Solar power in Romania had an installed capacity of 1,374 megawatt (MW) MW by the end of 2011, and to 6.5 MW by the end of 2012. However, the record year of 2013 was an exception, and new installation fell back from 1,100 MW to a moderate level of 69 MW in 2014.as of the end of 2017. The country had in 2007 an installed capacity of 0.30 MW, which increased to 3.5
Romania is located in an area with a good solar potential of 210 sunny days per year and with an annual solar energy flux between 1,000 kWh/m2/year and 1,300 kWh/m2/year. From this total amount around 600 to 800 kWh/m2/year is technically feasible. The most important solar regions of Romania are the Black Sea coast, Northern Dobruja and Oltenia with an average of 1,600 kWh/ m2/year.
Romania is a country located at the crossroads of Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe. It borders the Black Sea to the southeast, Bulgaria to the south, Ukraine to the north, Hungary to the west, Serbia to the southwest, and Moldova to the east. It has a predominantly temperate-continental climate. With a total area of 238,397 square kilometres (92,046 sq mi), Romania is the 12th largest country and also the 7th most populous member state of the European Union, having almost 20 million inhabitants. Its capital and largest city is Bucharest, and other major urban areas include Cluj-Napoca, Timișoara, Iași, Constanța, Craiova, and Brașov.
The Black Sea is a body of water and marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean between the Balkans, Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, and Western Asia. It is supplied by a number of major rivers, such as the Danube, Dnieper, Southern Bug, Dniester, Don, and the Rioni. Many countries drain into the Black Sea, including Austria, Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Georgia, Germany, Hungary, Moldova, Poland, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Turkey and Ukraine.
Northern Dobruja is the part of Dobruja within the borders of Romania. It lies between the lower Danube river and the Black Sea, bordered in the south by Southern Dobruja, which is part of Bulgaria.
Romania was a major player in the solar power industry, installing in the 1970s and 1980s around 800,000 m2 (8,600,000 sq ft) of low quality solar collectors that placed the country third worldwide in the total surface area of PV cells. One of the most important solar projects was the installation of a 30 kW solar panel on the roof of the Politehnica University of Bucharest that is capable of producing 60 MWh of electricity per year.
Politehnica University of Bucharest is a technical university in Bucharest, Romania. It was founded in 1818 as "Academic School for Philosophy, Mathematical Sciences and Surveying Engineers". Later the technical superior school was renamed few times, in 1864 as School of Bridges and Roads, Mines and Architecture, and the name "Politehnica" was introduced in 1920 when the university was renamed Polytechnic School of Bucharest. Politehnica University is classified by the Ministry of Education as an advanced research and education university. Teaching is conducted in Romanian and at the Faculty of Engineering in Foreign Languages teaching is conducted in one of the languages: English, French and German.
Rominterm, a Romanian company, by 2010, installed a total of 600 solar panels in Mangalia, Constanţa County making the city self-sufficient in terms of heated water during the summer months and providing around 70% of heated water in the winter months and another 1,150 solar panels used for the generation of electricity spread over an area of 1,400 m2 (15,000 sq ft). Another Romanian city, Alba Iulia, installed a total of 1,700 PV cells on several public buildings that have a rated power of 257 kW. Other cities include Giurgiu with 174 solar panels and 391.5 kW installed capacity and Saturn, Romania with 50 panels and 112 kW installed capacity.
Mangalia (Romanian pronunciation: [maŋˈɡali.a], Turkish: Mankalya, ancient Callatis is a municipality and a port on the coast of the Black Sea in the south-east of Constanța County, Romania.
Alba Iulia is the seat of Alba County in the west-central part of Romania. Located on the Mureș River in the historical region of Transylvania, it has a population of 63,536.
Giurgiu is a city in southern Romania. The seat of Giurgiu County, it lies in the historical region of Muntenia. It is situated amid mud-flats and marshes on the left bank of the Danube facing the Bulgarian city of Ruse on the opposite bank. Three small islands face the city, and a larger one shelters its port, Smarda. The rich grain-growing land to the north is traversed by a railway to Bucharest, the first line opened in Romania, which was built in 1869 and afterwards extended to Smarda. Giurgiu exports timber, grain, salt and petroleum, and imports coal, iron, and textiles.
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Many photovoltaic projects are planned for Romania, totaling over 200 MW, and of these, about 61 MW were expected to be completed by 2012. The first two industrial scale solar power plants in the country are the Singureni Solar Park completed in December 2010, and the Scornicesti Photovoltaic Park, completed 27 December 2011. Each is 1 MW. The Covaci Solar Park will be Romania's largest solar power plant at completion having a total of 480,000 solar panels with a combined capacity of 35 megawatts, and will be located in Timiş County. Another important site is the Gura Ialomiţei Solar Park in Ialomiţa County which will have a capacity of 10 megawatts. Other solar parks include the Satu Mare Solar Park located in Satu Mare County which will have a capacity of 5 to 8 megawatts and the Sfântu Gheorghe Solar Park located in Covasna County that will have a capacity of 2.4 megawatts. A 32 MW project in four sections of 8 MW each is planned for Gătaia, and a 48 MW solar park is planned for Segarcea.
Singureni Solar Park is a large thin-film photovoltaic power system built on a 5 ha plot of land near the Singureni commune in Romania. The power plant is a 1-megawatt solar power system using 4176 240 Watt-peak panels of state-of-the-art thin film technology. It was completed in December 2010. The solar park is expected to supply 1,300 MWh of electricity per year. Construction began in May 2010 and was completed in December 2010.
Covaci Solar Park, which will be one of the world's largest thin-film photovoltaic (PV) power systems, is being built on a 60-hectare (148-acre) plot of land to the north of Timişoara in Romania. The power plant will be a 35-megawatt solar power system using state-of-the-art thin-film technology, and was to be finished by the end of 2011. A total of 480,000 First Solar thin-film modules will be used, and will supply 35,000 MWh of electricity per year.
Satu Mare Solar Park, a large thin-film photovoltaic (PV) power system, is being built on a 15 ha plot of land near the Satu Mare city in Romania. The power plant will be a 5 to 8-megawatt solar power system using state-of-the-art thin film technology, and should be finished by the end of 2012. The solar park is expected to between supply 2,000 MWh and 3,000 MWh of electricity per year.
The Romanian State supports the production of solar / PV energy by offering six (6) green certificates for each MWh produced and injected into the grid. One green certificate will be traded on a regulated market (i.e. OPCOM) with a price that varies between EUR 27 to EUR 55 per green certificate, subject to indexation with the Euro zone inflation rate. However, due to the reduction of the cost of technology, the Romanian Energy Regulatory Body (i.e. ANRE) considers reducing the number of green certificate in the first half of 2012. In order to protect the interest of the solar / PV producers and for an appropriate guidance through the Romanian RES-E issues, the Romanian Photovoltaic Industry Associationwas created. Solar / PV energy is expected to be the second most active developed source of energy, after wind.
Energy development is the field of activities focused on obtaining sources of energy from natural resources. These activities include production of conventional, alternative and renewable sources of energy, and for the recovery and reuse of energy that would otherwise be wasted. Energy conservation and efficiency measures reduce the demand for energy development, and can have benefits to society with improvements to environmental issues.
Many nations have installed significant solar power capacity into their electrical grids to supplement or provide an alternative to conventional energy sources. Solar power plants use one of two technologies:
Solar power represented a very small part of electricity production in the United Kingdom (UK) until the 2010s when it increased rapidly; because for most of that decade new installations were subsidized with a feed-in tariff (FIT), and also because of the falling cost of photovoltaic (PV) panels.
Solar energy in the European Union consists of photovoltaics (PV) and solar thermal energy.
Historically, the main applications of solar energy technologies in Canada have been non-electric active solar system applications for space heating, water heating and drying crops and lumber. In 2001, there were more than 12,000 residential solar water heating systems and 300 commercial/ industrial solar hot water systems in use. These systems presently comprise a small fraction of Canada’s energy use, but some government studies suggest they could make up as much as five per cent of the country’s energy needs by the year 2025.
Solar power in Japan has been expanding since the late 1990s. The country is a leading manufacturer of photovoltaics (PV) and a large installer of domestic PV systems with most of them grid connected. Japan has an insolation of about 4.3 to 4.8 kWh/(m2·day).
Worldwide growth of photovoltaics has been close to exponential between 1992 and 2018. During this period of time, photovoltaics (PV), also known as solar PV, evolved from a niche market of small scale applications to a mainstream electricity source. When solar PV systems were first recognized as a promising renewable energy technology, subsidy programs, such as feed-in tariffs, were implemented by a number of governments in order to provide economic incentives for investments. For several years, growth was mainly driven by Japan and pioneering European countries. As a consequence, cost of solar declined significantly due to experience curve effects like improvements in technology and economies of scale. Several national programs were instrumental in increasing PV deployment, such as the Energiewende in Germany, the Million Solar Roofs project in the United States, and China's 2011 five-year-plan for energy production. Since then, deployment of photovoltaics has gained momentum on a worldwide scale, increasingly competing with conventional energy sources. In the early 21st Century a market for utility-scale plants emerged to complement rooftop and other distributed applications. By 2015, some 30 countries had reached grid parity.
Turkey is located in an advantageous position in the Middle East and Southeast Europe for solar energy. Solar potential is very high in Turkey, especially in South Eastern Anatolia and Mediterranean regions. Compared to the rest of the region, insolation values are higher and conditions for solar power generation are comparable to Spain. 7.5 TWh was generated in 2018 which was 2.5% of Turkey's electricity. Installed capacity was 5GW, with the Energy Ministry planning to have another 10GW installed in the 2020s. However solar power in Turkey could increase far more quickly if the auction system was improved.
In 2009, Poland was world's 9th largest hard coal producer. The country is also the second largest coal consumer in Europe behind Germany.
Solar power in Italy increased rapidly in the last ten years, reaching an installed capacity that ranks fifth in the world. Solar power accounted for 7% of the electricity generated in Italy during 2013, ranking first in the world. In 2017, that number was close to 8%, which was beaten only by Germany in Europe. More than 730 000 solar power plants are currently installed in Italy, with a total capacity of 19.7 GW. Sun energy currently produces around 26% of all renewable energy in the country. The years 2009-2013 saw a boom in installed photovoltaic (PV) nameplate capacity, increasing nearly 15-fold, and 2013's year-end capacity of 17,928 MW ranked third in the world, ahead of the United States at that time. This was partly due to the generous solar PV power generation incentives offered under the Conto Energia schemes. As of 2013, the sector provided employment to about 100,000 people, especially in design and installation.
As of the end of 2014, solar power in Austria amounted to 766 megawatt (MW) of cumulative photovoltaic (PV) capacity, of which more than three quarters were installed within the last four years. Solar PV generated 766 gigawatt-hours, or about 1.4% of the country's final electricity consumption. As with most other European countries, 99.5 percent of all solar power systems are connected to the electrical grid. The nation's installed PV capacity by inhabitant stood at 91 watts, still below the European Union's 2014-average of 172 watts.
The Czech Republic had almost two gigawatts (GW) of photovoltaic capacity at the end of 2010, but installed less than 10 megawatts (MW) in 2011 due to the feed-in tariff being reduced by 25%, after installing almost 1,500 MW the year before. Installations increased to 109 MW in 2012. In 2014, no new installations were reported.
Solar power in France including overseas territories reached an installed capacity figure of 7,165 MW by the end of 2016 generating 8,790 GWh of power.
Solar power in Mexico has the potential to produce vast amounts of energy. 70% of the country has an insolation of greater than 4.5 kWh/m²/day. Using 15% efficient photovoltaics, a square 25 km (16 mi) on each side in the state of Chihuahua or the Sonoran Desert could supply all of Mexico's electricity.
Solar power in Bulgaria has expanded by 100 megawatts (MW) in 2011. A 16.2 MW solar power plant in Zdravetz, Bulgaria was expected to be completed in June 2012. Power will be sold for $0.30/kWh in a fixed rate 20 year power purchase agreement.
Solar power in Belgium reached an installed capacity of 3,846 MW of power generating 3,149 GWh of electricity in 2017. In 2015 PV solar power accounted for around 4% of Belgium's total electricity demand, the 4th highest penetration figure in the world, although the country is some way behind the leaders Germany, Italy and Greece at between 7% and 8% of electricity demand.
Solar power in the Netherlands has an installed capacity of around 2,040 megawatt (MW) of photovoltaics as of the end of 2016. Around 525 MW of new capacity was installed during 2016, the third highest figure in Europe for that year.
Solar energy in Poland is a new sector of renewable energy and consists of solar thermal and solar electricity. Solar thermal, used for heating water was widely used in about 1,700,000 square metres (18,000,000 sq ft) of solar thermal collector at the end of 2014. This corresponds to about 1,200 MWth capacity. Solar collectors are the second, after the biomass heating plants, source of "green heat" in Poland. In 2014, Poland was ranked fourth in sales of solar collector installations among European countries.
Solar power in Switzerland has been growing rapidly in recent years due to declining system costs and a feed-in tariff instituted by the Swiss government. In 2013, cumulative capacity increased by 69% to 730 megawatts (MW) and contributed 544 GWh or 0.8% of the countries net-electricity production.
Under the Renewable Energy Directive Ireland has set a target of producing 16% of all its energy needs from renewable energy sources by 2020. Between 2005 and 2014 the percentage of energy from renewable energy sources grew from just 3.1% to 8.6% of total final consumption. By 2020 Ireland has a target of producing 42.5% of its electricity needs from renewable sources.
The history of photovoltaic growth includes previous forecast and annual deployment figures by country.