South Australia

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South Australia
Flag of South Australia.svg South Australian Coat of Arms.svg
Flag Coat of arms
Slogan or nicknameThe Festival State
The Wine State
South Australia in Australia.svg
Other Australian states and territories
Coordinates 30°S135°E / 30°S 135°E / -30; 135 Coordinates: 30°S135°E / 30°S 135°E / -30; 135
Capital city Adelaide
Demonym South Australians, Croweater (colloquial), [1] South Aussie
Government Constitutional monarchy
 Governor Hieu Van Le
 Premier Steven Marshall (Liberal)
Australian state  
 • Declared as Province Letters Patent 19 February 1836
 • Commencement of colonial government28 December 1836
 Responsible
   government
22 April 1857
 • Became state1901
  Australia Act 3 March 1986
Area 
 • Total1,043,514 km² (4th)
402,903 sq mi
 • Land983,482 km²
379,725 sq mi
 • Water60,032 km² (5.75%)
23,178 sq mi
Population
(December 2018) [2]
 
 • Population1,742,744 (5th)
 • Density1.77/km² (6th)
4.6 /sq mi
Elevation 
 • Highest point Mount Woodroffe
1,435 m (4,708 ft)
 • Lowest point Kati Thanda-Lake Eyre
−16 m (−52 ft)
Gross state product
(2017–18)
 
 • Product ($m)$106,004 [3] (5th)
 • Product per capita$61,343 (7th)
Time zone(s) UTC+9:30 (ACST)
UTC+10:30 (ACDT)
Federal representation  
 House seats 10/151
 Senate seats 12/76
Abbreviations 
 • PostalSA
 ISO 3166-2 AU-SA
Emblems 
 Floral Sturt's Desert Pea
(Swainsona formosa)
 Animal Southern hairy-nosed wombat
(Lasiorhinus latifrons)
 Bird Piping shrike
 • Fish Leafy seadragon
(Phycodurus eques)
 • Mineral or gemstone Opal
 • Fossil Spriggina floundersi
 Colours Red, blue, and gold
Website www.sa.gov.au

South Australia (abbreviated as SA) is a state in the southern central part of Australia. It covers some of the most arid parts of the country. With a total land area of 983,482 square kilometres (379,725 sq mi), it is the fourth-largest of Australia's states and territories by area, and fifth largest by population. It has a total of 1.7 million people, [2] and its population is the second most highly centralised in Australia, after Western Australia, with more than 77 percent of South Australians living in the capital, Adelaide, or its environs. Other population centres in the state are relatively small; Mount Gambier, the second largest centre, has a population of 28,684.

States and territories of Australia first-level subdivision of Australia

Government in the Commonwealth of Australia is exercised on three levels: federal, states and territories, and local government.

Australia Country in Oceania

Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous smaller islands. It is the largest country in Oceania and the world's sixth-largest country by total area. The neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea, Indonesia, and East Timor to the north; the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu to the north-east; and New Zealand to the south-east. The population of 25 million is highly urbanised and heavily concentrated on the eastern seaboard. Australia's capital is Canberra, and its largest city is Sydney. The country's other major metropolitan areas are Melbourne, Brisbane, Perth, and Adelaide.

Western Australia State in Australia

Western Australia is a state occupying the entire western third of Australia. It is bounded by the Indian Ocean to the north and west, and the Southern Ocean to the south, the Northern Territory to the north-east, and South Australia to the south-east. Western Australia is Australia's largest state, with a total land area of 2,529,875 square kilometres, and the second-largest country subdivision in the world, surpassed only by Russia's Sakha Republic. The state has about 2.6 million inhabitants – around 11 percent of the national total – of whom the vast majority live in the south-west corner, 79 per cent of the population living in the Perth area, leaving the remainder of the state sparsely populated.

Contents

South Australia shares borders with all of the other mainland states, and with the Northern Territory; it is bordered to the west by Western Australia, to the north by the Northern Territory, to the north-east by Queensland, to the east by New South Wales, to the south-east by Victoria, and to the south by the Great Australian Bight. [4] The state comprises less than 8 percent of the Australian population and ranks fifth in population among the six states and two territories. The majority of its people reside in greater Metropolitan Adelaide. Most of the remainder are settled in fertile areas along the south-eastern coast and River Murray. The state's colonial origins are unique in Australia as a freely settled, planned British province, [5] rather than as a convict settlement. Colonial government commenced on 28 December 1836, when the members of the council were sworn in near the Old Gum Tree.

Northern Territory federal territory of Australia

The Northern Territory is an Australian territory in the central and central northern regions of Australia. It shares borders with Western Australia to the west, South Australia to the south, and Queensland to the east. To the north, the territory looks out to the Timor Sea, the Arafura Sea and the Gulf of Carpentaria, including Western New Guinea and other Indonesian islands. The NT covers 1,349,129 square kilometres (520,902 sq mi), making it the third-largest Australian federal division, and the 11th-largest country subdivision in the world. It is sparsely populated, with a population of only 245,800, fewer than half as many people as Tasmania.

Queensland North-east state of Australia

Queensland is the second-largest and third-most populous state in the Commonwealth of Australia. Situated in the north-east of the country, it is bordered by the Northern Territory, South Australia and New South Wales to the west, south-west and south respectively. To the east, Queensland is bordered by the Coral Sea and Pacific Ocean. To its north is the Torres Strait, with Papua New Guinea located less than 200 km across it from the mainland. The state is the world's sixth-largest sub-national entity, with an area of 1,852,642 square kilometres (715,309 sq mi).

New South Wales State of Australia

New South Wales is a state on the east coast of Australia. It borders Queensland to the north, Victoria to the south, and South Australia to the west. Its coast borders the Tasman Sea to the east. The Australian Capital Territory is an enclave within the state. New South Wales' state capital is Sydney, which is also Australia's most populous city. In December 2018, the population of New South Wales was over 8 million, making it Australia's most populous state. Just under two-thirds of the state's population, 5.1 million, live in the Greater Sydney area. Inhabitants of New South Wales are referred to as New South Welshmen.

As with the rest of the continent, the region had been long occupied by Aboriginal peoples, who were organised into numerous tribes and languages. The South Australian Company established a temporary settlement at Kingscote, Kangaroo Island, on 26 July 1836, five months before Adelaide was founded. [6] The guiding principle behind settlement was that of systematic colonisation, a theory espoused by Edward Gibbon Wakefield that was later employed by the New Zealand Company. [7] The goal was to establish the province as a centre of civilisation for free immigrants, promising civil liberties and religious tolerance. Although its history is marked by economic hardship, South Australia has remained politically innovative and culturally vibrant. Today, it is known for its fine wine and numerous cultural festivals. The state's economy is dominated by the agricultural, manufacturing and mining industries.

Aboriginal Australians term used to refer to some groups of Indigenous Australians

Aboriginal Australians are the various indigenous peoples of the Australian mainland, Tasmania, and often the Tiwi Islands. This group contains many distinct peoples that have developed across Australia for over 50,000 years. These peoples have a broadly shared, though complex, genetic history, but it is only in the last two hundred years that they have been defined and started to self identify as a single group. The definition of the term "Aboriginal" has changed over time and place, with the importance of family lineage, self identification and community acceptance all being of varying importance. In the past, Aboriginal Australians lived over large sections of the continental shelf and were isolated on many of the smaller offshore islands when the land was inundated at the start of the inter-glacial. However, they are considered distinct from the Torres Strait Islander people, despite extensive cultural exchange.

The South Australian Company was formed in London on 9 October 1835 by George Fife Angas and other wealthy British merchants to develop a new settlement in South Australia; its purpose was to build a new colony by meeting an essential financial obligation of the South Australia Act of 1834. The South Australian Company ended business in its own right on 17 March 1949 when it was liquidated by Elders Trustee & Executor Company Ltd, which had been managing its Australian affairs since the death of the last Colonial Manager, Arthur Muller in 1936.

Kingscote, South Australia Town in South Australia

Kingscote is a town in the Australian state of South Australia located on Kangaroo Island about 119 kilometres (74 mi) south-west of the state capital of Adelaide. It is South Australia's oldest European settlement and the island's largest town. At the 2011 census, Kingscote had a population of 1,763. It is a well-established tourist centre and the administrative and communications centre. It is home to a colony of the smallest penguins in the world, the little penguin.

History

European settlers with Aborigines, 1850 Alexander Schramm - A scene in South Australia - Google Art Project.jpg
European settlers with Aborigines, 1850

Evidence of human activity in South Australia dates back as far as 20,000 years, with flint mining activity and rock art in the Koonalda Cave on the Nullarbor Plain. In addition wooden spears and tools were made in an area now covered in peat bog in the South East. Kangaroo Island was inhabited long before the island was cut off by rising sea levels. [8] The first recorded European sighting of the South Australian coast was in 1627 when the Dutch ship the Gulden Zeepaert, captained by François Thijssen, examined and mapped a section of the coastline as far east as the Nuyts Archipelago. Thijssen named the whole of the country eastward of the Leeuwin "Nuyts Land", after a distinguished passenger on board; the Hon. Pieter Nuyts, one of the Councillors of India. [9]

Flint Cryptocrystalline form of the mineral quartz

Flint is a hard, sedimentary cryptocrystalline form of the mineral quartz, categorized as the variety of chert that occurs in chalk or marly limestone. Flint was widely used historically to make stone tools and start fires.

Koonalda Cave cave in Australia

Koonalda Cave is a cave in the Australian state of South Australia, on the Nullarbor Plain in the locality of Nullarbor. It is notable as an archeological site.

Nullarbor Plain geographical feature in Western Australia and South Australia

The Nullarbor Plain is part of the area of flat, almost treeless, arid or semi-arid country of southern Australia, located on the Great Australian Bight coast with the Great Victoria Desert to its north. It is the world's largest single exposure of limestone bedrock, and occupies an area of about 200,000 square kilometres (77,000 sq mi). At its widest point, it stretches about 1,100 kilometres (684 mi) from east to west across the border between South Australia and Western Australia.

The coastline of South Australia was first mapped by Matthew Flinders and Nicolas Baudin in 1802, excepting the inlet later named the Port Adelaide River which was first discovered in 1831 by Captain Collet Barker and later accurately charted in 1836–37 by Colonel William Light, leader of the South Australian Colonization Commissioners' 'First Expedition' and first Surveyor-General of South Australia.

Matthew Flinders English navigator and cartographer

Captain Matthew Flinders was an English navigator and cartographer who led the second circumnavigation of New Holland that he would subsequently call "Australia or Terra Australis" and identified it as a continent. Abel Tasman had circumnavigated it more widely in 1642-43 and had charted its north coast in 1644.

Nicolas Baudin French explorer

Nicolas Thomas Baudin was a French explorer, cartographer, naturalist and hydrographer.

Port River River in Australia

The Port River is part of a tidal estuary located north of the Adelaide city centre in the Australian state of South Australia, and used as a shipping channel since the beginning of European settlement in 1836.

The land which now forms the state of South Australia was claimed for Britain in 1788 as part of the colony of New South Wales. Although the new colony included almost two-thirds of the continent, early settlements were all on the eastern coast and only a few intrepid explorers ventured this far west. It took more than forty years before any serious proposal to establish settlements in the south-western portion of New South Wales were put forward.

On 15 August 1834, the British Parliament passed the South Australia Act 1834 (Foundation Act), which empowered His Majesty to erect and establish a province or provinces in southern Australia. The act stated that the land between 132° and 141° east longitude and from 26° south latitude to the southern ocean would be allotted to the colony, and it would be convict-free. [10]

South Australia Act 1834

The South Australia Act 1834 is the short title of an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom with the long title:

An Act to empower His Majesty to erect South Australia into a British Province or Provinces and to provide for the Colonisation and Government thereof

Charles Sturt's expedition leaving Adelaide S. T. Gill - Sturt's Overland Expedition leaving Adelaide, 10th August, 1844 - Google Art Project.jpg
Charles Sturt's expedition leaving Adelaide

In contrast to the rest of Australia, terra nullius did not apply to the new province. The Letters Patent, [11] which used the enabling provisions of the South Australia Act 1834 to fix the boundaries of the Province of South Australia, provided that "nothing in those our Letters Patent shall affect or be construed to affect the rights of any Aboriginal Natives of the said Province to the actual occupation and enjoyment in their own Persons or in the Persons of their Descendants of any Lands therein now actually occupied or enjoyed by such Natives." [11] Although the patent guaranteed land rights under force of law for the indigenous inhabitants it was ignored by the South Australian Company authorities and squatters. [12] Despite strong reference to the rights of the native population in the initial proclamation by the Governor, there were many conflicts and deaths in the Australian Frontier Wars in South Australia.

Nicolas Baudin, who mapped the coastline of South Australia, along with Matthew Flinders Nicolas Baudin 2.jpeg
Nicolas Baudin, who mapped the coastline of South Australia, along with Matthew Flinders

Survey was required before settlement of the province, and the Colonization Commissioners for South Australia appointed William Light as the leader of its 'First Expedition', tasked with examining 1500 miles of the South Australian coastline and selecting the best site for the capital, and with then planning and surveying the site of the city into one-acre Town Sections and its surrounds into 134-acre Country Sections.

Eager to commence the establishment of their whale and seal fisheries, the South Australian Company sought, and obtained, the Commissioners' permission to send Company ships to South Australia, in advance of the surveys and ahead of the Commissioners' colonists.

The Company's settlement of seven vessels and 636 people was temporarily made at Kingscote on Kangaroo Island, until the official site of the capital was selected by William Light, where the City of Adelaide is currently located. The first immigrants arrived at Holdfast Bay (near the present day Glenelg) in November 1836.

The commencement of colonial government was proclaimed on 28 December 1836, now known as Proclamation Day.

South Australia is the only Australian state to have never received British convicts. Another free settlement, Swan River colony was established in 1829 but Western Australia later sought convict labour, and in 1849 Western Australia was formally constituted as a penal colony. Although South Australia was constituted such that convicts could never be transported to the Province, some emancipated or escaped convicts or expirees made their own way there, both prior to 1836, or later, and may have constituted 1–2% of the early population. [13]

The plan for the province was that it would be an experiment in reform, addressing the problems perceived in British society. There was to be religious freedom and no established religion. Sales of land to colonists created an Emigration Fund to pay the costs of transferring a poor young labouring population to South Australia. In early 1838 the colonists became concerned after it was reported that convicts who had escaped from the eastern states may make their way to South Australia. The South Australia Police was formed in April 1838 to protect the community and enforce government regulations. Their principal role was to run the first temporary gaol, a two-room hut. [14]

The current flag of South Australia was adopted on 13 January 1904, and is a British blue ensign defaced with the state badge. The badge is described as a piping shrike with wings outstretched on a yellow disc. The state badge is believed to have been designed by Robert Craig of Adelaide's School of Design.

Geography

Satellite image of eastern South Australia. Note the dry lakes (white patches) in the north. Eastern South Australia Satellite Photo.jpg
Satellite image of eastern South Australia. Note the dry lakes (white patches) in the north.

The terrain consists largely of arid and semi-arid rangelands, with several low mountain ranges. The most important (but not tallest) is the Mount Lofty-Flinders Ranges system, which extends north about 800 kilometres (500 mi) from Cape Jervis to the northern end of Lake Torrens. The highest point in the state is not in those ranges; Mount Woodroffe (1,435 metres (4,708 ft)) is in the Musgrave Ranges in the extreme northwest of the state. [15] The south-western portion of the state consists of the sparsely inhabited Nullarbor Plain, fronted by the cliffs of the Great Australian Bight. Features of the coast include Spencer Gulf and the Eyre and Yorke Peninsulas that surround it.

Barossa Valley northeast of Adelaide Barossa Valley 2.jpg
Barossa Valley northeast of Adelaide
The rugged coastline of Second Valley, located on the Fleurieu Peninsula Second Valley 2.JPG
The rugged coastline of Second Valley, located on the Fleurieu Peninsula
Arid land in the Flinders Ranges Flinders ranges pastoral land.JPG
Arid land in the Flinders Ranges

The principal industries and exports of South Australia are wheat, wine and wool.[ citation needed ] More than half of Australia's wines are produced in the South Australian wine regions which principally include: Barossa Valley, Clare Valley, McLaren Vale, Coonawarra, the Riverland and the Adelaide Hills. See South Australian wine.

South Australian boundaries

South Australia has boundaries with every other Australian mainland state and territory except the Australian Capital Territory and the Jervis Bay Territory. The Western Australia border has a history involving the South Australian government astronomer, Dodwell, and the Western Australian Government Astronomer, Curlewis, marking the border on the ground in the 1920s.

In 1863, that part of New South Wales to the north of South Australia was annexed to South Australia, by letters patent, as the "Northern Territory of South Australia", which became shortened to the Northern Territory (6 July 1863). [16] The Northern Territory was handed to the federal government in 1911 and became a separate territory.

According to Australian maps, South Australia's south coast is flanked by the Southern Ocean, but official international consensus defines the Southern Ocean as extending north from the pole only to 60°S or 55°S, at least 17 degrees of latitude further south than the most southern point of South Australia. Thus the south coast is officially adjacent to the south-most portion of the Indian Ocean. See Southern Ocean: Existence and definitions .

Climate

Climate types in South Australia South Australia Koppen.svg
Climate types in South Australia

The southern part of the state has a Mediterranean climate, while the rest of the state has either an arid or semi-arid climate. [17] South Australia's main temperature range is 29 °C (84 °F) in January and 15 °C (59 °F) in July. The highest maximum temperature was recorded as 50.7 °C (123.3 °F) at Oodnadatta on 2 January 1960, which is also the highest official temperature recorded in Australia. The lowest minimum temperature was −8.2 °C (17.2 °F) at Yongala on 20 July 1976. [18]

Climate data for South Australia
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)50.7
(123.3)
48.2
(118.8)
46.5
(115.7)
42.1
(107.8)
36.5
(97.7)
34.0
(93.2)
34.2
(93.6)
36.5
(97.7)
41.5
(106.7)
45.4
(113.7)
47.9
(118.2)
49.1
(120.4)
50.7
(123.3)
Record low °C (°F)0.2
(32.4)
0.8
(33.4)
−2.2
(28.0)
−3.5
(25.7)
−6.6
(20.1)
−8.1
(17.4)
−8.2
(17.2)
−6.6
(20.1)
−4.5
(23.9)
−4.4
(24.1)
−2.4
(27.7)
−0.5
(31.1)
−8.2
(17.2)
Source: Bureau of Meteorology [19]

Economy

Vineyard in Eden Valley. South Australia's wine industry is the largest in Australia. CSIRO ScienceImage 4714 CSIRO Precision Viticulture Trial site in the Eden Valley SA March 2004.jpg
Vineyard in Eden Valley. South Australia's wine industry is the largest in Australia.
Flinders Medical Centre. Health care and social assistance is the largest ABS defined employment sector in South Australia. Flindersmed.jpg
Flinders Medical Centre. Health care and social assistance is the largest ABS defined employment sector in South Australia.

South Australia's average annual employment for 2009–10 was 800,600 persons, 18% higher than for 2000–01. [22] For the corresponding period, national average annual employment rose by 22%. [22]

South Australia's largest employment sector is health care and social assistance, [21] [23] surpassing manufacturing in SA as the largest employer since 2006–07. [21] [23] In 2009–10, manufacturing in SA had average annual employment of 83,700 persons compared with 103,300 for health care and social assistance. [21] Health care and social assistance represented nearly 13% of the state average annual employment. [22]

The retail trade is the second largest employer in SA (2009–10), with 91,900 jobs, and 12 per cent of the state workforce. [22]

The manufacturing industry plays an important role in South Australia's economy, generating 11.7% [21] of the state's gross state product (GSP) and playing a large part in exports. The manufacturing industry consists of automotive (44% of total Australian production, 2006) and component manufacturing, pharmaceuticals, defence technology (2.1% of GSP, 2002–03) and electronic systems (3.0% of GSP in 2006). South Australia's economy relies on exports more than any other state in Australia.[ citation needed ] [24]

State export earnings stood at A$10 billion per year[ when? ][ citation needed ] and grew by 8.8% from 2002 to 2003. Production of South Australian food and drink (including agriculture, horticulture, aquaculture, fisheries and manufacturing) is a $10 billion industry.[ when? ][ citation needed ]

South Australia's credit rating was upgraded to AAA by Standard & Poor's Rating Agency in September 2004 and to AAA by Moody's Rating Agency November 2004, the highest credit ratings achievable by any company or sovereign. The State had previously lost these ratings in the State Bank collapse. However, in 2012 Standard & Poor's downgraded the state's credit rating to AA+ due to declining revenues, new spending initiatives and a weaker than expected budgetary outlook. [25]

South Australia's Gross State Product was A$48.9 billion starting 2004, making it A$32,996 per capita. Exports for 2006 were valued at $9.0bn with imports at $6.2bn. Private Residential Building Approvals experienced 80% growth over the year of 2006.[ citation needed ]

South Australia's economy includes the following major industries: meat and meat preparations, wheat, wine, wool and sheepskins, machinery, metal and metal manufactures, fish and crustaceans, road vehicles and parts, and petroleum products. Other industries, such as education and defence technology, are of growing importance.[ when? ][ citation needed ]

South Australia receives the least amount of federal funding for its local road network of all states on a per capita and a per kilometre basis. [26]

In 2013, South Australia was named by Commsec Securities as the second lowest performing economy in Australia. [27] While some sources have pointed at weak retail spending and capital investment, others have attributed poor performance to declines in public spending. [27] [28]

Energy

South Australia has the lead over other Australian states for its commercialisation and commitment to renewable energy. It is now the leading producer of wind power in Australia. [29] Renewable energy is a growing source of electricity in South Australia, and there is potential for growth from this particular industry of the state's economy. The Hornsdale Power Reserve is a bank of grid-connected batteries adjacent to the Hornsdale Wind Farm in South Australia's Mid-North region. At the time of construction in late 2017, it was billed as the largest lithium-ion battery in the world. [30]

Olympic Dam

The Olympic Dam mine near Roxby Downs in northern South Australia is the largest deposit of uranium in the world, possessing more than a third of the world's low-cost recoverable reserves and 70% of Australia's. The mine, owned and operated by BHP Billiton, presently accounts for 9% of global uranium production. [31] [32] The Olympic Dam mine is also the world's fourth-largest remaining copper deposit, and the world's fifth largest gold deposit. [33] There was a proposal to vastly expand the operations of the mine, making it the largest open-cut mine in the world, [34] but in 2012 the BHP Billiton board decided not to go ahead with it at that time due to then lower commodity prices. [35]

Crown land

Crown land held in right of South Australia is managed under the Crown Land Management Act 2009.

Government

Parliament House, Adelaide Parliament House, South Australia.jpg
Parliament House, Adelaide

South Australia is a constitutional monarchy with the Queen of Australia as sovereign, and the Governor of South Australia as her representative. [36] It is a state of the Commonwealth of Australia. The bicameral Parliament of South Australia consists of the lower house known as the House of Assembly and the upper house known as the Legislative Council. General elections are held every four years, the last being the 2018 election.

Initially, the Governor of South Australia held almost total power, derived from the letters patent of the imperial government to create the colony. He was accountable only to the British Colonial Office, and thus democracy did not exist in the colony. A new body was created to advise the governor on the administration of South Australia in 1843 called the Legislative Council. [37] It consisted of three representatives of the British Government and four colonists appointed by the governor. The governor retained total executive power.

In 1851, the Imperial Parliament enacted the Australian Colonies Government Act which allowed for the election of representatives to each of the colonial legislatures and the drafting of a constitution to properly create representative and responsible government in South Australia. Later that year, propertied male colonists were allowed to vote for 16 members on a new 24 seat Legislative Council. Eight members continued to be appointed by the governor.

The main responsibility of this body was to draft a constitution for South Australia. The body drafted the most democratic constitution ever seen in the British Empire and provided for universal manhood suffrage. [38] It created the bicameral Parliament of South Australia. For the first time in the colony, the executive was elected by the people and the colony used the Westminster system, where the government is the party or coalition that exerts a majority in the House of Assembly.

Composition of the Parliament of South Australia
Party House Council
Liberal 259
Labor 198
SA-BEST 02
Green 02
Independent 30
Advance SA 01
Total4722
Source: Electoral Commission SA

Women's suffrage in Australia took a leap forward – enacted in 1895 and taking effect from the 1896 colonial election, South Australia was the first in Australia and only the second in the world after New Zealand to allow women to vote, and the first in the world to allow women to stand for election. [39] In 1897 Catherine Helen Spence was the first woman in Australia to be a candidate for political office when she was nominated to be one of South Australia's delegates to the conventions that drafted the constitution. South Australia became an original state of the Commonwealth of Australia on 1 January 1901.

Local government

South Australia is divided into 74 local government areas. Local councils are responsible for functions delegated by the South Australian parliament, such as road infrastructure and waste management. Council revenue comes mostly from property taxes and government grants.

Demographics

Estimated resident population since 1981 ABS-3101.0-AustralianDemographicStatistics-EstimatedResidentPopulationStatesTerritories-EstimatedResidentPopulation-Persons-SouthAustralia-A2060846R.svg
Estimated resident population since 1981
View of Adelaide city centre and surrounding northern suburbs. Adelaide's metropolitan area is home to the largest concentration of the state's population CBD in the Distance (22809720932).jpg
View of Adelaide city centre and surrounding northern suburbs. Adelaide's metropolitan area is home to the largest concentration of the state's population

As at March 2018 the population of South Australia was 1,733,500. [2] A majority of the state's population lives within Greater Adelaide's metropolitan area which had an estimated population of 1,333,927 in June 2017. [40] Other significant population centres include Mount Gambier (29,505), [41] Victor Harbor-Goolwa (26,334), [41] Whyalla (21,976), [41] Murray Bridge (18,452), [41] Port Lincoln (16,281), [41] Port Pirie (14,267), [41] and Port Augusta (13,957). [41]

Ancestry and immigration

Country of Birth (2016) [42] [43]
Birthplace [N 1] Population
Australia 1,192,546
England 97,392
India 27,594
Mainland China 24,610
Italy 18,544
Vietnam 14,337
New Zealand 12,937
Philippines 12,465
Germany 10,119
Greece 8,682
Malaysia 7,749
South Africa 6,610
Netherlands 6,602
Afghanistan 6,313

At the 2016 census, the most commonly nominated ancestries were: [N 2] [44]

28.9% of the population was born overseas at the 2016 census. The five largest groups of overseas-born were from England (5.8%), India (1.6%), China (1.5%), Italy (1.1%) and Vietnam (0.9%). [42] [43]

2% of the population, or 34,184 people, identified as Indigenous Australians (Aboriginal Australians and Torres Strait Islanders) in 2016. [N 5] [42] [43]

Language

At the 2016 census, 78.2% of the population spoke only English at home. The other languages most commonly spoken at home were Italian (1.7%), Standard Mandarin (1.7%), Greek (1.4%) Vietnamese (1.1%), and Cantonese (0.6%). [42] [43]

Religion

At the 2016 census, overall 53.9% of responses identified some variant of Christianity. 9% of respondents chose not to state a religion. The most commonly nominated responses were 'No Religion' (35.4%), Catholicism (18%), Anglicanism (10%) and Uniting Church (7.1%). [42] [43]

Education

Primary and secondary

On 1 January 2009, the school leaving age was raised to 17 (having previously been 15 and then 16). [46] Education is compulsory for all children until age 17, unless they are working or undergoing other training. The majority of students stay on to complete their South Australian Certificate of Education (SACE). School education is the responsibility of the South Australian government, but the public and private education systems are funded jointly by it and the Commonwealth Government.

The South Australian Government provides, to schools on a per student basis, 89 percent of the total Government funding while the Commonwealth contributes 11 percent. Since the early 1970s it has been an ongoing controversy [47] that 68 percent of Commonwealth funding (increasing to 75% by 2008) goes to private schools that are attended by 32% of the states students. [48] Private schools often refute this by saying that they receive less State Government funding than public schools and in 2004 the main private school funding came from the Australian government, not the state government. [49]

On 14 June 2013, South Australia became the third Australian state to sign up to the Australian Federal Government's Gonski Reform Program. This will see funding for primary and secondary education to South Australia increased by $1.1 billion before 2019. [50]

Tertiary

University of Adelaide Adelaideunientrance.jpg
University of Adelaide

There are three public and four private universities in South Australia. The three public universities are the University of Adelaide (established 1874, third oldest in Australia), Flinders University (est. 1966) and the University of South Australia (est. 1991). The four private universities are Torrens University Australia (est. 2013), Carnegie Mellon University - Australia (est. 2006), University College London's School of Energy and Resources (Australia), and Cranfield University. All six have their main campus in the Adelaide metropolitan area: Adelaide and UniSA on North Terrace in the city; CMU, UCL and Cranfield are co-located on Victoria Square in the city, and Flinders at Bedford Park.

Vocational education

Tertiary vocational education is provided by a range of Registered Training Organisations (RTOs) which are regulated at Commonwealth level. The range of RTOs delivering education include public, private and 'enterprise' providers i.e. employing organisations who run an RTO for their own employees or members.

The largest public provider of vocational education is TAFE South Australia which is made up of colleges throughout the state, many of these in rural areas, providing tertiary education to as many people as possible. In South Australia, TAFE is funded by the state government and run by the South Australian Department of Further Education, Employment, Science and Technology (DFEEST). Each TAFE SA campus provides a range of courses with its own specialisation.

Transport

Major highways in South Australia SouthAustraliaRoads.png
Major highways in South Australia

Historical transport in South Australia

After settlement, the major form of transport in South Australia was ocean transport. Limited land transport was provided by horses and bullocks. In the mid 19th century, the state began to develop a widespread rail network, although a coastal shipping network continued until the post war period.

Roads began to improve with the introduction of motor transport. By the late 19th century, road transport dominated internal transport in South Australia.

Railway

South Australia has four interstate rail connections, to Perth via the Nullarbor Plain, to Darwin through the centre of the continent, to New South Wales through Broken Hill, and to Melbourne–which is the closest capital city to Adelaide.

Rail transport is important for many mines in the north of the state.

The capital Adelaide has limited commuter rail transport.

Roads

Eyre Highway west of the Nullarbor, South Australia Nullarbor warning signs, 2012.jpg
Eyre Highway west of the Nullarbor, South Australia

South Australia has extensive road networks linking towns and other states. Roads are also the most common form of transport within the major metropolitan areas with car transport predominating. Public transport in Adelaide is mostly provided by buses with regular services throughout the day.

Air transport

Adelaide Airport provides regular flights to other capitals, major South Australian towns and many international locations. The airport also has daily flights to several Asian hub airports. Adelaide Metro [51] buses J1 and J1X connect to the city (approx. 30 minutes travel time). Standard fares apply and tickets may be purchased from the driver. Maximum charge (September 2016) for Metroticket is $5.30; off-peak and seniors discounts may apply.

A ferry crossing the Murray River towards the town of Waikerie, South Australia Waikerie ferry, Riverland 1.JPG
A ferry crossing the Murray River towards the town of Waikerie, South Australia

River transport

The River Murray was formerly an important trade route for South Australia, with paddle steamers linking inland areas and the ocean at Goolwa.

Sea transport

South Australia has a container port at Port Adelaide. There are also numerous important ports along the coast for minerals and grains.

The passenger terminal at Port Adelaide periodically sees cruise liners.

Kangaroo Island is dependent on the Sea Link ferry service between Cape Jervis and Penneshaw.

Crime

Sport

Australian rules football

An AFL match between the Port Adelaide Power and the Adelaide Crows McLeodMarkcrop.jpg
An AFL match between the Port Adelaide Power and the Adelaide Crows

Australian rules football is the most popular spectator sport in South Australia, with South Australians having the highest attendance rate in Australia. [52] The state also has the highest participation rate of people taking part in Australian rules football.[ citation needed ]

South Australia fields two teams in the Australian Football League national competition: the Adelaide Football Club and Port Adelaide Football Club. As of 2015 the two clubs are in the top five in terms of membership numbers, with both clubs' membership figures reaching over 60,000. Both teams have used the Adelaide Oval as their home ground since 2014, having previously used Football Park (AAMI Stadium).

The South Australian National Football League, which owns Football Park, is a popular local league comprising ten teams (Sturt, Port Adelaide, Adelaide, West Adelaide, South Adelaide, North Adelaide, Norwood, Woodville/West Torrens, Glenelg and Central District).

The South Australian Amateur Football League comprises 68 member clubs playing over 110 matches per week across ten senior divisions and three junior divisions. The SAAFL is one of Australia's largest and strongest Australian rules football associations. [53]

Cricket

Cricket is the most popular summer sport in South Australia and attracts big crowds. South Australia has a cricket team, the West End Redbacks, who play at Adelaide Oval in the Adelaide Park Lands during the summer; they won their first title since 1996 in the summer of 2010–11. Many international matches have been played at the Adelaide Oval; it was one of the host cities of 2015 Cricket World Cup, and for many years it hosted the Australia Day One Day International. South Australia is also home to the Adelaide Strikers, an Australian men's professional Twenty20 cricket team that competes in Australia's domestic Twenty20 cricket competition, the Big Bash League.

Association football

Adelaide United represents South Australia in soccer in the men's A-League and women's W-League. The club's home ground is Hindmarsh Stadium (Coopers Stadium), but occasionally plays games at the Adelaide Oval.

The club was founded in 2003 and are the 2015–16 season champions of the A-League. The club was also premier in the inaugural 2005–06 A-League season, finishing 7 points clear of the rest of the competition, before finishing 3rd in the finals. Adelaide United was also a Grand Finalist in the 2006–07 and 2008–09 seasons. Adelaide is the only A-League club to have progressed past the group stages of the Asian Champions League on more than one occasion. [54]

Adelaide City remains South Australia's most successful club, having won three National Soccer League titles and three NSL Cups. City was the first side from South Australia to ever win a continental title when it claimed the 1987 Oceania Club Championship and it has also won a record 17 South Australian championships and 17 Federation Cups.

West Adelaide became the first South Australian club to be crowned Australian champion when it won the 1978 National Soccer League title. Like City, it now competes in the National Premier Leagues South Australia and the two clubs contest the Adelaide derby.

Basketball

Titanium Security Arena, the home of basketball in South Australia Brett Maher Court 023.jpg
Titanium Security Arena, the home of basketball in South Australia

Basketball also has a big following in South Australia, with the Adelaide 36ers playing out of an 8,070 seat stadium in Findon. The 36ers have won four championships in the last 20 years in the National Basketball League. The Titanium Security Arena, located in Findon, is the home of basketball in the state.

Mount Gambier also has a national basketball team – the Mount Gambier Pioneers. The Pioneers play at the Icehouse (Mount Gambier Basketball Stadium) which seats over 1,000 people and is also home to the Mount Gambier Basketball Association. The Pioneers won the South Conference in 2003 and the Final in 2003; this team was rated second in the top five teams to have ever played in the league. In 2012, the club entered its 25th season, with a roster of 10 senior players (two imports) and three development squad players.

Motor sport

Australia's premier motor sport series, the Supercars Championship, has visited South Australia each year since 1999. South Australia's Supercars event, the Adelaide 500, is staged on the Adelaide Street Circuit, a temporary track laid out through the streets and parklands to the east of the Adelaide city centre. Attendance for the 2010 event totalled 277,800. [55] An earlier version of the Adelaide Street Circuit played host to the Australian Grand Prix, a round of the FIA Formula One World Championship, each year from 1985 to 1995.

Mallala Motor Sport Park, a permanent circuit located near the town of Mallala, 58 km north of Adelaide, caters for both state and national level motor sport throughout the year.

The Bend Motorsport Park, is another permanent circuit, located just outside of Tailem Bend. [56]

Other sports

Sixty-three percent of South Australian children took part in organised sports in 2002–2003. [57]

The ATP Adelaide was a tennis tournament held from 1972 to 2008 that then moved to Brisbane and was replaced with The World Tennis Challenge a Professional Exhibition Tournament that is part of the Australian Open Series. Also, the Royal Adelaide Golf Club has hosted nine editions of the Australian Open, with the most recent being in 1998.

The state has hosted the Tour Down Under cycle race since 1999. [58]

Places

South Australian cities, towns, settlements and road network SouthAustraliaRoads.png
South Australian cities, towns, settlements and road network

Regions

Rivers

Lakes

Islands

Main highways

See also

Food and drink

Lists

Notes

  1. In accordance with the Australian Bureau of Statistics source, England, Scotland, Mainland China and the Special Administrative Regions of Hong Kong and Macau are listed separately
  2. As a percentage of 1,227,355 persons who nominated their ancestry at the 2016 census.
  3. The Australian Bureau of Statistics has stated that most who nominate "Australian" as their ancestry are part of the Anglo-Celtic group. [45]
  4. Of any ancestry. Includes those identifying as Aboriginal Australians or Torres Strait Islanders. Indigenous identification is separate to the ancestry question on the Australian Census and persons identifying as Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander may identify any ancestry.
  5. Of any ancestry. Includes those identifying as Aboriginal Australians or Torres Strait Islanders. Indigenous identification is separate to the ancestry question on the Australian Census and persons identifying as Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander may identify any ancestry.

Related Research Articles

Adelaide City in South Australia

Adelaide is the capital city of the state of South Australia, and the fifth-most populous city of Australia. Adelaide is home to 77 percent of the South Australian population, making it the most centralised population of any state in Australia.

Mount Gambier, South Australia City in South Australia

Mount Gambier is the second most populated city in South Australia with an estimated urban population of 28,684. The city is located on the slopes of Mount Gambier (volcano) in the south east of the state, about 450 kilometres (280 mi) south-east of the capital Adelaide and just 17 kilometres (11 mi) from the Victorian border, it is the most important settlement in the Limestone Coast region and the seat of government for both the City of Mount Gambier and the District Council of Grant.

Murray Bridge, South Australia City in South Australia

Murray Bridge is a city in the Australian state of South Australia, located 76 kilometres (47 mi) east-southeast of the state's capital city, Adelaide, and 77 kilometres (48 mi) north of the town of Meningie. The city had an urban population of approximately 17,500 as at the 2016 Census making it the fifth most populous urban area in the state after Adelaide, Mount Gambier, Victor Harbor - Goolwa and Whyalla.

Bordertown, South Australia Town in South Australia

Bordertown, formerly Border Town, is a town and locality in the Australian state of South Australian located in the state's east near the state border with Victoria about 250 kilometres (160 mi) east of the state capital of Adelaide. It is where the Dukes Highway and the railway line cross the Tatiara Creek between Adelaide and Melbourne, the capital of Victoria.

Millicent, South Australia Town in South Australia

Millicent is a town in the Australian state of South Australia located about 399 kilometres (248 mi) south-east of the state capital of Adelaide and about 50 kilometres (31 mi) north of the regional centre of Mount Gambier. In the 2011 census, the population was 5,024.

Port MacDonnell, South Australia Town in South Australia

Port MacDonnell is the southernmost town in South Australia. The small port located on the Great Australian Bight in the Limestone Coast region about 477 kilometres (296 mi) southeast of Adelaide and 28 kilometres (17 mi) south of Mount Gambier in the District Council of Grant local government area. The 2016 Australian census which was conducted in August 2016 reports that the locality of Port MacDonnell had a population of 847 of which 671 lived in its town centre. Once a busy shipping port, the town now relies heavily on its fishing and summer tourism industries, particularly rock lobster harvest industry, proclaiming itself "Australia's Southern Rock Lobster Capital".

Nangwarry, South Australia Town in South Australia

Nangwarry is a town and a locality in the Australian state of South Australia located about 352 kilometres (219 mi) south-east of the state capital of Adelaide and about 32 kilometres (20 mi) north-west of the regional centre of Mount Gambier.

Wandilo, South Australia Town in South Australia

Wandilo is a settlement in the Australian state of South Australia. It was named after the railway station on the Mount Gambier railway line, and is recorded to mean "a swamp where native companions resort".

Transport in South Australia is provided by a mix of road, rail, sea and air transport. The capital city of Adelaide is the centre to transport in the state. With its population of 1.4 million people, it has the majority of the state's 1.7 million inhabitants. Adelaide has the state's major airport and sea port.

In South Australia, one of the states of Australia, there are many areas which are commonly known by regional names. Regions are areas that share similar characteristics. These characteristics may be natural such as the Murray River, the coastline, desert or mountains. Alternatively, the characteristics may be cultural, such as common land use. South Australia is divided by numerous sets of regional boundaries, based on different characteristics. In many cases boundaries defined by different agencies are coterminous.

Antechamber Bay, South Australia Suburb of Kangaroo Island Council, South Australia

Antechamber Bay is a locality in the Australian state of South Australia located on the north coast of Dudley Peninsula on Kangaroo Island overlooking Backstairs Passage about 108 kilometres south of the state capital of Adelaide and about 15 kilometres east of Penneshaw.

Dudley West, South Australia Suburb of Kangaroo Island Council, South Australia

Dudley West is a locality in the Australian state of South Australia located on the south coast of Dudley Peninsula on Kangaroo Island overlooking the body of water known in Australia as the Southern Ocean and by international authorities as the Great Australian Bight. It is located about 107 kilometres south of the Adelaide city centre and about 11 kilometres south-west of Penneshaw.

Willson River, South Australia Suburb of Kangaroo Island Council, South Australia

Willson River is a locality in the Australian state of South Australia located on the Dudley Peninsula on Kangaroo Island overlooking the body of water known in Australia as the Southern Ocean and by international authorities as the Great Australian Bight. It is located about 120 kilometres south of the state capital of Adelaide and about 15 kilometres south-west of the town centre of Penneshaw.

Racecourse Bay, South Australia Suburb of District Council of Grant, South Australia

Racecourse Bay is a locality in the Australian state of South Australia located on the state’s south-east coast overlooking the body of water known in Australia as the Southern Ocean and by international authorities as the Great Australian Bight. It is about 398 kilometres south-east of the state capital of Adelaide and 25 kilometres south of the municipal seat of Mount Gambier in the south-east of the state.

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