Sokołów Podlaski

Last updated
Sokołów Podlaski
Sokolow-Podlaski-fragment-miasta-01.jpg
City center
POL Sokolow Podlaski flag.svg
Flag
POL Sokolow Podlaski COA.svg
Coat of arms
Poland adm location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Sokołów Podlaski
Coordinates: 52°24′24″N22°14′47″E / 52.40667°N 22.24639°E / 52.40667; 22.24639
CountryFlag of Poland.svg  Poland
Voivodeship Masovian
County Sokołów
Gmina Sokołów Podlaski (urban gmina)
Town rights1424
Government
  MayorBogusław Jan Karakula
Area
  Total17.5 km2 (6.8 sq mi)
Population
 (2013 [1] )
  Total18,720
  Density1,100/km2 (2,800/sq mi)
Time zone UTC+1 (CET)
  Summer (DST) UTC+2 (CEST)
Postal code
08-300, 08–301
Area code(s) +48 25
Car plates WSK
Website http://www.sokolowpodl.pl

Sokołów Podlaski [sɔˈkɔwuf pɔdˈlaski] is a town in Poland, in Masovian Voivodeship, about 80 kilometres (50 miles) east of Warsaw. The town lies on the Cetynia river, in the historical region of Podlachia and is the capital of Sokołów County. The first settlement was in the 6th century and the town received its charter in 1424. Population in 2004 was 18,434 (18,481 in 2010 and 18,720 in 2013). [2]

Contents

History

Middle Ages and early modern era

A pond in Sokolow Podlaski Staw przy domu milosierdzia sokolow podlaski mazowieckie poland.jpg
A pond in Sokołów Podlaski

The beginnings of settlement in this area date back to 6th century AD. The Sokołów area belongs to that part of Podlachia, which, due to its location, was a typical settler outpost. This area in early Medieval time was a scene of the feudal fights between the Polish and Ruthenian states, the Teutonic Knights, Yotvingians and Lithuanians. Political history of this land strongly influenced its cultural development and progress of colonisation.

Archaeological research to determinate the cultural and ethnic structure of the settlements discovered numerous archaeological sites from the early Middle Ages in the area, which allowed scientists to accurately reproduce the phases of colonisation process and the character of defensive and residential building structures of the settlements. The archaeologists found evidence of settlements in the area dating from 6th and 7th centuries. Ceramics, iron fittings, buckles, beads, staples and numerous items of burial equipment testify about the culture, customs and rituals celebrated to honour the dead. The study confirmed that in a place of old Russian and Polish settlements in the Cetynia river valley, as a result of gradual colonisation, new settlement at Sokołów was established. [3]

Sokołów Podlaski received city rights in 1424 from the Grand Duke of Lithuania Witold. [4] In 1508 Stanisław Kiszka became the new owner of the town. [5] Administratively Sokołów was part of the Podlaskie Voivodeship of the Lesser Poland Province of the Polish Crown. In 1580 King Stephen Báthory visited Sokołów. [5] Sokołów belonged to Kiszka until 1592, when it was passed to the Radziwiłł family. For Sokołów it was a time of the greatest prosperity in its history, uninterrupted until the Swedish invasion in the middle of the 17th century. During the war with Sweden the city was significantly damaged. In 1657 Rakoczy's army burned down the town together with surrounding farms. During the Reformation, the city was one of the strongest centers of Arianism in Podlachia. [5]

In 1668 Jan Krasiński became the new owner of the town. After the second half of the 18th century the town belonged to the Ogiński family. Under their rule craftsmanship quickly developed in Sokołów. Michał Kleofas Ogiński brought French craftsmen who started the production of silk scarves, hats, rugs, linen and Slutsk sashes. [3]

Late modern era

Monument at the place of the execution of Polish insurgents by the Russians in 1865 Sokolow Podlaski-pomnik Stanislawa Brzoski.jpg
Monument at the place of the execution of Polish insurgents by the Russians in 1865

After the Third Partition of Poland Sokołów fell under Austrian rule, and after the Polish-Austrian war, in 1809, became part of the Polish Duchy of Warsaw. In 1815 it became part of Congress Poland, later on forcibly annexed by Russia. In 1833 the town was purchased from Michał Kleofas Ogiński by local landowner Karol Kobyloński, who 10 years later sold it to Elżbieta Hirschman. The new owner in 1845 established the sugar factory "Elżbietów" in Przeździatka (today on the western outskirts of Sokołów Podlaski) and in 1890, the factory employed 600 workers. [3] The sugar factory played an important role for the development of the city and local agriculture.

Historic buildings of the Elzbietow sugar factory Cukrownia Elzbietow z roznych stron 02.JPG
Historic buildings of the Elżbietów sugar factory

During the January Insurrection local priest Stanisław Brzóska became a famous leader of the Polish resistance against Russian rule. He was arrested, sentenced by the tsarist authorities to death by hanging, and executed in the town centre on 23 May 1865. In 1925 a granite monument was erected as a memorial at the site of Brzóska's execution. [5]

In 1867 Sokołów became the property of the state and the district office was established there. [6] In 1887, after the construction of the railway line, the city became an important communication link. Between 1845–1890 the population of the town doubled, mostly thanks to immigrants, the majority of which were Jews, who, being artisans, craftsmen and merchants, made a great contribution to the further development of the town. During this period new factories were opened in addition to the sugar factory. [5] In 1915, during World War I, the Germans entered the city, ending the period of Russian rule, and the three-year period of German occupation began. [5] Sokołów became part of Poland again in 1918, after the country declared independence.

World War II

Grave of Polish soldiers killed during the German invasion of Poland in September 1939 Sokolow grob polskich zolnierzy.jpg
Grave of Polish soldiers killed during the German invasion of Poland in September 1939

During World War II Sokołów suffered heavy losses. As a result of the war 30% of residential and 70% of official buildings were destroyed and the population was drastically reduced. With the beginning of German occupation, many Jews fled. For those who left in August 1941 German authorities created a ghetto, which existed until the end of September 1942. A significant number of the Jewish population were killed in the ghetto and others transported to the Treblinka extermination camp. The liberation of the city took place on 8 August 1944.

Post-war Poland

District court with the Don Bosco church tower in the background Sokolow Podlaski, Sad Rejonowy - panoramio.jpg
District court with the Don Bosco church tower in the background

Between 1951 and 1974 the electromechanical, chemical and furniture industries developed significantly. [5] In 1975 a meat processing company was established, [5] which over time, as Sokołów, became one of the largest companies in the Polish meat industry.

Notable residents

Related Research Articles

Kalisz Place in Greater Poland, Poland

Kalisz ( is a city in central Poland and the second-largest city in the Greater Poland Voivodeship with 100,246 inhabitants. It is the capital city of the Kalisz Region. Situated on the Prosna river in the southeastern part of Greater Poland, the city forms a conurbation with the nearby towns of Ostrów Wielkopolski and Nowe Skalmierzyce.

Jēkabpils city in Latvia

Jēkabpils is a city in southeastern Latvia roughly halfway between Riga and Daugavpils and spanning the Daugava River. Historic Jēkabpils lies on the left bank, in Selonia while historic Krustpils lies on the right bank, in Latgale. The two cities were united during Soviet rule in 1962 under the Jēkabpils name, but retain their distinct regional character.

Swarzędz Place in Greater Poland Voivodeship, Poland

Swarzędz is a town in west-central Poland with 29,766 inhabitants. It is the seat of a mixed urban-rural commune called Gmina Swarzędz with 40,166 inhabitants. The town is situated in the Poznań metropolitan area, in the Greater Poland Voivodeship, having previously been in Poznań Voivodeship (1975–1998).

Radzyń Podlaski Place in Lublin Voivodeship, Poland

Radzyń Podlaskipronounced [ˈrad͡zɨɲ pɔdˈlaskʲi] is a town in eastern Poland, about 60 km north of Lublin, with 15,808 inhabitants (2017). Situated in the Lublin Voivodeship since 1999, previously it was part of the Biała Podlaska Voivodeship (1975–1998). It is the capital of Radzyń Podlaski County, and historically belongs to the region of Lesser Poland. The town was founded in 1468, and its most important landmark is the rococo Potocki Palace.

Bielsk Podlaski Place in Podlaskie Voivodeship, Poland

Bielsk Podlaski(listen) is a town in northeastern Poland, in the Bielsk County in the Podlaskie Voivodeship. It is one of the historically most important towns in the region of Podlachia.

Hajnówka Place in Podlaskie Voivodeship, Poland

Hajnówka is a town and a powiat seat in north-eastern Poland with 21,442 inhabitants (2014). It is the capital of Hajnówka County. The town is also notable for its proximity to the Białowieża Forest, the biggest primaeval forest in Europe. Through Hajnówka flows the river Leśna Prawa. It is one of the centres of Orthodox faith and a notable centre of Belarusian culture in Poland. Belarusians comprised 26.4% of the town's population in 2002.

Grajewo Place in Podlaskie Voivodeship, Poland

Grajewo is a town in north-eastern Poland with 21,499 inhabitants (2016). It is situated in the Podlaskie Voivodeship ; previously, it was in Łomża Voivodeship (1975–1998). It is the capital of Grajewo County. It is located within the historic region of Masovia, near the border with Podlachia and Masuria.

Podlachia Place in Poland

Podlachia or Podlasie, is a historical region in the eastern part of Poland. Between 1513 and 1795 it was a voivodeship with the capital in Drohiczyn. Now the part north of the Bug River is included in the modern Podlaskie Voivodeship with the capital in Białystok.

Slonim Place

Slonim is a city in Grodno Region, Belarus, capital of the Slonim district. It is located at the junction of the Shchara and Isa rivers, 143 km (89 mi) southeast of Grodno. The population in 2015 was 49,739.

Michał Kleofas Ogiński

Michał Kleofas Ogiński was a Polish diplomat and politician, Grand Treasurer of Lithuania, and a senator of Tsar Alexander I. He was also a composer of early Romantic music.

Bełżyce Place in Lublin Voivodeship, Poland

Bełżyce(listen) is a town in eastern Poland, in the Lublin Voivodeship, in Lublin County, and about 20 km to the west of the city of Lublin. Bełżyce belongs to Lesser Poland.

Strzelin Place in Lower Silesian Voivodeship, Poland

Strzelin is a town in Lower Silesian Voivodeship in south-western Poland. It is located on the Oława river, a tributary of the Oder, about 39 kilometres south of the region's capital Wrocław. It is part of the Wrocław metropolitan area.

Stanisław Brzóska

Stanisław Brzóska was a Polish priest, general, one of leaders of the Polish insurgency and the last partisan of the January Uprising. He commanded the Polish detachment in South Podlasie and northern Lesser Poland, defeating the Russians in many skirmishes. He was captured eventually in April 1865, sentenced to death by the Russians and hanged publicly in Sokołów Podlaski in the presence of a crowd of 10,000 people.

Ciechanowiec Place in Podlaskie Voivodeship, Poland

Ciechanowiec is a small town in Gmina Ciechanowiec, Wysokie Mazowieckie County, Podlaskie Voivodeship, eastern Poland.

Sokołów County County in Masovian Voivodeship, Poland

Sokołów County is a unit of territorial administration and local government (powiat) in Masovian Voivodeship, east-central Poland. It came into being on January 1, 1999, as a result of the Polish local government reforms passed in 1998. Its administrative seat and largest town is Sokołów Podlaski, which lies 88 kilometres (55 mi) east of Warsaw. The only other town in the county is Kosów Lacki, lying 23 km (14 mi) north of Sokołów Podlaski.

Michał Kazimierz Ogiński

Prince Michał Kazimierz Ogiński of Oginiec was a Polish nobleman, a political office holder and a military commander in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, as well as a noted musician and composer.

Guzów, Żyrardów County Village in Masovian Voivodeship, Poland

Guzów is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Wiskitki, within Żyrardów County, Masovian Voivodeship, in east-central Poland. It is approximately 6 kilometres (4 mi) north-west of Wiskitki, 10 km (6 mi) north-west of Żyrardów, and 47 km (29 mi) west of Warsaw. It is the birthplace of statesman and composer, Michal Kleofas Oginski (1765-1833).

Sobański Palace

The Sobański Palace is a Renaissance Revival palace in Guzów, Żyrardów County, Mazovian Voivodeship, Poland.

Rietavas Manor

Rietavas Manor is a former Ogiński residential manor in Rietavas, Lithuania. The primary manor building hasn't survived, however many parts of the ensemble have, including the former musicians' dormitory, water tower, park, a few outbuildings, guard house, part of the wall, two gates and the Ogiński Family Chapel, where Bogdan Ogiński and his brother duke Mykolas Ogiński are buried.

Indura Place

Indura is a village in the Grodno District of the Grodno Region of Belarus.

References

  1. "Demographic Yearbook of Poland 2014". Archived from the original on Feb 20, 2016. Retrieved Jul 31, 2020.
  2. Ludność. Stan i struktura w przekroju terytorialnym (Stan w dniu 31 XII 2010 r.). Warszawa: Główny Urząd Statystyczny, 2011-06-10. ISSN 1734-6118.
  3. 1 2 3 "sokolowpodl.pl". sokolowpodl.pl. Retrieved Jul 31, 2020.
  4. "Locatio oppidi Sokolow, terra Podlassia - Wikisource". la.wikisource.org. Retrieved Jul 31, 2020.
  5. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 "SOKOŁÓW PODLASKI - HISTORIA, PRZEMYSŁ". www.sokolow.4web.pl. Retrieved Jul 31, 2020.
  6. "Historia powiatu". www.powiat-sokolowski.pl. Retrieved Jul 31, 2020.

Coordinates: 52°24′N22°15′E / 52.400°N 22.250°E / 52.400; 22.250