Souli

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Souli

Σούλι
2011 Dimos Souliou.png
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Souli
Location within the region
2011 Dimos Souliou.png
Coordinates: 39°22′N20°38′E / 39.367°N 20.633°E / 39.367; 20.633 Coordinates: 39°22′N20°38′E / 39.367°N 20.633°E / 39.367; 20.633
Country Greece
Administrative region Epirus
Regional unit Thesprotia
Area
  Municipality502.8 km2 (194.1 sq mi)
  Municipal unit93.2 km2 (36.0 sq mi)
Population
(2011) [1]
  Municipality
10,063
  Municipality density20/km2 (52/sq mi)
  Municipal unit
458
  Municipal unit density4.9/km2 (13/sq mi)
Time zone UTC+2 (EET)
  Summer (DST) UTC+3 (EEST)

Souli (Greek : Σούλι) is a municipality in Epirus, northwestern Greece. It was originally settled by both Greek and Albanian refugees who sought refuge in the mountainous terrain from the Ottomans, coming from areas such as Laberia in what became Albania and Thesprotia in what became Greece. In early modern times, it was inhabited by about 12,000 Souliotes. [2] [3] [4] After their expulsion the population of the region was significantly reduced. In the 18th and 19th century, the citizens of Souli rebelled against the Ottoman rule.

Greek language language spoken in Greece, Cyprus and Southern Albania

Greek is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece, Cyprus and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea. It has the longest documented history of any living Indo-European language, spanning more than 3000 years of written records. Its writing system has been the Greek alphabet for the major part of its history; other systems, such as Linear B and the Cypriot syllabary, were used previously. The alphabet arose from the Phoenician script and was in turn the basis of the Latin, Cyrillic, Armenian, Coptic, Gothic, and many other writing systems.

Epirus (region) Place in Epirus and Western Macedonia, Greece

Epirus, is a traditional geographic and modern administrative region in northwestern Greece. It borders the regions of West Macedonia and Thessaly to the east, West Greece to the south, the Ionian Sea and Ionian Islands to the west and Albania to the north. The region has an area of about 9,200 km2 (3,600 sq mi). It is part of the wider historical region of Epirus, which overlaps modern Albania and Greece but lies mostly within Greek territory.

Greece republic in Southeast Europe

Greece, officially the Hellenic Republic, self-identified and historically known as Hellas, is a country located in Southern and Southeast Europe, with a population of approximately 11 million as of 2016. Athens is the nation's capital and largest city, followed by Thessaloniki.

Contents

The seat of the municipality is the town of Paramythia. [5]

Paramythia Place in Greece

Paramythia is a town and a former municipality in Thesprotia, Epirus, Greece. Since the 2011 local government reform it is part of the municipality Souli, of which it is the seat and a municipal unit. The municipal unit has an area of 342.197 km2. The town's population is 2,730 as of the 2011 census.

Name

The origin of the name Souli is uncertain. In the earliest historical text about Souli, written by Christoforos Peraivos in 1803, an oral tradition of the locals is recorded. According to this, the first settlers of Souli were shepherds who came from a village called Gardiki trying to avoid the Ottoman oppression. A certain Muslim ("Turk" in the text) named Soulis attempted to expel the early Souliotes from there but the latter resisted with arms. In the battle they killed Soulis and since then the area was named Souli. [6]

Another theory suggests that the name comes from the Albanian language and means "mountain summit".

Albanian language Indo-European language

Albanian is an Indo-European language spoken by the Albanians in the Balkans and the Albanian diaspora in the Americas, Europe and Oceania. It comprises an independent branch within the Indo-European languages and is not closely related to any other language in Europe.

Municipality

Souli, 1836 Valley of the Suli, the ancient Acheron - Walsh Robert & Allom Thomas - 1836.jpg
Souli, 1836
Valley of Souli E pediada tou Akheronta - panoramio.jpg
Valley of Souli

The present municipality Souli was formed at the 2011 local government reform by the merger of the following 3 former municipalities, that became municipal units: [5]

The municipality has an area of 502.770 km2, the municipal unit 93.230 km2. [7]

Province

The province of Souli (Greek : Επαρχία Σουλίου) was one of the provinces of Thesprotia. It had the same territory as the present municipality. [8] It was abolished in 2006.

Related Research Articles

Thesprotia Regional unit in Epirus, Greece

Thesprotia is one of the regional units of Greece. It is part of the Epirus region. Its capital and largest town is Igoumenitsa. Thesprotia is named after the Thesprotians, an ancient Greek tribe that inhabited the region in antiquity.

Markos Botsaris general and hero of the Greek War of Independence and more

Markos Botsaris was a Greek general and hero of the Greek War of Independence and captain of the Souliotes. Botsaris is among the most revered national heroes in Greece.

Chameria Albanian designation for regions of Epirus

Chameria is a term used today mostly by Albanians for parts of the coastal region of Epirus in southern Albania and the historical Greek region of Epirus, traditionally associated with an Albanian speaking population called Chams. Apart from geographical usages, in contemporary times within Albania the toponym has also acquired irredentist connotations. During the interwar period, the toponym was in common use and the official name of the area above the Acheron river in all Greek state documents. Today it is obsolete in Greek, surviving in some old folk songs. Most of what is called Chameria is divided between the Greek regional units of Thesprotia and Preveza, the southern extremity of Albania's Sarandë District and some villages in eastern Ioannina regional unit. As the Greek toponyms Epirus and Thesprotia have been established for the region since antiquity, and given the negative sentiments towards Albanian irredentism, the term is not used by the locals on the Greek side of the border.

Igoumenitsa Place in Greece

Igoumenitsa, is a coastal city in northwestern Greece. It is the capital of the regional unit of Thesprotia.

Dance of Zalongo

The Dance of Zalongo refers to the mass suicide of women from Souli and their children during the Souliote War at December 16, 1803. After being trapped by Ottoman Albanian troops, near the village of Zalongo in Epirus, modern Greece, then Ottoman Empire, c. 22 women decided to turn towards the cliff's edge together with their infants and children rather than surrender. According to tradition they did this one after the other while dancing and singing. The name also refers a number of Greek theatrical dramas and a song in folk style, commemorating the event, named "Dance of Zalongo". There is also a similar Cham Albanian dance-song called Vallja e Zallongut.

Acherontas Place in Greece

Acherontas is a former municipality in Thesprotia, Epirus, Greece. Since the 2011 local government reform it is part of the municipality Souli, of which it is a municipal unit. The municipal unit has an area of 67.343 km2. It was named after the river Acheron. Population 2,146 (2011). The seat of the municipality was in Gardiki Souli.

Margariti Place in Greece

Margariti is a village and a former municipality in Thesprotia, Epirus, Greece. Since the 2011 local government reform it is part of the municipality Igoumenitsa, of which it is a municipal unit. The municipal unit has an area of 149.223 km2. Population 2,491 (2011).

Sagiada Place in Greece

Sagiada is a village and a former municipality in Thesprotia, Epirus, Greece. Since the 2011 local government reform it is part of the municipality Filiates, of which it is a municipal unit. The municipal unit has an area of 87.803 km2. In 2011 its population was 594 for the village and 1,740 for the municipal unit. The seat of the municipality was in Asprokklisi. Sagiada stretches between the Ionian Sea to the west and Albania to the north. It is the westernmost point of mainland Greece. The river Thyamis flows into sea 4 km south of the village Sagiada. There are plains in the southern part of the municipal unit, and mountains on the Albanian border. The village Sagiada is 10 km west of Filiates, 15 km northwest of the capital of Thesprotia, Igoumenitsa, and 4 km south of the Albanian town of Konispol.

Syvota Place in Greece

Syvota is a village and a former municipality in Thesprotia, Epirus, Greece. Since the 2011 local government reform it is part of the municipality Igoumenitsa, of which it is a municipal unit. The municipal unit has an area of 72.439 km2. The population in 2011 was 875 for the village, and 2,640 for the municipal unit. The seat of the municipality was in Plataria.

Filiates Place in Greece

Filiates is a town and a municipality in Thesprotia, Greece. It is located in the northernmost part of the regional unit, bordering western Ioannina regional unit and southern Albania.

Lakka Souliou Place in Greece

Lakka Souliou is a former municipality in the Ioannina regional unit, Epirus, Greece. Since the 2011 local government reform it is part of the municipality Dodoni, of which it is a municipal unit. The municipal unit has an area of 158.578 km2. Its population was 2,405 according to the census of 2011. Lakka Souliou is a historical site in the wider area of Souli.

Krystallopigi Place in Greece

Krystallopigi is a former community in Florina regional unit, West Macedonia, Greece. Since the 2011 local government reform it is part of the municipality Prespes, of which it is a municipal unit.

Kitsos Botsaris, was a leader of the Souliotes, an autonomous community in Ottoman-ruled Epirus. He played a leading role in the aftermath of the last war between the Souliotes and the Ottoman ruler of Ioannina, Ali Pasha. He was the father of Kostas Botsaris and Markos Botsaris, who fought in the Greek War of Independence.

The 1854 revolt in Epirus was one of the most important of a series of Greek uprisings that occurred in the Ottoman-occupied Greek world during that period. When the Crimean War (1854–1856) broke out, many Epirote Greeks, with tacit support from the Greek state, revolted against the Ottoman rule. Although this movement was supported by distinguished military personalities, the correlation of forces doomed it from the start, leading to its suppression after a few months.

Souliote War (1803)

The war between the warlike communities of Souliotes in Epirus and the local Ottoman ruler, Ali Pasha, at 1803, was the last of a series of conflicts, known as the Souliote Wars, that led, finally, to the capitulation and expulsion of the Souliotes.

The Souliotes were an Eastern Orthodox community of the area of Souli, in Epirus, known for their military prowess, their resistance to the local Ottoman Albanian ruler Ali Pasha, and their contribution to the Greek cause in the Greek War of Independence, under leaders such as Markos Botsaris and Kitsos Tzavelas. The Souliotes established an autonomous confederation dominating a large number of neighbouring villages in the remote mountainous areas of Epirus, where they could successfully resist Ottoman rule. At the height of its power, in the second half of the 18th century, the community is estimated to have consisted of up to 12,000 inhabitants in about 60 villages. The community was classified as Greek in the Ottoman system of social classification because they were Orthodox Christians, yet spoke Albanian besides Greek because of their Albanian origin.

Christoforos Perraivos Greek military officer and author

Christoforos Perraivos was a Greek officer of the Greek War of Independence, member of the Filiki Eteria and author. In non-Greek sources his name is usually found as Per(r)evo(s).

Lambros Koutsonikas

Lambros Koutsonikas was a Souliote fighter of the Greek Revolution of 1821, army officer and amateur historian of the Revolution.

References

  1. "Απογραφή Πληθυσμού - Κατοικιών 2011. ΜΟΝΙΜΟΣ Πληθυσμός" (in Greek). Hellenic Statistical Authority.
  2. Vickers, Miranda. The Albanians: A Modern History. I.B. Tauris, 1999. ISBN   1-86064-541-0, p. 20.
  3. Ruches, Pyrrhus J. Albanian Historical Folksongs, 1716-1943: A Survey of Oral Epic Poetry from Southern Albania, with Original Texts. Argonaut, 1967, p. 20.
  4. Sakellariou, M. V. Epirus, 4000 Years of Greek History and Civilization. Ekdotikē Athēnōn, 1997, ISBN   960-213-371-6, p. 248.
  5. 1 2 Kallikratis law Greece Ministry of Interior (in Greek)
  6. Peraivos Christoforos, History of Souli and Parga, 1815 edition, Venice, p. 18 (pdf 34). In Greek
  7. "Population & housing census 2001 (incl. area and average elevation)" (PDF) (in Greek). National Statistical Service of Greece.
  8. "Detailed census results 1991" (PDF). (39 MB)(in Greek)(in French)