inert materials, such as Class D extinguishing agents, soda ash, graphite, diatomaceous earth, or sodium chloride, all of which can be used to bury a small quantity of burning sodium and exclude oxygen from reaching the metal.

The extinguishing agent must be absolutely dry, as even a trace of water in the material can react with the burning sodium to cause an explosion. Sodium chloride is recognized as an extinguishing medium because of its chemical stability, however it is hydroscopic (has the property of attracting and holding water molecules on the surface of the salt crystals) and must be kept absolutely dry to be used safely as an extinguishing agent. Every crystal of sodium chloride also contains a trace quantity of moisture within the structure of the crystal.

Molten sodium is extremely dangerous because it is much more reactive than a solid mass. In the liquid form, every sodium atom is free and mobile to instantaneously combine with any available oxygen atom or other oxidizer, and any gaseous by-product will be created as a rapidly expanding gas bubble within the molten mass. Even a minute amount of water can create this type of reaction. Any amount of water introduced into a pool of molten sodium is likely to cause a violent explosion inside the liquid mass, releasing the hydrogen as a rapidly expanding gas and causing the molten sodium to erupt from the container.

When molten sodium is involved in a fire, the combustion occurs at the surface of the liquid. An inert gas, such as nitrogen or argon, can be used to form an inert layer over the pool of burning liquid sodium, but the gas must be applied very gently and contained over the surface. Except for soda ash, most of the powdered agents that are used to extinguish small fires in solid pieces or shallow pools will sink to the bottom of a molten mass of burning sodium -- the sodium will float to the top and continue to burn. If the burning sodium is in a container, it may be feasible to extinguish the fire by placing a lid on the container to exclude oxygen.

See also

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Alkali metal</span> Group of highly reactive chemical elements

The alkali metals consist of the chemical elements lithium (Li), sodium (Na), potassium (K), rubidium (Rb), caesium (Cs), and francium (Fr). Together with hydrogen they constitute group 1, which lies in the s-block of the periodic table. All alkali metals have their outermost electron in an s-orbital: this shared electron configuration results in their having very similar characteristic properties. Indeed, the alkali metals provide the best example of group trends in properties in the periodic table, with elements exhibiting well-characterised homologous behaviour. This family of elements is also known as the lithium family after its leading element.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Ionic bonding</span> Chemical bonding involving attraction between ions

Ionic bonding is a type of chemical bonding that involves the electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged ions, or between two atoms with sharply different electronegativities, and is the primary interaction occurring in ionic compounds. It is one of the main types of bonding, along with covalent bonding and metallic bonding. Ions are atoms with an electrostatic charge. Atoms that gain electrons make negatively charged ions. Atoms that lose electrons make positively charged ions. This transfer of electrons is known as electrovalence in contrast to covalence. In the simplest case, the cation is a metal atom and the anion is a nonmetal atom, but these ions can be more complex, e.g. molecular ions like NH+
4
or SO2−
4
. In simpler words, an ionic bond results from the transfer of electrons from a metal to a non-metal to obtain a full valence shell for both atoms.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Potassium</span> Chemical element, symbol K and atomic number 19

Potassium is a chemical element; it has symbol K and atomic number 19. It is a silvery white metal that is soft enough to easily cut with a knife. Potassium metal reacts rapidly with atmospheric oxygen to form flaky white potassium peroxide in only seconds of exposure. It was first isolated from potash, the ashes of plants, from which its name derives. In the periodic table, potassium is one of the alkali metals, all of which have a single valence electron in the outer electron shell, which is easily removed to create an ion with a positive charge. In nature, potassium occurs only in ionic salts. Elemental potassium reacts vigorously with water, generating sufficient heat to ignite hydrogen emitted in the reaction, and burning with a lilac-colored flame. It is found dissolved in seawater, and occurs in many minerals such as orthoclase, a common constituent of granites and other igneous rocks.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Salt (chemistry)</span> Chemical compound involving ionic bonding

In chemistry, a salt or ionic compound is a chemical compound consisting of an ionic assembly of positively charged cations and negatively charged anions, which results in a neutral compound with no net electric charge. The constituent ions are held together by electrostatic forces termed ionic bonds.

An electrolyte is a medium containing ions that are electrically conductive through the movement of those ions, but not conducting electrons. This includes most soluble salts, acids, and bases dissolved in a polar solvent, such as water. Upon dissolving, the substance separates into cations and anions, which disperse uniformly throughout the solvent. Solid-state electrolytes also exist. In medicine and sometimes in chemistry, the term electrolyte refers to the substance that is dissolved.

The term chloride refers to a compound or molecule that contains either a chlorine ion, which is a negatively charged chlorine atom, or a non-charged chlorine atom covalently bonded to the rest of the molecule by a single bond. Many inorganic chlorides are salts. Many organic compounds are chlorides. The pronunciation of the word "chloride" is.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Sodium chloride</span> Chemical compound with formula NaCl

Sodium chloride, commonly known as table salt, is an ionic compound with the chemical formula NaCl, representing a 1:1 ratio of sodium and chlorine ions. In its edible form, it is commonly used as a condiment and food preservative. Large quantities of sodium chloride are used in many industrial processes, and it is a major source of sodium and chlorine compounds used as feedstocks for further chemical syntheses. Another major application of sodium chloride is deicing of roadways in sub-freezing weather.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Base (chemistry)</span> Type of chemical substance

In chemistry, there are three definitions in common use of the word "base": Arrhenius bases, Brønsted bases, and Lewis bases. All definitions agree that bases are substances that react with acids, as originally proposed by G.-F. Rouelle in the mid-18th century.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Potassium chloride</span> Ionic compound (KCl)

Potassium chloride is a metal halide salt composed of potassium and chlorine. It is odorless and has a white or colorless vitreous crystal appearance. The solid dissolves readily in water, and its solutions have a salt-like taste. Potassium chloride can be obtained from ancient dried lake deposits. KCl is used as a fertilizer, in medicine, in scientific applications, domestic water softeners, and in food processing, where it may be known as E number additive E508.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Manganese dioxide</span> Chemical compound

Manganese dioxide is the inorganic compound with the formula MnO
2
. This blackish or brown solid occurs naturally as the mineral pyrolusite, which is the main ore of manganese and a component of manganese nodules. The principal use for MnO
2
is for dry-cell batteries, such as the alkaline battery and the zinc–carbon battery. MnO
2
is also used as a pigment and as a precursor to other manganese compounds, such as KMnO
4
. It is used as a reagent in organic synthesis, for example, for the oxidation of allylic alcohols. MnO
2
has an α-polymorph that can incorporate a variety of atoms in the "tunnels" or "channels" between the manganese oxide octahedra. There is considerable interest in α-MnO
2
as a possible cathode for lithium-ion batteries.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Calcium chloride</span> Chemical compound

Calcium chloride is an inorganic compound, a salt with the chemical formula CaCl2. It is a white crystalline solid at room temperature, and it is highly soluble in water. It can be created by neutralising hydrochloric acid with calcium hydroxide.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Sodium sulfate</span> Chemical compound with formula Na2SO4

Sodium sulfate (also known as sodium sulphate or sulfate of soda) is the inorganic compound with formula Na2SO4 as well as several related hydrates. All forms are white solids that are highly soluble in water. With an annual production of 6 million tonnes, the decahydrate is a major commodity chemical product. It is mainly used as a filler in the manufacture of powdered home laundry detergents and in the Kraft process of paper pulping for making highly alkaline sulfides.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Lead(II) chloride</span> Chemical compound

Lead(II) chloride (PbCl2) is an inorganic compound which is a white solid under ambient conditions. It is poorly soluble in water. Lead(II) chloride is one of the most important lead-based reagents. It also occurs naturally in the form of the mineral cotunnite.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Sodium bromide</span> Inorganic salt: NaBr

Sodium bromide is an inorganic compound with the formula NaBr. It is a high-melting white, crystalline solid that resembles sodium chloride. It is a widely used source of the bromide ion and has many applications.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Cadmium chloride</span> Chemical compound

Cadmium chloride is a white crystalline compound of cadmium and chloride, with the formula CdCl2. This salt is a hygroscopic solid that is highly soluble in water and slightly soluble in alcohol. The crystal structure of cadmium chloride (described below), is a reference for describing other crystal structures. Also known are CdCl2•H2O and the hemipentahydrate CdCl2•2.5H2O.

A bromide ion is the negatively charged form (Br) of the element bromine, a member of the halogens group on the periodic table. Most bromides are colorless. Bromides have many practical roles, being found in anticonvulsants, flame-retardant materials, and cell stains. Although uncommon, chronic toxicity from bromide can result in bromism, a syndrome with multiple neurological symptoms. Bromide toxicity can also cause a type of skin eruption, see potassium bromide. The bromide ion has an ionic radius of 196 pm.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Caesium chloride</span> Chemical compound

Caesium chloride or cesium chloride is the inorganic compound with the formula CsCl. This colorless salt is an important source of caesium ions in a variety of niche applications. Its crystal structure forms a major structural type where each caesium ion is coordinated by 8 chloride ions. Caesium chloride dissolves in water. CsCl changes to NaCl structure on heating. Caesium chloride occurs naturally as impurities in carnallite, sylvite and kainite. Less than 20 tonnes of CsCl is produced annually worldwide, mostly from a caesium-bearing mineral pollucite.

Sodium atoms have 11 electrons, one more than the stable configuration of the noble gas neon. As a result, sodium usually forms ionic compounds involving the Na+ cation. Sodium is a reactive alkali metal and is much more stable in ionic compounds. It can also form intermetallic compounds and organosodium compounds. Sodium compounds are often soluble in water.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Molten salt</span> Salt that has melted, often by heating to high temperatures

Molten salt is salt which is solid at standard temperature and pressure but liquified due to elevated temperature. A salt that is liquid even at standard temperature and pressure is usually called a room-temperature ionic liquid, and molten salts are technically a class of ionic liquids.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Sodium in biology</span> Use of Sodium by organisms

Sodium ions are necessary in small amounts for some types of plants, but sodium as a nutrient is more generally needed in larger amounts by animals, due to their use of it for generation of nerve impulses and for maintenance of electrolyte balance and fluid balance. In animals, sodium ions are necessary for the aforementioned functions and for heart activity and certain metabolic functions. The health effects of salt reflect what happens when the body has too much or too little sodium. Characteristic concentrations of sodium in model organisms are: 10 mM in E. coli, 30 mM in budding yeast, 10 mM in mammalian cell and 100 mM in blood plasma.

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