Sophie Taeuber-Arp

Last updated

Sophie Taeuber-Arp
Sophie Taeuber.jpg
Born
Sophie Henriette Gertrud Taeuber

(1889-01-19)19 January 1889
Davos Platz, Switzerland
Died13 January 1943(1943-01-13) (aged 53)
Zürich-Höngg, Switzerland
NationalitySwiss
EducationGewerbeschule in St. Gallen, Dschebitz-Schule in Munich, and Kunstgewerbeschule in Hamburg
Known forSculpture, painting, textile design, dancing
Movement Concrete Art, Constructivism, Dada
Spouse(s) Hans Arp

Sophie Henriette Gertrud Taeuber-Arp ( /ˈtɔɪbərˈɑːrp/ ; 19 January 1889 – 13 January 1943) [1] was a Swiss artist, painter, sculptor, textile designer, furniture and interior designer, architect, and dancer.

Contents

Born in 1889, in Switzerland, the daughter of a pharmacist, the family moved to Germany when she was two years old. Some years later she began attending art schools, and moved back to Switzerland during the First World War. At an exhibition in 1915, she met for the first time the German-French artist Hans/Jean Arp, whom she married shortly after. It was during these years that they became associated with the Dada movement, which emerged in 1916, and Taeuber-Arp's most famous works – Dada Head (Tête Dada; 1920) – date from these years. [2] They moved to France in 1926, where they stayed until the invasion of France during the Second World War, at the event of which they went back to Switzerland. In 1943, she died in an accident with a leaking gas stove.

Despite being overlooked since her death, [3] she is considered one of the most important artists of concrete art and geometric abstraction of the 20th century.

Early life

Born in Davos, Switzerland, Sophie Henriette Gertrud Taeuber was the fifth child of Prussian pharmacist Emil Taeuber and Swiss Sophie Taeuber-Krüsi, from Gais in Appenzell Inner Rhodes, Switzerland. Her parents operated a pharmacy in Davos until her father died of tuberculosis when she was two years old, after which the family moved to Trogen, where her mother opened a pension. She studied textile design at the trade school (Gewerbeschule, today School of Applied Arts) in St. Gallen (1906–1910). [4] She then moved on to the workshop of Wilhelm von Debschitz at his school in Munich, where she studied in 1911 and again in 1913; in between, she studied for a year at the School of Arts and Crafts (Kunstgewerbeschule) in Hamburg. In 1914, due to World War One, she returned to Switzerland. [2] She joined the Schweizerischer Werkbund in 1915. [5] In the same year, she attended the Laban School of Dance in Zurich, and in the summer she joined the artist colony of Monte Verita in Ascona; in 1917, she danced with Suzanne Perrottet, Mary Wigman and others at the Sun Festival organised by Laban in Ascona. [6] From 1916 to 1929, Taeuber was an instructor at Zürich Kunstgewerbeschule in Switzerland, teaching embroidery and design classes. [7]

Dada

Oval Composition with Abstract Motifs, 1922 Sophie Taeuber-Arp Oval Composition with Abstract Motifs 1922.jpg
Oval Composition with Abstract Motifs, 1922
Composition, 1931 Sophie Taeuber-Arp - Kompozycja.jpg
Composition, 1931
Grasse - geometric and wavy lines, 1940 (colored pencil on paper, 26 x 34.4 cm) Taeuberarp-linien-peitschen-1940.svg
Grasse – geometric and wavy lines, 1940 (colored pencil on paper, 26 x 34.4 cm)
Taeuber-Arp on the 50 Swiss Franc note CHF50 8 front vertical.jpg
Taeuber-Arp on the 50 Swiss Franc note

In 1915, at an exhibition at the Tanner Gallery, she met the Dada artist Jean "Hans" Arp, who had moved to Zurich in 1915 to avoid being drafted by the German Army during the First World War. [5] They were to collaborate on numerous joint projects until her death in 1943. They married in 1922 and she changed her last name to Taeuber-Arp. [8]

Taeuber-Arp taught weaving and other textile arts at the Kunstgewerbeschule Zürich (now Zurich University of the Arts) from 1916 to 1929. Her textile and graphic works from around 1916 through the 1920s are among the earliest Constructivist works, along with those of Piet Mondrian and Kasimir Malevich. These sophisticated geometric abstractions reflect a subtle understanding of the interplay between colour and form. [4]

During this period, she was involved in the Zürich Dada movement, which centred on the Cabaret Voltaire. [4] She took part in Dada-inspired performances as a dancer, choreographer, and puppeteer, and she designed puppets, costumes and sets for performances at the Cabaret Voltaire as well as for other Swiss and French theatres. At the opening of the Galerie Dada in 1917, she danced to poetry by Hugo Ball while wearing a shamanic mask by Marcel Janco. A year later, she was a co-signer of the Zurich Dada Manifesto. [9] As both a dancer and painter, Taeuber was able to incorporate Dada in her movement for dancing and was described as obscure and awkward. [10]

She also made a number of sculptural works, such as a set of abstract "Dada Heads" of turned polychromed wood. With their witty resemblance to the ubiquitous small stands used by hatmakers, they typified her elegant synthesis of the fine and applied arts. [11]

Taeuber-Arp was also close friends and contemporaries with the French-Romanian avant-garde poet, essayist, and artist, Tristan Tzara, one of the central figures of the Dada movement. In 1920, Tzara solicited over four dozen Dadaist artists, among which were Taeuber-Arp, Jean Arp, Jean Cocteau, Marcel Duchamp, and Hannah Hoch. Tzara planned to use the contributed text and images to create an anthology of Dada work entitled Dadaglobe . A worldwide release of 10,000 copies was planned, but the project was abandoned when its main backer, Francis Picabia, distanced himself from Tzara in 1921. [12]

The Guardian called her a "radical artist who brought joy to the dada". Though dada has been described as an early form of subversive pop culture likened by some to the punk subculture, critics have said that Taeuber's artworks were not angry but "joyous abstractions", created as part of a movement that has been called revolutionary for its influence challenging the established conventions of art by "playing with blocks and blobs of colour, moving them around randomly, letting patterns emerge by chance, in a kind of visual jazz." [13]

France

Four spaces with red rolling circles, 1932, gouache on paper Taeuber-Arp-quatre-espaces-a-cercles-rouges-roulants-1932-gouache-papier.svg
Four spaces with red rolling circles, 1932, gouache on paper
Relief at three levels, 1937 or 1938 Taeuber-Arp relief-rond-en-trois-hauteurs.jpg
Relief at three levels, 1937 or 1938

In 1926 Taeuber-Arp and Jean Arp moved to Strasbourg, where both took up French citizenship; after which they divided their time between Strasbourg and Paris. There Taeuber-Arp received numerous commissions for interior design projects; for example, she was commissioned to create a radically Constructivist interior for the Café de l'Aubette – a project on which Jean Arp and de Stijl artist Theo van Doesburg eventually joined her as collaborators. In 1927 she co-authored a book entitled Welly Lowell with Blanche Gauchet. [8]

From the late 1920s, she lived mainly in Paris and continued experimenting with design. The couple became French citizens in 1926 [5] and in 1928 they moved to Meudon-Val Fleury, outside Paris, where she designed their new house and some of its furnishings. [14] She was an exhibitor at the Salon des Surindépendents in Paris in 1929–30.

In the 1930s, she was a member of the group Cercle et Carré, founded by Michel Seuphor and Joaquín Torres García as a standard-bearer of non-figurative art, and its successor, the Abstraction-Création group (1931–34). [5] Taeuber-Arp also provided the cover art for the February 1933 issue of Eugene Jolas's avant-garde little magazine, transition . [15]

Sophie Taeuber-Arp explored the circle which represented the cosmic metaphor, the form that contains all others. She referred to this period as “ping pictures”. [16]

She appears to be the first artist to use polka dots in fine art with works such as Dynamic Circles, 1934, in the footsteps of Kazimir Malevich and his Black Circle (1915).

Later in the decade she founded a Constructivist review, Plastique (Plastic) in Paris. Her circle of friends included the artists Sonia Delaunay, Robert Delaunay, Wassily Kandinsky, Joan Miró, and Marcel Duchamp. [8] She was also a member of Allianz, a union of Swiss painters, from 1937 to 1943. [5] In 1940, Taeuber-Arp and Arp fled Paris ahead of the Nazi occupation and moved to Grasse in Vichy France, where they created an art colony with Sonia Delaunay, Alberto Magnelli, and other artists. At the end of 1942, they fled to Switzerland.

Death and Legacy

In early 1943, Taeuber-Arp died of accidental carbon monoxide poisoning caused by an incorrectly operated stove at the house of Max Bill. [8]

Wassily Kandinsky said: "Sophie Taeuber-Arp expressed herself by means of the 'colored relief,' especially in the last years of her life, using almost exclusively the simplest forms, geometric forms. The forms, by their sobriety, their silence, their way of being sufficient unto themselves, invite the hand, if it is skillful, to use the language that is suitable to it and which is often only a whisper; but often too the whisper is more expressive, more convincing, more persuasive, than the 'loud voice' that here and there lets itself burst out." [17]

In 2014, at the Danser sa vie dance and art exhibition at the Centre Georges Pompidou in France, a photograph was displayed of Taeuber-Arp dancing in a highly stylized mask and costume at the Cabaret Voltaire in 1917. [18]

Taeuber-Arp was the only woman on the eighth series of Swiss banknotes; her portrait was on the 50-franc note from 1995 to 2016 [8]

A museum honouring [19] Taeuber-Arp and Jean Arp opened in 2007 in a section of the Rolandseck railway station in Germany, re-designed by Richard Meier. [8] The video work "Sophie Taeuber-Arp's Vanishing Lines" (2015) by new media artist Myriam Thyes from Switzerland is about her "Lignes" drawings, segmented circles intersected by lines. [20] [21]

On 19 January 2016, Google created a Google Doodle for Sophie to commemorate her 127th birthday. The doodle was made by Mark Holmes, who describes Taeuber-Arp as "such a prolific and diverse artist." [22] [23] [24]

Exhibitions

Taeuber-Arp took part in numerous exhibitions. For example, she was included in the first Carré exhibition at the Galeries 23 (Paris) in 1930, along with other notable early 20th-century modernists. In 1943, Taeuber-Arp was included in Peggy Guggenheim's show Exhibition by 31 Women at the Art of This Century gallery in New York. [25] Many museums around the world have her work in their collections, but in the public consciousness her reputation lagged for many years behind that of her more famous husband. Sophie Taeuber-Arp began to gain substantial recognition only after the Second World War, and her work is now generally accepted as in the first rank of classical modernism. An important milestone was the exhibition of her work at documenta 1 in 1955.

In 1970, an exhibit of Taeuber-Arp's work was shown at the Albert Loeb Gallery in New York City. [26]

Then, in 1981 the Museum of Modern Art (New York) mounted a retrospective of her work that subsequently travelled to the Museum of Contemporary Art (Chicago), the Museum of Fine Arts (Houston), Musée d'art contemporain de Montréal. [8]

American scholar Adrian Sudhalter organized an exhibition called "Dadaglobe Reconstructed" that sought to honor the centennial of Dada's inception, along with Tzara's ambitious project. Compiling over 100 works of art that were initially slated to appear in Tristan Tzara's Dadaglobe anthology, among which are works by Taeuber-Arp, the show ran from 5 February to 1 May 2016 at the Kunsthaus Zurich, and from 12 June to 18 September 2016 at the Museum of Modern Art in New York City. [27]

In 2020, Hauser & Wirth opened an online exhibition devoted to her work, the first in a series of international exhibitions devoted to her career. [3] [2]

As of July 2020, a coordinated travelling retrospective of her work is scheduled to open in March 2021 at the Kunstmuseum Basel, and then travel [3] to the Tate Modern (15 July – 17 October) [28] and then to the MoMA. Showing over 400 pieces, [29] it will be the UK's first retrospective of her work, [28] and, in America, will be the most comprehensive [3] and her first major exhibition in the country in 40 years. [2]

Bibliography

Related Research Articles

Dada Avant-garde art movement in the early 20th century

Dada or Dadaism was an art movement of the European avant-garde in the early 20th century, with early centres in Zürich, Switzerland, at the Cabaret Voltaire ; New York Dada began circa 1915, and after 1920 Dada flourished in Paris. Developed in reaction to World War I, the Dada movement consisted of artists who rejected the logic, reason, and aestheticism of modern capitalist society, instead expressing nonsense, irrationality, and anti-bourgeois protest in their works. The art of the movement spanned visual, literary, and sound media, including collage, sound poetry, cut-up writing, and sculpture. Dadaist artists expressed their discontent toward violence, war, and nationalism, and maintained political affinities with radical left-wing and far-left politics.

Jean Arp German-French sculptor and poet (1886–1966)

Hans Peter Wilhelm Arp, better known as Jean Arp in English, was a German-French sculptor, painter, and poet. He was known as Dadaist and abstract artist.

Cabaret Voltaire (Zurich)

Cabaret Voltaire was the name of an artistic nightclub in Zürich, Switzerland. It was founded by Hugo Ball, with his companion Emmy Hennings, in the back room of Holländische Meierei, Spiegelgasse 1, on February 5, 1916, as a cabaret for artistic and political purposes. Other founding members were Marcel Janco, Richard Huelsenbeck, Tristan Tzara, and Sophie Taeuber-Arp and Jean Arp. Events at the cabaret proved pivotal in the founding of the anarchic art movement known as Dada. It closed in the summer of 1916.

Hannah Höch

Hannah Höch was a German Dada artist. She is best known for her work of the Weimar period, when she was one of the originators of photomontage. Photomontage, or fotomontage, is a type of collage in which the pasted items are actual photographs, or photographic reproductions pulled from the press and other widely produced media.

The year 1916 in art involved some significant events and new works.

Viking Eggeling

Viking Eggeling was a Swedish avant-garde artist and filmmaker connected to dadaism, Constructivism and abstract art and was one of the pioneers in absolute film and visual music. His 1924 film Diagonal-Symphonie is one of the seminal abstract films in the history of experimental cinema.

Concrete art was an art movement with a strong emphasis on geometrical abstraction. The term was first formulated by Theo van Doesburg and was then used by him in 1930 to define the difference between his vision of art and that of other abstract artists of the time. After his death in 1931, the term was further defined and popularized by Max Bill, who organized the first international exhibition in 1944 and went on to help promote the style in Latin America. The term was taken up widely after World War 2 and promoted through a number of international exhibitions and art movements.

Denise René was a French art gallerist specializing in kinetic art and op art.

Michel Sanouillet

Michel Sanouillet (1924–2015) was a French art historian and one of the foremost specialists of the Dada movement.

Alberto Magnelli was an Italian modern painter who was a significant figure in the post war Concrete art movement.

Augusto Giacometti Swiss painter

Augusto Giacometti was a Swiss painter from Stampa, Graubünden, cousin of Giovanni Giacometti who was the father of Alberto, Diego and Bruno Giacometti. He was a prominent as a painter in the Art Nouveau and Symbolism movements, for his work in stained glass, as a proponent of murals and a designer of popular posters.

Leo Leuppi (1893–1972) was a Swiss painter, graphic artist, sculptor and representative of the Zürcher Schule der Konkreten. He was a founder of the avant-garde artists' associations Groupe Suisse Abstraction et Surréalisme and Allianz.

Aubette (building)

Aubette is a historical building on Place Kléber in Strasbourg, France. It was built by Jacques-François Blondel in 1765–1772. In 1926, three avant-garde artists Theo van Doesburg, Sophie Taeuber-Arp and Jean Arp were commissioned by Paul and Adré Horn to redecorate and design the Café Aubette in Strasbourg. Three artists were equally responsible for different sections of the building. Theo van Doesburg was in charge of the two cafés and two dance halls, Sophie Taeuber for the entrance aisle, tearoom, and two bars, and Jean Arp for the basement, the passage, and billiard room. And all three artists worked together designing the stairwell. The work of the three artists had been called "the Sistine Chapel of abstract art". This historical building still opens as a historical landmark nowadays.

<i>Dadaglobe</i> uncompleted avant-garde anthology

Dadaglobe was an anthology of the Dada movement slated for publication in 1921, but abandoned for financial and other reasons and never published. At 160 pages with over a hundred reproductions of artworks and over a hundred texts by some fifty artists in ten countries, Dadaglobe was to have documented Dada's apogee as an artistic and literary movement of international breadth. Edited by Dada co-founder Tristan Tzara (1896-1963) in Paris, Dadaglobe was not conceived as a summary of the movement since its founding in 1916, but rather meant to be a snapshot of its expanded incarnation at war's end. Not merely a vehicle for existing works, the project functioned as one of Dada's most generative catalysts for the production of new works.

Françoise Grossen is a textile artist known for her braided and knotted rope sculptures. She lives and works in New York City. Grossen’s work has been acquired by the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York; the Renwick Gallery, Smithsonian American Art Museum, Washington, DC; and the State Hermitage Museum, Saint Petersburg, Russia.

Gabrièle Buffet-Picabia, was a French art critic and writer, linked to the dada movement. She was the first wife of artist Francis Picabia.

Otto van Rees artist, Dutch citizen, born in Freiburg-im-Breisgau, Germany, died in Utrecht, Holland, mainly living in France and Switzerland during his career as an artist.

Brigitta Malche

Brigitta Malche is a Swiss-Austrian artist with municipal citizenship in Zurich. In addition to paintings on canvas, her work also includes light and sound installations and large scale Public art projects.

Katja Wulff German-Swiss dancer

Katja Wulff, also Käthe Wulff,, was a German-Swiss expressionist dancer (Ausdruckstänzerin) and dance instructor. She attended Rudolf von Laban's dance classes and became associated with the Dada movement. She ran a dance school and was still teaching there at the age of 90.

Carola Giedion-Welcker was a German-Swiss art historian.

References

  1. Bucher, Annemarie. "SophieTaeuber-Arp". Historiches Lexikon der Schweiz [Historical Dictionary of Switzerland] (in German).
  2. 1 2 3 4 "Sophie Taeuber-Arp: Online Exhibition". Hauser & Wirth. Retrieved 16 July 2020.
  3. 1 2 3 4 Loos, Ted (9 July 2020). "A Swiss Dada Pioneer Finally Gets Her Spotlight". The New York Times. Retrieved 16 July 2020.
  4. 1 2 3 Schelbert, Leo (21 May 2014). Historical Dictionary of Switzerland. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. p. 369. ISBN   978-1-4422-3352-2.
  5. 1 2 3 4 5 Gaze, Delia (2013). Concise Dictionary of Women Artists. Routledge. pp. 651–3. ISBN   978-1-136-59901-9.
  6. Arp, Jean; Hancock, Jane; Poley, Stefanie (1987). Arp, 1886–1966. Hatje. p. 286. ISBN   9780912964317.
  7. Schoeser, Mary (2016). "Sophie Taeuber-Arp: Today Is Tomorrow". Textile History. London: Routledge. 47 (1): 136–138. doi:10.1080/00404969.2016.1148388. ISSN   0040-4969. S2CID   192473148.
  8. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Roswitha Mair (2013). Handwerk und Avantgarde. Das Leben der Künstlerin Sophie Taeuber-Arp (in German). Parthas Verlag Berlin. ISBN   978-3-86964-047-1.
  9. Pappas, Theoni (1999). Mathematical footprints: discovering mathematical impressions all around us. Wide World Publishing/Tetra. p. 127. ISBN   9781884550218.
  10. Nell, Andrew (4 August 2014). "Dada Dance: Sophie Taeuber's Visceral Abstraction". Art Journal. London: Routledge. 73 (1): 12–29. doi:10.1080/00043249.2014.918806. ISSN   0004-3249. S2CID   191510522.
  11. Blistène, Bernard; Dennison, Lisa (1998). Rendezvous: Masterpieces from the Centre Georges Pompidou and the Guggenheim Museums. Guggenheim Museum Publications. p. 695. ISBN   978-0-8109-6916-2.
  12. Farago, Jason (16 June 2016). "A Plan to Spread Dada Worldwide, Revisited at MoMA". The New York Times. ISSN   0362-4331 . Retrieved 11 March 2017.
  13. "Sophie Taeuber-Arp: it's about time the radical dada star got a Google doodle". The Guardian. 19 January 2016. Retrieved 25 July 2019.
  14. Saskia de Rothschild (14 February 2013), Glimpses of Jean Arp’s World New York Times .
  15. Taeuber-Arp, Sophie (February 1933). "Untitled cover art". Transition. No. 22: front and back cover.
  16. Lanchner, Carolyn (1981). Sophie Taeuber-Arp. The Museum of Modern Art. ISBN   0870705989.
  17. Lanchner, Carolyn (1981). "Sophie Taeuber-Arp" (PDF). The Museum of Modern Art. Retrieved 21 February 2019.
  18. "Dada Dance: Sophie Taeuber's Visceral Abstraction – Art Journal Open". Art Journal Open. 3 July 2014. Retrieved 11 March 2017.
  19. arp museum. "Hans Arp and Sophie Taeuber-Arp" . Retrieved 27 October 2016.
  20. Schaumbad – Freies Atelierhaus Graz. "100 Years of World Transition" . Retrieved 27 October 2016.
  21. Myriam Thyes. "Sophie Taeuber-Arp's Vanishing Lines" . Retrieved 27 October 2016.
  22. Parsons, Jeff (19 January 2016). "Who was Sophie Taeuber-Arp and why is she the subject of today's Google doodle?". mirror. Retrieved 11 March 2017.
  23. Rhiannon Williams (19 January 2016). "Who was Sophie Taeuber-Arp? One of the most influential female artists you've probably never heard of". The Daily Telegraph . Retrieved 19 January 2016.
  24. "Sophie Taeuber-Arp's 127th Birthday". google.com.
  25. Butler, Cornelia H.; Schwartz, Alexandra (2010). Modern Women: Women Artists at The Museum of Modern Art. New York: Museum of Modern Art. p.  45. ISBN   9780870707711.
  26. Kramer, Hilton. "Taeuber‐Arp and Albers: Loyal Only to Art - NYTimes.com" . Retrieved 11 March 2017.
  27. "Dadaglobe Reconstructed | MoMA". The Museum of Modern Art. Retrieved 11 March 2017.
  28. 1 2 "Sophie Taeuber-Arp". Tate. Retrieved 7 July 2020.
  29. "Sophie Taruber-Arp: Living Abstraction". MoMA. Retrieved 16 July 2020.

Sophie Taeuber-Arp - 26 obras de arte - pintura