Soot

Last updated
Emission of soot in the fumes of a large diesel truck, without particle filters Diesel-smoke.jpg
Emission of soot in the fumes of a large diesel truck, without particle filters

Soot /sʊt/ is a mass of impure carbon particles resulting from the incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons. [1] It is more properly restricted to the product of the gas-phase combustion process[ citation needed ] but is commonly extended to include the residual pyrolysed fuel particles such as coal, cenospheres, charred wood, and petroleum coke that may become airborne during pyrolysis and that are more properly identified as cokes or char.

Contents

Soot causes various types of cancer and lung disease. [2]

Sources

Soot as an airborne contaminant in the environment has many different sources, all of which are results of some form of pyrolysis. They include soot from coal burning, internal-combustion engines, [1] power-plant boilers, hog-fuel boilers, ship boilers, central steam-heat boilers, waste incineration, local field burning, house fires, forest fires, fireplaces, and furnaces. These exterior sources also contribute to the indoor environment sources such as smoking of plant matter, cooking, oil lamps, candles, quartz/halogen bulbs with settled dust, fireplaces, exhaust emissions from vehicles, [3] and defective furnaces. Soot in very low concentrations is capable of darkening surfaces or making particle agglomerates, such as those from ventilation systems, appear black. Soot is the primary cause of "ghosting", the discoloration of walls and ceilings or walls and flooring where they meet. It is generally responsible for the discoloration of the walls above baseboard electric heating units.

The formation of soot depends strongly on the fuel composition. [4] [5] [6] The rank ordering of sooting tendency of fuel components is: naphthalenesbenzenesaliphatics. However, the order of sooting tendencies of the aliphatics (alkanes, alkenes, and alkynes) varies dramatically depending on the flame type. The difference between the sooting tendencies of aliphatics and aromatics is thought to result mainly from the different routes of formation. Aliphatics appear to first form acetylene and polyacetylenes, which is a slow process; aromatics can form soot both by this route and also by a more direct pathway involving ring condensation or polymerization reactions building on the existing aromatic structure. [7] [8]

Description

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) adopted the description of soot particles given in the glossary of Charlson and Heintzenberg (1995), “Particles formed during the quenching of gases at the outer edge of flames of organic vapours, consisting predominantly of carbon, with lesser amounts of oxygen and hydrogen present as carboxyl and phenolic groups and exhibiting an imperfect graphitic structure” [9]

Formation of soot is a complex process, an evolution of matter in which a number of molecules undergo many chemical and physical reactions within a few milliseconds. [1] Soot is a powder-like form of amorphous carbon.[ citation needed ] Gas-phase soot contains polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). [1] [10] The PAHs in soot are known mutagens [11] and are classified as a "known human carcinogen" by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). [12] Soot forms during incomplete combustion from precursor molecules such as acetylene. It consists of agglomerated nanoparticles with diameters between 6 and 30  nm. The soot particles can be mixed with metal oxides and with minerals and can be coated with sulfuric acid. [1] [13]

Soot formation mechanism

Many details of soot formation chemistry remain unanswered and controversial, but there have been a few agreements: [1]

Hazards

The black staining on the power car of this Midland Mainline InterCity 125 High Speed Train is the result of soot building up on the train's surface. MML43083 at Nottingham 2005-10-14 03.jpg
The black staining on the power car of this Midland Mainline InterCity 125 High Speed Train is the result of soot building up on the train's surface.

Soot, particularly diesel exhaust pollution, accounts for over one quarter of the total hazardous pollution in the air. [3] [14]

Among these diesel emission components, particulate matter has been a serious concern for human health due to its direct and broad impact on the respiratory organs. In earlier times, health professionals associated PM10 (diameter < 10  μm) with chronic lung disease, lung cancer, influenza, asthma, and increased mortality rate. However, recent scientific studies suggest that these correlations be more closely linked with fine particles (PM2.5) and ultra-fine particles (PM0.1). [1]

Long-term exposure to urban air pollution containing soot increases the risk of coronary artery disease. [15]

Diesel exhaust (DE) gas is a major contributor to combustion-derived particulate-matter air pollution. [3] In human experimental studies using an exposure chamber setup, DE has been linked to acute vascular dysfunction and increased thrombus formation. [16] [17] This serves as a plausible mechanistic link between the previously described association between particulate matter air pollution and increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.[ citation needed ]

Soot also tends to form in chimneys in domestic houses possessing one or more fireplaces. If a large deposit collects in one, it can ignite and create a chimney fire. Regular cleaning by a chimney sweep should eliminate the problem. [18]

Soot modeling

Soot mechanism is difficult to model mathematically because of the large number of primary components of diesel fuel, complex combustion mechanisms, and the heterogeneous interactions during soot formation. [1] Soot models are broadly categorized into three subgroups: empirical (equations that are adjusted to match experimental soot profiles), semi-empirical (combined mathematical equations and some empirical models which used for particle number density and soot volume and mass fraction), and detailed theoretical mechanisms (covers detailed chemical kinetics and physical models in all phases) are usually available in the literature for soot models. [1]

Empirical models use correlations of experimental data to predict trends in soot production. Empirical models are easy to implement and provide excellent correlations for a given set of operating conditions. However, empirical models cannot be used to investigate the underlying mechanisms of soot production. So, these models are not flexible enough to handle changes in operating conditions. They are only useful for testing previously established designed experiments under specific conditions. [1]

Second, semi-empirical models solve rate equations that are calibrated using experimental data. Semi-empirical models reduce computational costs primarily by simplifying the chemistry in soot formation and oxidation. Semi-empirical models reduce the size of chemical mechanisms and use simpler molecules, such as acetylene as precursors. [1] Detailed theoretical models use extensive chemical mechanisms containing hundreds of chemical reactions in order to predict concentrations of soot. Detailed theoretical soot models contain all the components present in the soot formation with a high level of detailed chemical and physical processes. [1]

Such comprehensive models (detailed models) usually take high financial burden for programming and operating, and much computational time to produce a converged solution. On the other hand, empirical and semi-empirical models ignore some of the details in order to make complex model simple and to reduce the computational cost and time. Thanks to recent technological progress in computation, it becomes more feasible to use detailed theoretical models and obtain more realistic results. However, further advancement of comprehensive theoretical models must be preceded by the more detailed and accurate formation mechanisms. [1]

On the other hand, models that are based on a phenomenological description have found wide use recently. Phenomenological soot models, which may be categorized as semi-empirical models, correlate empirically observed phenomena in a way that is consistent with the fundamental theory, but is not directly derived from the theory. Phenomenological models use sub-models developed to describe the different processes (or phenomena) observed during the combustion process. These sub-models can be empirically developed from observation or by using basic physical and chemical relations. Advantages of phenomenological models are that they are quite reliable and yet not so complicated. So, they are useful, especially when the accuracy of the model parameters is low. For example, the phenomenological models can predict the soot formation even when several operating conditions are changed in a system and the accuracy cannot be guaranteed. Examples of sub-models of phonological empirical models could be listed as spray model, lift-off model, heat release model, ignition delay model, etc. [1]

See also

Related Research Articles

Combustion Chemical reaction

Combustion, or burning, is a high-temperature exothermic redox chemical reaction between a fuel and an oxidant, usually atmospheric oxygen, that produces oxidized, often gaseous products, in a mixture termed as smoke. Combustion does not always result in fire, because a flame is only visible when substances undergoing combustion vapourise, but when it does, a flame is a characteristic indicator of the reaction. While the activation energy must be overcome to initiate combustion, the heat from a flame may provide enough energy to make the reaction self-sustaining. Combustion is often a complicated sequence of elementary radical reactions. Solid fuels, such as wood and coal, first undergo endothermic pyrolysis to produce gaseous fuels whose combustion then supplies the heat required to produce more of them. Combustion is often hot enough that incandescent light in the form of either glowing or a flame is produced. A simple example can be seen in the combustion of hydrogen and oxygen into water vapor, a reaction commonly used to fuel rocket engines. This reaction releases 242 kJ/mol of heat and reduces the enthalpy accordingly :

Hydrocarbon Organic compound consisting entirely of hydrogen and carbon

In organic chemistry, a hydrocarbon is an organic compound consisting entirely of hydrogen and carbon. Hydrocarbons are examples of group 14 hydrides. Hydrocarbons from which one hydrogen atom has been removed are functional groups called hydrocarbyls. Hydrocarbons are generally colourless and hydrophobic with only weak odours. Because of their diverse molecular structures, it is difficult to generalize further. Most anthropogenic emissions of hydrocarbons are from the burning of fossil fuels including fuel production and combustion. Natural sources of hydrocarbons such as ethylene, isoprene, and monoterpenes come from the emissions of vegetation.

Smoke Mass of airborne particulates and gases

Smoke is a collection of airborne particulates and gases emitted when a material undergoes combustion or pyrolysis, together with the quantity of air that is entrained or otherwise mixed into the mass. It is commonly an unwanted by-product of fires, but may also be used for pest control (fumigation), communication, defensive and offensive capabilities in the military, cooking, or smoking. It is used in rituals where incense, sage, or resin is burned to produce a smell for spiritual or magical purposes. It can also be a flavoring agent and preservative.

Exhaust gas recirculation

In internal combustion engines, exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is a nitrogen oxide (NO
x
) emissions reduction technique used in petrol/gasoline and diesel engines. EGR works by recirculating a portion of an engine's exhaust gas back to the engine cylinders. This dilutes the O2 in the incoming air stream and provides gases inert to combustion to act as absorbents of combustion heat to reduce peak in-cylinder temperatures. NO
x
is produced in high temperature mixtures of atmospheric nitrogen and oxygen that occur in the combustion cylinder, and this usually occurs at cylinder peak pressure. Another primary benefit of external EGR valves on a spark ignition engine is an increase in efficiency, as charge dilution allows a larger throttle position and reduces associated pumping losses.

Kerogen is solid, insoluble organic matter in sedimentary rocks. Comprising an estimated 1016 tons of carbon, it is the most abundant source of organic compounds on earth, exceeding the total organic content of living matter 10,000-fold. It is insoluble in normal organic solvents and it does not have a specific chemical formula. Upon heating, kerogen converts in part to liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons. Petroleum and natural gas form from kerogen. Kerogen may be classified by its origin: lacustrine (e.g., algal), marine (e.g., planktonic), and terrestrial (e.g., pollen and spores). The name "kerogen" was introduced by the Scottish organic chemist Alexander Crum Brown in 1906, derived from the Greek for "wax birth" (Greek: κηρός "wax" and -gen, γένεση "birth").

Flame Visible, gaseous part of a fire

A flame is the visible, gaseous part of a fire. It is caused by a highly exothermic chemical reaction taking place in a thin zone. Very hot flames are hot enough to have ionized gaseous components of sufficient density to be considered plasma.

Vehicle emissions control is the study of reducing the emissions produced by motor vehicles, especially internal combustion engines.

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon Hydrocarbon composed of multiple aromatic rings

A polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) is a hydrocarbon—a chemical compound containing only carbon and hydrogen—that is composed of multiple aromatic rings. The group is a major subset of the aromatic hydrocarbons. The simplest of such chemicals are naphthalene, having two aromatic rings, and the three-ring compounds anthracene and phenanthrene. The terms polyaromatic hydrocarbon or polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon are also used for this concept.

Exhaust gas Gases emitted as a result of fuel reactions in combustion engines

Exhaust gas or flue gas is emitted as a result of the combustion of fuels such as natural gas, gasoline (petrol), diesel fuel, fuel oil, biodiesel blends, or coal. According to the type of engine, it is discharged into the atmosphere through an exhaust pipe, flue gas stack, or propelling nozzle. It often disperses downwind in a pattern called an exhaust plume.

Diesel exhaust

Diesel exhaust is the gaseous exhaust produced by a diesel type of internal combustion engine, plus any contained particulates. Its composition may vary with the fuel type or rate of consumption, or speed of engine operation, and whether the engine is in an on-road vehicle, farm vehicle, locomotive, marine vessel, or stationary generator or other application.

Fossil fuel power station Facility that burns fossil fuels to produce electricity

A fossil fuel power station is a thermal power station which burns a fossil fuel, such as coal or natural gas, to produce electricity. Fossil fuel power stations have machinery to convert the heat energy of combustion into mechanical energy, which then operates an electrical generator. The prime mover may be a steam turbine, a gas turbine or, in small plants, a reciprocating gas engine. All plants use the energy extracted from expanding gas, either steam or combustion gases. Although different energy conversion methods exist, all thermal power station conversion methods have efficiency limited by the Carnot efficiency and therefore produce waste heat.

Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) is a form of internal combustion in which well-mixed fuel and oxidizer are compressed to the point of auto-ignition. As in other forms of combustion, this exothermic reaction releases energy that can be transformed in an engine into work and heat.

In atmospheric chemistry, NO
x
is a generic term for the nitrogen oxides that are most relevant for air pollution, namely nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide. These gases contribute to the formation of smog and acid rain, as well as affecting tropospheric ozone.

Diesel particulate filter Removes diesel particulate matter or soot from the exhaust gas of a diesel engine

A diesel particulate filter (DPF) is a device designed to remove diesel particulate matter or soot from the exhaust gas of a diesel engine.

Black carbon

Chemically, black carbon (BC) is a component of fine particulate matter. Black carbon consists of pure carbon in several linked forms. It is formed through the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels, biofuel, and biomass, and is one of the main types of particle in both anthropogenic and naturally occurring soot. Black carbon causes human morbidity and premature mortality. Because of these human health impacts, many countries have worked to reduce their emissions, making it an easy pollutant to abate in anthropogenic sources.

Air pollution Harmful substances in the atmosphere

Air pollution is the presence of substances in the atmosphere that are harmful to the health of humans and other living beings, or cause damage to the climate or to materials. There are many different types of air pollutants, such as gases, particulates, and biological molecules. Air pollution may cause diseases, allergies and even death to humans; it may also cause harm to other living organisms such as animals and food crops, and may damage the natural environment or built environment. Both human activity and natural processes can generate air pollution.

Particulates Microscopic solid or liquid matter suspended in the Earths atmosphere

Particulates – also known as atmospheric aerosol particles, atmospheric particulate matter, particulate matter (PM), or suspended particulate matter (SPM) – are microscopic particles of solid or liquid matter suspended in the air. The term aerosol commonly refers to the particulate/air mixture, as opposed to the particulate matter alone. Sources of particulate matter can be natural or anthropogenic. They have impacts on climate and precipitation that adversely affect human health, in ways additional to direct inhalation.

SRM Engine Suite

The SRM Engine Suite is an engineering software tool used for simulating fuels, combustion and exhaust gas emissions in internal combustion engine applications. It is used worldwide by leading IC engine development organisations and fuel companies. The software is developed, maintained and supported by CMCL Innovations, Cambridge, U.K.

Aethalometer

An aethalometer is an instrument for measuring the concentration of optically absorbing (‘black’) suspended particulates in a gas colloid stream; commonly visualized as smoke or haze, often seen in ambient air under polluted conditions. The word aethalometer is derived from the Classical Greek verb ‘aethaloun’, meaning ‘to blacken with soot’.

AIR-INK is a proprietary brand of ink and composites products made by condensing carbon-based gaseous effluents generated by air pollution due to incomplete combustion of fossil fuels. Founded by Graviky Labs, a spin-off group of MIT Media Lab, AIR-INK produces its materials through a step-by-step process which primarily involves capturing of emissions, separation of carbon from the emissions, and then mixing of this carbon with different types of oils and solutions to achieve advanced material properties. It uses a patented device and technique called 'KAALINK' to carry out the filtration of soot, which contains carbon and other polluting agents like heavy metals and Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon.

References

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Omidvarborna; et al. (2015). "Recent studies on soot modeling for diesel combustion". Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 48: 635–647. doi:10.1016/j.rser.2015.04.019.
  2. 1 2 3 Omidvarborna; et al. (2014). "Characterization of particulate matter emitted from transit buses fueled with B20 in idle modes". Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering. 2 (4): 2335–2342. doi:10.1016/j.jece.2014.09.020.
  3. Seinfeld, John H.; Pandis, Spyros N. (2006). Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics : From Air Pollution to Climate Change (2nd ed.). John Wiley & Sons. ISBN   0-471-72018-6.
  4. Bagi S, Kamp CJ, Sharma V, Aswath PB (August 2020). "Multiscale characterization of exhaust and crankcase soot extracted from heavy-duty diesel engine and implications for DPF ash". Fuel. 282: 118878. doi:10.1016/j.fuel.2020.118878.
  5. Bagi S, Sharma V, Patel M, Aswath PB (September 2016). "Effects of Diesel Soot Composition and Accumulated Vehicle Mileage on Soot Oxidation Characteristics". ACS Energy & Fuels. 30: 8479–8490. doi:10.1021/acs.energyfuels.6b01304.
  6. Graham, S. C.; Homer, J. B.; Rosenfeld, J. L. J. (1975). "The formation and coagulation of soot aerosols generated in pyrolysis of aromatic hydrocarbons". Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond. A. 344: 259–285. doi:10.1098/rspa.1975.0101. JSTOR   78961. S2CID   96742040.
  7. Flagan, R. C.; Seinfeld, J. H. (1988). Fundamentals of Air Pollution Engineering. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. ISBN   0-13-332537-7.
  8. Charlson, R. J.; Heintzenberg, J., eds. (1995). Aerosol Forcing of Climate. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons. p. 406. ISBN   0-471-95693-7.
  9. Rundel, Ruthann, "Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, Phthalates, and Phenols", in Indoor Air Quality Handbook, John Spengleer, Jonathan M. Samet, John F. McCarthy (eds), pp. 34.1-34.2, 2001
  10. Rundel, Ruthann, "Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, Phthalates, and Phenols", in Indoor Air Quality Handbook, John Spengleer, Jonathan M. Samet, John F. McCarthy (eds), pp. 34.18-34.21, 2001
  11. "Soots (IARC Summary & Evaluation, Volume 35, 1985)". Inchem.org. 1998-04-20. Retrieved 2013-12-04.
  12. Niessner, R. (2014). "The Many Faces of Soot: Characterization of Soot Nanoparticles Produced by Engines". Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 53 (46): 12366–12379. doi:10.1002/anie.201402812. PMID   25196472.
  13. "Health Concerns Associated with Excessive Idling". Nctcog.org. Retrieved 2013-12-04.
  14. "Long-Term Exposure to Air Pollution and Incidence of Cardiovascular Events in Women" Kristin A. Miller, David S. Siscovick, Lianne Sheppard, Kristen Shepherd, Jeffrey H. Sullivan, Garnet L. Anderson, and Joel D. Kaufman, in New England Journal of Medicine February 1, 2007
  15. Lucking, Andrew J.; et al. (2008). "Diesel exhaust inhalation increases thrombus formation in man". European Heart Journal. 29 (24): 3043–3051. doi: 10.1093/eurheartj/ehn464 . PMID   18952612.
  16. Törnqvist, Håkan; et al. (2007). "Persistent Endothelial Dysfunction in Humans after Diesel Exhaust Inhalation". American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine. 176 (4): 395–400. doi:10.1164/rccm.200606-872OC. PMID   17446340.
  17. "Gr8fires". gr8fires.co.uk. 2015-02-22.