Sombor

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Sombor

Сомбор (Serbian)
Zombor  (Hungarian)
Зомбор (Rusyn)
City of Sombor
Sombor-Zupanija-20160404.jpg
Gradska kutsha u Somboru3.jpg
Rimokatolichka tsrkva u Somboru - Rome Catholic Church in Sombor.jpg
Zgrada Preparandije.jpg
Sombor 07.jpg
Sombor 2012-04-12 17-01-57.jpg
From top: Town hall, Old Town Hall, Rome Catholic Church, Preparandija building, Krušper's palace, Main pedestrian street
Sombor-grb.png
Coat of arms
Serbia adm location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Sombor
Location of the city of Sombor in Serbia
Coordinates: 45°47′N19°07′E / 45.783°N 19.117°E / 45.783; 19.117 Coordinates: 45°47′N19°07′E / 45.783°N 19.117°E / 45.783; 19.117
Country Flag of Serbia.svg  Serbia
Province Flag of Vojvodina.svg  Vojvodina
Region Bačka
District West Bačka
Municipality Sombor
City status17 February 1749
Settlements16
Government
  MayorAntonio Ratković (SNS)
Area
[1]
Area rank 7th in Serbia
  Urban289.23 km2 (111.67 sq mi)
  Administrative1,216.80 km2 (469.81 sq mi)
Elevation
90 m (300 ft)
Population
 (2011 census) [2]
  Rank 16th in Serbia
  Urban
47,623
  Urban density160/km2 (430/sq mi)
  Administrative
85,903
  Administrative density71/km2 (180/sq mi)
Time zone UTC+1 (CET)
  Summer (DST) UTC+2 (CEST)
Postal code
25000
Area code +381 25
Car plates SO
Website www.sombor.rs

Sombor (Serbian Cyrillic : Сомбор, pronounced  [sɔ̂mbɔr] ; Hungarian : Zombor; Rusyn : Зомбор / Zombor) is a city and the administrative center of the West Bačka District in the autonomous province of Vojvodina, Serbia. The city has a total population of 47,623 (as of 2011), while its administrative area (including neighboring villages) has 85,903 inhabitants.

Contents

Name and etymology

In Serbian, the city is known as Sombor (Сомбор), in Hungarian and German as Zombor, in Croatian and Bunjevac as Sombor, in Rusyn as Zombor (Зомбор), and in Turkish as Sonbor.

The older Hungarian name for the city was Czoborszentmihály. The name originates from the Czobor family, who were the owners of this area in the 14th century (The family name came from the Slavic name Cibor). The Serbian name for the city (Sombor) also came from the family name Czobor, and was first recorded in 1543, although the city was mentioned in historical documents under several more names, such as Samobor, Sambor, Sambir, Sonbor, Sanbur, Zibor, and Zombar.

An unofficial Serbian name used for the city is Ravangrad (Раванград), which means "flat town" in Serbian.

History

Serbian Orthodox church Sombor orthodox church.jpg
Serbian Orthodox church
Main pedestrian street Sombor (Zombor) - main street.jpg
Main pedestrian street

The first historical record relating to the city is from 1340. The city was administered by the Kingdom of Hungary until the 16th century, when it became part of the Ottoman Empire. During the establishment of Ottoman authority, the local Hungarian population left the region. As a result, the city became populated mostly by ethnic Serbs. [3] It was called "Sonbor" during Ottoman administration and was a kaza centre in the Sanjak of Segedin at first in Budin Province until 1596, and then in Eğri Province between 1596 and 1687.

In 1665, a well-known traveller, Evliya Celebi, visited Sombor and wrote: "All the folk (in the city) are not Hungarian, but Wallachian-Christian (Serb). [3] These places are something special; they do not belong to Hungary, but are a part of Bačka and Wallachia. Most of the inhabitants are traders, and all of them wear frontiersmen clothes; they are very polite and brave people." According to Celebi, the city had 200 shops, 14 mosques and about 2,000 houses.

Since 12 September 1687, the city was under Habsburg administration, and was included into the Habsburg Military Frontier. Ottomans attempted to recapture it during the Battle of Zenta on 11 September 1697. However their attack was repulsed. In 1717, the first Orthodox elementary school was opened. Five years later a Roman Catholic elementary school was opened as well. In 1745, Sombor was excluded from the Military Frontier and was included into Bacsensis County. In 1749, Sombor gained royal free city status. In 1786, the city became the seat of Bacsensis-Bodrogiensis County. According to 1786 data, the population of the city numbered 11,420 people, mostly Serbs.

According to the 1843 data, Sombor had 21,086 inhabitants, of whom 11,897 were Orthodox Christians, 9,082 Roman Catholics, 56 Jewish, and 51 Protestants. The main language spoken in the city at that time was Serbian, and the second largest language was German. In 1848/1849, Sombor was part of the Serbian Vojvodina, a Serb autonomous region within Austrian Empire, while between 1849 and 1860, it was part of the Voivodeship of Serbia and Temes Banat, a separate Austrian crown land. Sombor was a seat of the district within voivodship. After the abolishment of this crown land, Sombor again became the seat of the Bacsensis-Bodrogiensis (Bács-Bodrog, Bačka-Bodrog) County.

Holy Trinity Square in 1941 Glavni trg u Somboru.jpg
Holy Trinity Square in 1941

According to the 1910 census, the population of Sombor was 30,593 people, of whom 11,881 spoke the Serbian language, 10,078 spoke the Hungarian language, 6,289 spoke the Bunjevac language, 2,181 spoke the German language.

In 1918, Sombor became part of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (later known as the Kingdom of Yugoslavia). Between 1918 and 1922 it was part of Bačka County, between 1922 and 1929 part of Bačka Oblast, and between 1929 and 1941 part of Danube Banovina.

In 1941, the city was occupied by the Axis powers and annexed by Hungary. Many prominent citizens from the Serb community were interned and later executed. In 1944, the Yugoslav Partisans and Soviet Red Army expelled the Axis forces from the city. Since 1944, Sombor was part of the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina of the new Socialist Yugoslavia and (since 1945) socialist Serbia. Today, Sombor is the seat of the West Bačka District in the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina.

Geography

Climate

Climate in this area has mild differences between highs and lows, and there is adequate rainfall year-round. The Köppen Climate Classification subtype for this climate is "Cfb" (Marine West Coast Climate/Oceanic climate). [4]

Climate data for Sombor (1981–2010, extremes 1961–2010)
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)19.3
(66.7)
21.3
(70.3)
27.6
(81.7)
29.5
(85.1)
35.1
(95.2)
37.1
(98.8)
40.3
(104.5)
39.5
(103.1)
35.7
(96.3)
29.4
(84.9)
25.7
(78.3)
20.7
(69.3)
40.3
(104.5)
Average high °C (°F)3.6
(38.5)
6.3
(43.3)
12.0
(53.6)
17.8
(64.0)
23.3
(73.9)
26.1
(79.0)
28.5
(83.3)
28.5
(83.3)
23.7
(74.7)
18.1
(64.6)
10.2
(50.4)
4.5
(40.1)
16.9
(62.4)
Daily mean °C (°F)−0.1
(31.8)
1.4
(34.5)
6.2
(43.2)
11.6
(52.9)
17.1
(62.8)
20.2
(68.4)
21.9
(71.4)
21.3
(70.3)
16.5
(61.7)
11.3
(52.3)
5.4
(41.7)
1.1
(34.0)
11.2
(52.2)
Average low °C (°F)−3.4
(25.9)
−2.6
(27.3)
1.2
(34.2)
5.8
(42.4)
10.8
(51.4)
13.8
(56.8)
15.2
(59.4)
14.7
(58.5)
10.7
(51.3)
6.2
(43.2)
1.7
(35.1)
−1.8
(28.8)
6.0
(42.8)
Record low °C (°F)−27.2
(−17.0)
−26.3
(−15.3)
−20.3
(−4.5)
−5.6
(21.9)
−1.0
(30.2)
2.0
(35.6)
7.3
(45.1)
4.6
(40.3)
−2.2
(28.0)
−6.9
(19.6)
−18.4
(−1.1)
−23.7
(−10.7)
−27.2
(−17.0)
Average precipitation mm (inches)37.3
(1.47)
29.9
(1.18)
36.4
(1.43)
45.2
(1.78)
60.0
(2.36)
81.5
(3.21)
66.2
(2.61)
53.1
(2.09)
54.4
(2.14)
47.3
(1.86)
53.7
(2.11)
47.4
(1.87)
612.4
(24.11)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm)1110101212131091091113128
Average snowy days76300000002624
Average relative humidity (%)84787066646564667175828672
Mean monthly sunshine hours 62.297.5147.6191.8244.1259.5290.3274.3197.1152.580.453.02,050.4
Source: Republic Hydrometeorological Service of Serbia [5]

Settlements

Neighborhoods of urban Sombor Sombor quarters.png
Neighborhoods of urban Sombor

The city administrative area of Sombor includes following villages:

Smaller and suburban settlements, "Salaši" include

Demographics

Historical population
YearPop.±% p.a.
194890,477    
195392,583+0.46%
196196,191+0.48%
197198,080+0.19%
198199,168+0.11%
199196,105−0.31%
200297,263+0.11%
201185,903−1.37%
Source: [6]

According to the last official census done in 2011, the city of Sombor has 85,903 inhabitants.

Ethnic groups

Settlements with Serb ethnic majority (as of 2002) are: Sombor, Aleksa Šantić, Gakovo, Kljajićevo, Kolut, Rastina, Riđica, Stanišić, Stapar, and Čonoplja. Settlements with Croat/Šokac ethnic majority (as of 2002) are: Bački Breg and Bački Monoštor. Settlements with Hungarian ethnic majority (in 2002) are: Bezdan, Doroslovo, and Telečka. Ethnically mixed settlement with relative Hungarian majority is Svetozar Miletić.

The ethnic composition of the city: [7]

Ethnic groupPopulation%
Serbs 54,37063.29%
Hungarians 9,87411.49%
Croats 7,0708.23%
Bunjevci 2,0582.40%
Roma 1,0151.18%
Yugoslavs 8520.99%
Montenegrins 5410.63%
Germans 4940.58%
Macedonians 1710.20%
Albanians 1180.14%
Slovaks 1170.14%
Others9,22310.74%
Total85,903

Culture

Building of former Sombor Norma where first civil school in Serbian language was established. Sombor Norma.jpg
Building of former Sombor Norma where first civil school in Serbian language was established.
Carmelite monastery and church in the centre of the town. Sombor, Carmelite monastery and church.jpg
Carmelite monastery and church in the centre of the town.

Sombor is famous for its greenery, cultural life and beautiful 18th and 19th century center. The most important cultural institutions are the National Theater, the Regional Museum, the Modern Art Gallery, the Milan Konjović Art Gallery, [8] the Teacher's College, the Serbian Reading House, and the Grammar School. Teacher's College, founded in 1778, is the oldest college in Serbia and the region.

Sombor's rich history includes the oldest institution for higher education in the Serbian language. The town is also home of numerous minority organisations, including the Hungarian Pocket Theater Berta Ferenc, the Croatian Society Vladimir Nazor, the Jewish Municipality and several other smaller organisations including German and Romani clubs.

There are two monasteries in this city:

Buildings and architecture

Economy

The following table gives a preview of total number of registered people employed in legal entities per their core activity (as of 2018): [9]

ActivityTotal
Agriculture, forestry and fishing967
Mining and quarrying-
Manufacturing4,431
Electricity, gas, steam and air conditioning supply214
Water supply; sewerage, waste management and remediation activities317
Construction673
Wholesale and retail trade, repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles3,020
Transportation and storage1,227
Accommodation and food services740
Information and communication222
Financial and insurance activities351
Real estate activities65
Professional, scientific and technical activities686
Administrative and support service activities927
Public administration and defense; compulsory social security1,397
Education1,617
Human health and social work activities2,094
Arts, entertainment and recreation296
Other service activities329
Individual agricultural workers1,382
Total20,955

Sports

Radnički Sombor is the main football club from the city competing in Vojvodina League North.

Local media

Newspapers

TV stations

Radio stations

Internet media

Twin cities

Twin cities:

Regional cooperation:

Transportation

Buses

Buses offer direct connections to major Serbian cities including Belgrade, Novi Sad and Subotica, as well as many regional towns. Among the companies operating in the area is Severtrans.

Rail

Sombor is linked by direct rail links to Novi Sad and Subotica, among others.

Air

The city houses Sombor Airport.

Notable residents

See also

Related Research Articles

Aleksa Šantić (village) Village in Vojvodina, Serbia

Aleksa Šantić is a village located in the Sombor municipality, in the West Bačka District of Serbia. It is situated in the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina. The population of the village numbering 2,172 people and most of its inhabitants are ethnic Serbs.

Bezdan Village in Vojvodina, Serbia

Bezdan is a village located in Bačka, Vojvodina, Serbia. It is situated in the Sombor municipality, West Bačka District. The village has a Hungarian ethnic majority and its population numbers at 5,263 people.

Bački Breg Village in Vojvodina, Serbia

Bački Breg is a village located in the Sombor municipality, in the West Bačka District of Serbia. It is situated in the autonomous province of Vojvodina. As of 2011, it has a population of 1,140 inhabitants. The village has a Croat (Šokac) ethnic majority.

Bački Monoštor Village in Vojvodina, Serbia

Bački Monoštor is a village located in the municipality of Sombor, West Bačka District, Vojvodina, Serbia. As of 2011 census, it has a population of 3,485 inhabitant. The village has a Croat majority.

Plazović

The Plazović or Kiđoš, is a river in southern Hungary and northern Serbia. It flows entirely within the Bačka region, and during its 129 km long course, on a section of only 15 km, it crosses the Hungarian-Serbian border eight times.

Below is a list of Hungarian geographical names in the Vojvodina region of Serbia.

Doroslovo Village in Vojvodina, Serbia

Doroslovo is a village in Serbia. It is located in the municipality of Sombor, West Bačka District, Vojvodina province. The population of the village numbering 1,830 people and most of its inhabitants are ethnic Hungarians. Villagers are mostly preoccupied with farming. It is widely known as a Christian pilgrimage site.

Gakovo Village in Vojvodina, Serbia

Gakovo is a village in Serbia. It is situated in the Sombor municipality, in the West Bačka District, Vojvodina province. The village has a Serb ethnic majority and its population is 2,201.

Telečka Village in Vojvodina, Serbia

Telečka is a village in Serbia. It is in the Sombor municipality, in the West Bačka District, Vojvodina province. The village has a Hungarian ethnic majority and its population is 2,084 people. It is surrounded by a sandy region, also referred to as Telečka, or Telečka sands.

Čonoplja Village in Vojvodina, Serbia

Čonoplja is a village in Serbia. It is situated in the Sombor municipality, in the West Bačka District, Vojvodina province. The village has a Serb ethnic majority and its population numbering 4,359 people.

Kljajićevo Village in Vojvodina, Serbia

Kljajićevo is a village in Serbia. It is situated in the Sombor municipality, in the West Bačka District, Vojvodina province. The village has a Serb ethnic majority and its population numbered 6,012 people.

Kolut Village in Vojvodina, Serbia

Kolut is a village in Serbia. It is situated in the Sombor municipality, in the West Bačka District, Vojvodina province. The village has a Serb ethnic majority and its population numbering 1,710 people.

Rastina Village in Vojvodina, Serbia

Rastina is a village located in the Sombor municipality, in the West Bačka District, Vojvodina province in northern Serbia, at the border with Hungary. The village has a Serb ethnic majority and a population of 410 people.

Riđica Village in Vojvodina, Serbia

Riđica is a village in Serbia. It is situated in the Sombor municipality, in the West Bačka District, Vojvodina province. The village has a Serb ethnic majority and its population numbering 2,590 people.

Svetozar Miletić (village) Village in Vojvodina, Serbia

Svetozar Miletić is a village located in Sombor municipality in the West Bačka District of Vojvodina, Serbia. It is situated in Bačka geographical region. The village is ethnically mixed and its population numbering 2,746 inhabitants.

Stanišić (village) Village in Vojvodina, Serbia

Stanišić is a village in Serbia. It is situated in the Sombor municipality, in the West Bačka District, Vojvodina province. The village has a Serb ethnic majority and its population numbering 4,808 people.

Stapar Village in Vojvodina, Serbia

Stapar is a village in Serbia. It is situated in the Sombor municipality, in the West Bačka District, Vojvodina province. The village has a Serb ethnic majority and its population numbering 3,720 people.

Kruševlje Place in Vojvodina, Serbia

Kruševlje is a small settlement (hamlet) in Serbia. It is situated in the Sombor municipality, West Bačka District, Vojvodina province. It is mostly populated by Serbs.

Below is a list of Rusyn language exonyms for towns and villages in the Vojvodina region of Serbia.

References

  1. "Municipalities of Serbia, 2006". Statistical Office of Serbia. Retrieved 28 November 2010.
  2. "2011 Census of Population, Households and Dwellings in the Republic of Serbia: Comparative Overview of the Number of Population in 1948, 1953, 1961, 1971, 1981, 1991, 2002 and 2011, Data by settlements" (PDF). Statistical Office of Republic Of Serbia, Belgrade. 2014. ISBN   978-86-6161-109-4 . Retrieved 27 June 2014.
  3. 1 2 "Историја". 23 January 2017. Retrieved 22 December 2017.
  4. "Obziri, Serbia Köppen Climate Classification (Weatherbase)". Weatherbase. Retrieved 22 December 2017.
  5. "Monthly and annual means, maximum and minimum values of meteorological elements for the period 1981–2010" (in Serbian). Republic Hydrometeorological Service of Serbia. Retrieved 25 February 2017.
  6. "2011 Census of Population, Households and Dwellings in the Republic of Serbia" (PDF). stat.gov.rs. Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia. Retrieved 11 December 2017.
  7. "Попис становништва, домаћинстава и станова 2011. у Републици Србији" (PDF). stat.gov.rs. Republički zavod za statistiku. Retrieved 30 March 2019.
  8. "Ovo su NAJLEPŠI MUZEJI van Beograda i evo zašto NE SMETE da ih zaobiđete". blic.rs (in Serbian). 11 December 2017. Retrieved 22 February 2019.
  9. "MUNICIPALITIES AND REGIONS OF THE REPUBLIC OF SERBIA, 2019" (PDF). stat.gov.rs. Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia. 25 December 2019. Retrieved 28 December 2019.
  10. "Somborske novine - Početna". somborskenovine.co.rs. Retrieved 22 December 2017.
  11. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 23 November 2010. Retrieved 14 November 2010.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  12. "РТВ СРЕЋЕ СОМБОР & TV SREĆE SOMBOR & Radio Televizija Srece Sombor "TV SOMBOR" UŽIVO". rtvsrece.com. Retrieved 22 December 2017.
  13. http://www.somborski.net, Agencija za marketing SOinfo - Zoran Hajtl -. "Radio Sombor- Somborske vesti". radiosombor.co.rs. Retrieved 22 December 2017.
  14. "SOinfo.org – Sombor 24/7". soinfo.org. Retrieved 22 December 2017.