Solange Troisier

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Solange Troisier
Solange Troisier.jpg
Born(1919-07-19)19 July 1919
Paris, France
Died 9 September 2008(2008-09-09) (aged 89)
Saint-Hymer, Calvados. France
Nationality French
Occupation Physician
Known for Inspector General of Prisons

Solange Troisier (19 July 1919 – 9 September 2008) was a French physician, Inspector General of Prisons, and deputy for the Val-d'Oise. She was a left-wing Gaullist, a feminist, and was active in many committees on social issues.

Contents

Early years

Solange Louise Troisier was born in the 16th arrondissement of Paris on 19 July 1919. [1] Her father was Jean Troisier (1881–1945), professor of pulmonary tuberculosis at Laennec Hospital, a member of the National Academy of Medicine and laboratory director at the Pasteur Institute. Her grandfather was Charles Émile Troisier (1844–1919), another eminent doctor. [2] Her mother was born Geneviève Emile-Ollivier. [1] On her mother's side she was granddaughter of Émile Ollivier (1825–1913), the last minister of Napoleon III during the more liberal final phase of the Second French Empire. He was the son of Démosthène Ollivier (1799–1884), a socialist in the July Monarchy and the French Second Republic who was imprisoned several times for his views. [2]

Jean Troisier

Jean Antoine Ernest Troisier was a French doctor and biologist who headed a laboratory of the Pasteur Institute for several years. He was recognized as an authority on tuberculosis and cancer.

Pasteur Institute organization

The Pasteur Institute is a French non-profit private foundation dedicated to the study of biology, micro-organisms, diseases, and vaccines. It is named after Louis Pasteur, who made some of the greatest breakthroughs in modern medicine at the time, including pasteurization and vaccines for anthrax and rabies. The institute was founded on June 4, 1887, and inaugurated on November 14, 1888.

Charles Émile Troisier French physician

Charles Émile Troisier was a French surgeon.

Solange Troisier studied at the Lycée Victor Hugo, Paris and the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Paris. [1] She obtained the certificat d'études physiques, chimiques et biologiques (PCB) and undertook her medical studies during World War II (1939–45). After the German occupation she joined the Eleuthère network of the French Resistance. [2] In January 1945 she became a doctor-lieutenant in General Jean de Lattre de Tassigny's office of the French First Army. [3] She was then engaged as a doctor for the irregular Colonne Fabien led by Pierre Georges ("Fabien"), which was attached to the regular army. [4] She participated in the campaign in France and Germany and performed her first amputation on the battlefield. [3] She received the Croix de guerre from General François de Linares (1897–1955), but refused the Legion of Honour because so many who deserved it more had died. [2]

Lycée Victor Hugo, Paris Secondary school in Paris

The Lycée Victor-Hugo is a secondary school in the 3rd arrondissement, Paris, France.

University of Paris former university in Paris, France

The University of Paris, metonymically known as the Sorbonne, was a university in Paris, France, active 1150–1793, and 1806–1970.

World War II 1939–1945 global war

World War II, also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries. The major participants threw their entire economic, industrial, and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China. It included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, and the only use of nuclear weapons in war.

Career

Troisier became an intern in 1948, then an assistant in 1955 in the Hôpitaux de Paris. She was clinical director at the Faculty of Medicine of Paris from 1952, and in 1955 became a gynecological surgeon in Paris. She served as an expert to the tribunals of the Court of Cassation. [1] Troisier set up in private practice where she specialized in obstetrics and the care of newborns, and became involved in social aspects of medicine. She traveled widely, usually with Princess Marie Bonaparte (1882–1962), great-grand-niece of the emperor Napoleon and an advocate of Freudian psychoanalysis. [2] In 1962 she began a career as a prison doctor, and set up a gynecological consultation at La Petite Roquette. [3]

Court of Cassation (France) highest jurisdiction in the French judiciary order

The Court of Cassation is one of the four courts of last resort in France. It has jurisdiction over all civil and criminal matters triable in the judicial system, and is the supreme court of appeal in these cases. It has jurisdiction to review the law, and to certify questions of law, to determine miscarriages of justice. The Court is located in the Palace of Justice in Paris.

Princess Marie Bonaparte French author and psychoanalyst

Princess Marie Bonaparte, known as Princess George of Greece and Denmark upon her marriage, was a French author and psychoanalyst, closely linked with Sigmund Freud. Her wealth contributed to the popularity of psychoanalysis, and enabled Freud's escape from Nazi Germany.

Napoleon 18th/19th-century French monarch, military and political leader

Napoléon Bonaparte was a French statesman and military leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars. He was Emperor of the French from 1804 until 1814 and again briefly in 1815 during the Hundred Days. Napoleon dominated European and global affairs for more than a decade while leading France against a series of coalitions in the Napoleonic Wars. He won most of these wars and the vast majority of his battles, building a large empire that ruled over continental Europe before its final collapse in 1815. He is considered one of the greatest commanders in history, and his wars and campaigns are studied at military schools worldwide. Napoleon's political and cultural legacy has endured as one of the most celebrated and controversial leaders in human history.

Troisier was a great admirer of General Charles de Gaulle, who had given women the vote, and adhered to the left wing of Gaullism. From 1968 to 1973 Troisier was deputy for Sarcelles in the Val-d'Oise department as a member of the Union of Democrats for the Republic. She was vice-president of the Committee on Cultural, Family and Social Affairs (1968–69). In the National Assembly she supported the education reforms of Edgar Faure, social spending, parental rights, equal pay for men and women, the fight against drugs and alcohol, reform of the 1920 Abortion Act and abolition of the monopoly of undertakers. [2]

Charles de Gaulle 18th President of the French Republic

Charles André Joseph Marie de Gaulle was a French army officer and statesman who led the French Resistance against Nazi Germany in World War II and chaired the Provisional Government of the French Republic from 1944 to 1946 in order to reestablish democracy in France. In 1958, he came out of retirement when appointed President of the Council of Ministers by President René Coty. He was asked to rewrite the Constitution of France and founded the Fifth Republic after approval by referendum. He was elected President of France later that year, a position he was reelected to in 1965 and held until his resignation in 1969. He was the dominant figure of France during the Cold War era, and his memory continues to influence French politics.

Sarcelles Subprefecture and commune in Île-de-France, France

Sarcelles is a commune in the northern suburbs of Paris, France. It is located 16.3 km (10.1 mi) from the center of Paris. Sarcelles is a sub-prefecture of the Val-d'Oise department and the seat of the Arrondissement of Sarcelles.

Union of Democrats for the Republic political party of France

The Union for the Defence of the Republic, after 1968 renamed Union of Democrats for the Republic, commonly abbreviated UDR, was a Gaullist political party of France that existed from 1968 to 1976.

As a doctor treating women prisoners Troisier became aware of the appalling conditions in which they were incarcerated, and began a crusade for prison reform. This led to her being appointed Medical Inspector General of the Prison Service in 1973. She was made a knight of the Legion of Honor in 1974. [2] She set up psychological medical centers in each region and placed a psychiatrist in each prison. [3] She was Medical Inspector General of Prisons until 1983. [1] That year she was the star witness in a trial that revealed a profitable traffic in pardons for common criminals. She was relieved of her position. [5] She eventually became as Grand Officer of the Legion of Honor. [2] Solange Troisier died in Saint-Hymer, Calvados on 9 September 2008, aged 89. [6]

Saint-Hymer Commune in Normandy, France

Saint-Hymer is a commune in the Calvados department in the Normandy region in northwestern France.

Committees

Solange Troisier served on numerous committees and organizations. She was: [1]

Publications

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References

    1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Solange Troisier, Who's Who in France.
    2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Solange Troissier (1919-2008), AAIHP.
    3. 1 2 3 4 Une sacrée bonne femme, Éditions Gallimard.
    4. Guéraiche 1999, p. 137.
    5. Demonpion 1996.
    6. Solange Troisier (1919-2008), BnF.
    7. Historique, CNFF.

    Sources