Sonora River

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Río Sonora (Sonora River) is a 402-kilometer-long river of Mexico. It lies on the Pacific slope of the Mexican state of Sonora and it runs into the Gulf of California.

Sonora State of Mexico

Sonora, officially Estado Libre y Soberano de Sonora, is one of 31 states that, with Mexico City, comprise the 32 federal entities of United Mexican States. It is divided into 72 municipalities; the capital city is Hermosillo. Sonora is bordered by the states of Chihuahua to the east, Baja California to the northwest and Sinaloa to the south. To the north, it shares the U.S.–Mexico border with the states of Arizona and New Mexico, and on the west has a significant share of the coastline of the Gulf of California.

Gulf of California A gulf of the Pacific Ocean on the coast of Mexico between Baja California and the mainland

The Gulf of California is a marginal sea of the Pacific Ocean that separates the Baja California Peninsula from the Mexican mainland. It is bordered by the states of Baja California, Baja California Sur, Sonora, and Sinaloa with a coastline of approximately 4,000 km (2,500 mi). Rivers which flow into the Gulf of California include the Colorado, Fuerte, Mayo, Sinaloa, Sonora, and the Yaqui. The gulf's surface area is about 160,000 km2 (62,000 sq mi). Depth soundings in the gulf have ranged from fording depth at the estuary near Yuma, Arizona, to in excess of 3,000 meters (9,800 ft) in the deepest parts.



The Sonora River watershed covers 10,040 square miles (26,000 km2) of public land. Slopes range from steep orientations in the upper part of the watershed to more gradual topographies in the valleys. The Sonora River watershed is subdivided into six smaller watersheds. [1]


Biotic communities found within the watershed in order of importance by the area covered are the Sinaloan thornscrub, the plains of Sonora subdivision, semidesert grasslands, the Madrean evergreen woodland, and the central gulf coast subdivision. [2] Average annual precipitation is 375 millimetres (14.8 in) which occurs in two seasons, late summer-early fall and winter-early spring. [1]

Physician naturalist Edgar Alexander Mearns' 1907 report of beaver (Castor canadensis) on the Sonora River may be the southernmost extent of the range of this North American aquatic mammal. [3]

Edgar Alexander Mearns American ornithologist and field naturalist

Edgar Alexander Mearns was a notable American ornithologist and field naturalist.

North American beaver species of mammal

The North American beaver is one of two extant beaver species. It is native to North America and introduced to Patagonia in South America and some European countries. In the United States and Canada, the species is often referred to simply as "beaver", though this causes some confusion because another distantly related rodent, Aplodontia rufa, is often called the "mountain beaver". Other vernacular names, including American beaver and Canadian beaver, distinguish this species from the other extant beaver species, Castor fiber, which is native to Eurasia. The North American beaver is an official animal symbol of Canada and is the official state mammal of Oregon.

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Sonoran Desert North American desert

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Naranjeros de Hermosillo baseball team of the Mexican Pacific League based in Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico

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Bacadéhuachi village in Sonora, Mexico

Bacadéhuachi is a village in Bacadéhuachi Municipality in the northeast of the Mexican state of Sonora. It is 269 kilometers northeast of the state capital, Hermosillo.

Mearns's squirrel is a species of squirrel native to Mexico. It is an endangered species which occurs in low densities and is threatened by habitat loss. It is possibly also threatened by competition from the eastern gray squirrel, which was introduced to the range of Mearns's squirrel in 1946, but may not be present anymore. It is closely related to the Douglas squirrel, but far less is known about its behavior, which was first studied in detail in 2004-2005. It is named for the nineteenth century American naturalist Edgar Mearns.

San Pedro River (Arizona) river in the United States of America

The San Pedro River is a northward-flowing stream originating about 10 miles (16 km) south of the international border south of Sierra Vista, Arizona, in Cananea Municipality, Sonora, Mexico. The river starts at the confluence of other streams just east of Sauceda, Cananea. Within Arizona, the river flows 140 miles (230 km) north through Cochise County, Pima County, Graham County, and Pinal County to its confluence with the Gila River, at Winkelman, Arizona. It is the last major, free-flowing undammed river in the American Southwest, it is of major ecological importance as it hosts two-thirds of the avian diversity in the United States, including 100 species of breeding birds and 300 species of migrating birds.

Mexican grizzly bear subspecies of mammal

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Pinacate Peaks mountains

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The Rio San Bernardino, or San Bernardino River, begins in extreme southeastern Cochise County, Arizona, and is a tributary of the Bavispe River, in Sonora, Mexico.

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Hermosillo Municipality Municipality in Sonora, Mexico

Hermosillo is a municipality in Sonora in north-western Mexico. The municipal seat is the city of Hermosillo.

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San Pedro Mártir Island

San Pedro Mártir is the name of an island of Mexico, located in the Gulf of California, about halfway between the coast of Baja California and Sonora. San Pedro Mártir is located in the center of the Gulf of California and is the most remote island in the Sea of Cortez. It is located 51 km from Baja California and 53 km off the coast of Sonora. The island is 2 km long and 1.5 km maximum width, with a total of 2,729 km2 of total area. The island is uninhabited and is 60 km from Bahía Kino, the nearest city in the state of Sonora on the west coast.


  1. 1 2 Diego Valdez-Zamudio, Peter F. Folliott (2005) Agroforestry Practices in the Sonora River Watershed, Mexico. AFTA 2005 Conference Proceedings pp. 1-4 [ dead link ]
  2. D. E. Brown, C. H. Lowe (1994). A supplementary map to Biotic Communities: Southwestern United States and northwestern Mexico. Salt Lake City, Utah: University of Utah Press.
  3. Edgar Alexander Mearns (1907). Mammals of the Mexican boundary of the United States: A descriptive catalogue of the species of mammals occurring in that region; with a general summary of the natural history, and a list of trees. Government Printing Office. p. 359. Retrieved 2011-11-22.

Coordinates: 28°51′12″N111°59′27″W / 28.8532°N 111.9908°W / 28.8532; -111.9908

Geographic coordinate system Coordinate system

A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position; alternatively, a geographic position may be expressed in a combined three-dimensional Cartesian vector. A common choice of coordinates is latitude, longitude and elevation. To specify a location on a plane requires a map projection.