South Carolina

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Coordinates: 34°N81°W / 34°N 81°W / 34; -81

South Carolina
State of South Carolina
Nickname(s):  
The Palmetto State
Motto(s):  
Dum spiro spero * (Latin, 'While I breathe, I hope')
Animis opibusque parati † (Latin, 'Prepared in mind and resources')
Anthem: "Carolina";
"South Carolina On My Mind"
South Carolina in United States.svg
Map of the United States with South Carolina highlighted
Country United States
Before statehood Province of South Carolina
Admitted to the Union May 23, 1788 (8th)
Capital Columbia
Largest city Charleston [1]
Largest metro Greenville
Government
   Governor Henry McMaster (R)
   Lieutenant Governor Pamela Evette (R)
Legislature General Assembly
   Upper house Senate
   Lower house House of Representatives
Judiciary South Carolina Supreme Court
U.S. senators Lindsey Graham (R)
Tim Scott (R)
U.S. House delegation 5 Republicans
2 Democrats (list)
Area
  Total32,020 [2]  sq mi (82,932 km2)
  Land30,109 sq mi (77,982 km2)
  Water1,911 sq mi (4,949 km2)  6%
Area rank 40th
Dimensions
  Length260 mi (420 km)
  Width200 mi (320 km)
Elevation
350 ft (110 m)
Highest elevation3,560 ft (1,085 m)
Lowest elevation
(Atlantic Ocean [3] )
0 ft (0 m)
Population
 (2019)
  Total5,148,714
  Rank 23rd
  Density157/sq mi (60.6/km2)
  Density rank 19th
   Median household income
$50,570 [5]
  Income rank
43rd
Demonym(s) South Carolinian
Language
   Official language English
Time zone UTC−05:00 (Eastern)
  Summer (DST) UTC−04:00 (EDT)
USPS abbreviation
SC
ISO 3166 code US-SC
Trad. abbreviation S.C.
Latitude32°2′ N to 35°13′ N
Longitude78°32′ W to 83°21′ W
Website sc.gov
South Carolina state symbols
Flag of South Carolina.svg
Seal of South Carolina.svg
Living insignia
Amphibian Salamander
Bird Carolina wren
Butterfly Eastern tiger swallowtail
Fish Striped bass
Flower Yellow jessamine
Insect Carolina Mantis
Mammal White-tailed deer
Reptile Loggerhead Sea Turtle
Tree Sabal palmetto
Inanimate insignia
Beverage Milk
Dance Carolina shag
Food
Fossil Columbian mammoth
Mammuthus columbi
Mineral Amethyst
Rock Blue granite
Shell Lettered olive
State route marker
South Carolina 9.svg
State quarter
South Carolina quarter, reverse side, 2000.jpg
Released in 2000
Lists of United States state symbols

South Carolina ( /ˌkærəˈlnə/ ( Loudspeaker.svg listen )) is a state in the Southeastern United States and the easternmost of the Deep South. It is bordered to the north by North Carolina, to the southeast by the Atlantic Ocean, and to the southwest by Georgia across the Savannah River.

Contents

South Carolina became the eighth state to ratify the U.S. Constitution on May 23, 1788. It also became the first state to vote in favor of secession from the Union on December 20, 1860. After the American Civil War, it was readmitted into the United States on June 25, 1868.

South Carolina is the 40th most extensive and 23rd most populous U.S. state. Its GDP as of 2013 was $183.6 billion, with an annual growth rate of 3.13%. [6] South Carolina is composed of 46 counties. The capital is Columbia with a population of 133,451 in 2018; [7] while its largest city is Charleston with a 2018 population of 136,208. [8] The Greenville–Anderson–Mauldin metropolitan area is the largest in the state, with a 2018 population estimate of 906,626. [9]

South Carolina is named in honor of King Charles I of England, who first formed the English colony, with Carolus being Latin for "Charles". [10]

Geography

Table Rock State Park TableRockMountain.jpg
Table Rock State Park
Francis Marion National Forest Francis Marion Forest.jpg
Francis Marion National Forest
Lake Marion Cypress tree - Lake Marion - Indian Bluff Park - Eutawville, SC, USA.jpg
Lake Marion


Regions

The state can be divided into three geographic areas. From east to west: the Atlantic coastal plain, the Piedmont, and the Blue Ridge Mountains. Locally, the coastal plain is referred to as the Low Country, and the other two regions as the Midlands and the Upstate respectively. [11] The Atlantic Coastal Plain makes up two-thirds of the state. Its eastern border is the Sea Islands, a chain of tidal and barrier islands. The border between the low country and the up country is defined by the Atlantic Seaboard fall line, which marks the limit of navigable rivers.

Atlantic Coastal Plain

The Atlantic Coastal Plain consists of sediments and sedimentary rocks that range in age from Cretaceous to Present. The terrain is relatively flat and the soil is composed predominantly of sand, silt, and clay. Areas with better drainage make excellent farmland, though some land is swampy. An unusual feature of the coastal plain is a large number of low-relief topographic depressions named Carolina bays. The bays tend to be oval, lining up in a northwest to southeast orientation. The eastern portion of the coastal plain contains many salt marshes and estuaries, as well as natural ports such as Georgetown and Charleston. The natural areas of the coastal plain are part of the Middle Atlantic coastal forests ecoregion. [12]

The Sandhills or Carolina Sandhills is a 10–35 mi (16–56 km) wide region within the Atlantic Coastal Plain province, along the inland margin of this province. The Carolina Sandhills are interpreted as eolian (wind-blown) sand sheets and dunes that were mobilized episodically from approximately 75,000 to 6,000 years ago. Most of the published luminescence ages from the sand are coincident with the last glaciation, a time when the southeastern United States was characterized by colder air temperatures and stronger winds. [13]

Piedmont

Much of Piedmont consists of Paleozoic metamorphic and igneous rocks, and the landscape has relatively low relief. Due to the changing economics of farming, much of the land is now reforested in Loblolly pine for the lumber industry. These forests are part of the Southeastern mixed forests ecoregion. [12] At the southeastern edge of Piedmont is the fall line, where rivers drop to the coastal plain. The fall line was an important early source of water power. Mills built to harness this resource encouraged the growth of several cities, including the capital, Columbia. The larger rivers are navigable up to the fall line, providing a trade route for mill towns.

The northwestern part of Piedmont is also known as the Foothills. The Cherokee Parkway is a scenic driving route through this area. This is where Table Rock State Park is located.

Blue Ridge

The Blue Ridge consists primarily of Precambrian metamorphic rocks, and the landscape has relatively high relief. The Blue Ridge Region contains an escarpment of the Blue Ridge Mountains that continues into North Carolina and Georgia as part of the southern Appalachian Mountains. Sassafras Mountain, South Carolina's highest point at 3,560 feet (1,090 m), is in this area. [14] Also in this area is Caesars Head State Park. The environment here is that of the Appalachian-Blue Ridge forests ecoregion. [12] The Chattooga River, on the border between South Carolina and Georgia, is a favorite whitewater rafting destination.

Lakes

South Carolina has several major lakes covering over 683 square miles (1,770 km2). All major lakes in South Carolina are man-made. The following are the lakes listed by size. [15]

Earthquakes

Earthquakes in South Carolina demonstrate the greatest frequency along the central coastline of the state, in the Charleston area. South Carolina averages 10–15 earthquakes a year below magnitude 3 (FEMA). The Charleston earthquake of 1886 was the largest quake ever to hit the eastern United States. The 7.0–7.3 magnitude earthquake killed 60 people and destroyed much of the city. [16] Faults in this region are difficult to study at the surface due to thick sedimentation on top of them. Many of the ancient faults are within plates rather than along plate boundaries.

Climate

A map of the average annual precipitation in South Carolina SCprecipitation.gif
A map of the average annual precipitation in South Carolina
Lake Wylie in autumn Lake Wylie in autumn.jpg
Lake Wylie in autumn

South Carolina has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen climate classification Cfa), although high-elevation areas in the Upstate area have fewer subtropical characteristics than areas on the Atlantic coastline. In the summer, South Carolina is hot and humid, with daytime temperatures averaging between 86–93 °F (30–34 °C) in most of the state and overnight lows averaging 70–75 °F (21–24 °C) on the coast and from 66–73 °F (19–23 °C) inland. Winter temperatures are much less uniform in South Carolina.

Coastal areas of the state have very mild winters, with high temperatures approaching an average of 60 °F (16 °C) and overnight lows around 40 °F (5–8 °C). Inland, the average January overnight low is around 32 °F (0 °C) in Columbia and temperatures well below freezing in the Upstate. While precipitation is abundant the entire year in almost the entire state, the coast tends to have a slightly wetter summer, while inland, the spring and autumn transitions tend to be the wettest periods and winter the driest season, with November being the driest month. The highest recorded temperature is 113 °F (45 °C) in Johnston and Columbia on June 29, 2012, and the lowest recorded temperature is −19 °F (−28 °C) at Caesars Head on January 21, 1985.

Snowfall in South Carolina is somewhat uncommon in most of the state, while coastal areas receive less than an inch (2.5 cm) annually on average. It is not uncommon for the state (especially the southern coast) to receive no recordable snowfall in a given year. The interior receives a little more snow, although nowhere in the state averages more than 12 inches (30 cm) of snow annually. The mountains of extreme northwestern South Carolina tend to have the most substantial snow accumulation. Freezing rain and ice tend to be more common than snow in many areas of the state. Road bridges in South Carolina are commonly marked, "Bridge ices before road".

South Carolina is also prone to tropical cyclones and tornadoes. Two of the strongest hurricanes to strike South Carolina in recent history were Hurricane Hazel (1954) and Hurricane Hugo (1989).

Hurricanes and tropical cyclones

Category 4 Hurricane Hugo in 1989 Hurricane Hugo 1989 sept 21 1844Z.jpg
Category 4 Hurricane Hugo in 1989

The state is occasionally affected by tropical cyclones. This is an annual concern during hurricane season, which lasts from June 1 to November 30. The peak time of vulnerability for the southeast Atlantic coast is from early August to early October, during the Cape Verde hurricane season. Memorable hurricanes to hit South Carolina include Hazel (1954), Florence (2018), and Hugo (1989), all Category 4 hurricanes. [28]

South Carolina averages around 50 days of thunderstorm activity a year. This is less than some of the states further south, and it is slightly less vulnerable to tornadoes than the states which border on the Gulf of Mexico. Some notable tornadoes have struck South Carolina, and the state averages around 14 tornadoes annually. Hail is common with many of the thunderstorms in the state, as there is often a marked contrast in temperature of warmer ground conditions compared to the cold air aloft. [28]

Federal lands in South Carolina

Congaree National Park, Hopkins Congaree swamp.jpg
Congaree National Park, Hopkins

Demographics

Historical population
CensusPop.
1790 249,073
1800 345,59138.8%
1810 415,11520.1%
1820 502,74121.1%
1830 581,18515.6%
1840 594,3982.3%
1850 668,50712.5%
1860 703,7085.3%
1870 705,6060.3%
1880 995,57741.1%
1890 1,151,14915.6%
1900 1,340,31616.4%
1910 1,515,40013.1%
1920 1,683,72411.1%
1930 1,738,7653.3%
1940 1,899,8049.3%
1950 2,117,02711.4%
1960 2,382,59412.5%
1970 2,590,5168.7%
1980 3,121,82020.5%
1990 3,486,70311.7%
2000 4,012,01215.1%
2010 4,625,36415.3%
Est. 20195,148,71411.3%
Source: 1910–2010 [29]
2019 estimate [30]
South Carolina Racial Breakdown of Population
Racial composition1990 [31] 2000 [32] 2010 [33] 2019 [34]
White 69.0%67.2%66.2%68.5%
Black 29.8%29.5%27.9%27.1%
Asian 0.6%0.9%1.3%1.8%
Native American 0.2%0.3%0.4%0.5%
Native Hawaiian and
other Pacific Islander
0.1%0.1%
Two or more races 1.0%1.7%1.9%
Population density of South Carolina South Carolina population map.png
Population density of South Carolina

The United States Census Bureau estimates the population of South Carolina was 5,148,714 on July 1, 2019, an 11.31 percentage increase since the 2010 census. [30]

As of the 2017 census estimate, the racial make up of the state is 68.5% White (63.8% non-Hispanic white), 27.3% Black or African American, 0.5% American Indian and Alaska Native, 1.7% Asian, 0.1% Native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islander, 1.9% from two or more races. 5.7% of the total population was of Hispanic or Latino origin of any race. [35]

According to the United States Census Bureau, as of 2019, South Carolina had an estimated population of 5,148,714, which is an increase of 64,587 from the prior year and an increase of 523,350, or 11.31%, since the year 2010. Immigration from outside the United States resulted in a net increase of 36,401 people, and migration within the country produced a net increase of 115,084 people. According to the University of South Carolina's Arnold School of Public Health, Consortium for Latino Immigration Studies, South Carolina's foreign-born population grew faster than any other state between 2000 and 2005. [36] [37] South Carolina has banned sanctuary cities. [38]

Legend
     African American
     White American
     Other






Historical South Carolina Racial Breakdown of Population [39]

South Carolina

Population centers

Some Primary Statistical Areas of South Carolina overlap with neighbouring states of North Carolina and Georgia

RankPrimary Statistical AreaPopulationCounties
1 Greenville-Spartanburg-Anderson, SC CSA 1,460,036 Greenville, Spartanburg, Anderson, Pickens, Oconee, Laurens, Cherokee, Union
2 Columbia-Orangeburg-Newberry, SC CSA 950,997 Richland, Lexington, Orangeburg, Kershaw, Newberry, Fairfield, Saluda, Calhoun
3 Charleston-North Charleston-Summerville, SC MSA 775,831 Charleston, Dorchester, Berkeley
4 Myrtle Beach-Conway-Georgetown, SC CSA 525,772 Horry, Brunswick, Georgetown
5 Charlotte-Gastonia-Salisbury, NC-SC CSA 415,321 in SC York, Lancaster, Chesterfield, Chester


The following table shows the major metropolitan areas of South Carolina. [40]

RankMetropolitan AreaPopulationCounties
1 Greenville-Anderson-Mauldin, SC MSA 895,923 Greenville, Anderson, Laurens, Pickens
2 Columbia, SC MSA 825,033 Calhoun, Kershaw, Fairfield, Richland, Lexington, Saluda
3 Charleston-North Charleston-Summerville, SC MSA 775,831 Charleston, Dorchester, Berkeley
4 Myrtle Beach-Conway-North Myrtle Beach, SC MSA 464,165 Horry, Georgetown, Brunswick
5 Spartanburg, SC MSA 334,391 Spartanburg
6 Charlotte-Gastonia-Concord, NC-SC MSA 251,195 in SC York
7 Hilton Head Island-Bluffton-Beaufort, SC MSA 215,302 Beaufort, Jasper
8 Florence, SC MSA 205,831 Florence, Darlington
9 Sumter, SC MSA 106,847 Sumter

In 2019, the U.S. Census Bureau released 2018 population estimates for South Carolina's most populous cities. [41]

Government and politics

Gubernatorial election results [43]
Year Democratic Republican
1950 99.9%50,633
1954 99.9%214,204
1958 99.9%77,714
1962 99.9%253,704
1966 58.2%255,85441.8% 184,088
1970 52.1%251,15145.9% 221,236
1974 47.0% 248,86150.3%266,338
1978 61.3%384,89837.7% 236,946
1982 69.8%468,78730.2% 202,806
1986 47.9% 361,32851.0%384,565
1990 27.8% 212,04869.5%528,831
1994 47.9% 447,00250.4%470,756
1998 53.2%570,07045.2% 484,088
2002 47.0% 521,14052.9%585,422
2006 44.8% 489,07655.1%601,868
2010 46.9% 630,53451.4%690,525
2014 41.4% 516,16655.9%696,645
2018 45.9% 784,18254.0%921,342
Presidential election results [43]
Year Democratic Republican
1952 50.7%173,00449.3% 168,082
1956 45.4%136,37225.2% 75,700
1960 51.2%198,12948.8% 188,558
1964 41.1% 215,70058.9%309,048
1968 29.6% 197,48638.1%254,062
1972 27.9% 189,27070.6%478,427
1976 56.2%450,82543.1% 346,140
1980 48.0% 427,56049.6%441,207
1984 35.6% 344,47063.6%615,539
1988 37.6% 370,55461.5%606,443
1992 39.9% 479,51448.0%577,507
1996 43.9% 504,05149.9%573,458
2000 40.9% 566,03956.8%786,426
2004 40.9% 661,69958.0%937,974
2008 44.9% 862,44953.9%1,034,896
2012 44.1% 865,94154.6%1,071,645
2016 40.7% 855,37354.9%1,155,389
South Carolina State House SCCapitol0270.jpg
South Carolina State House
Treemap of the popular vote by county, 2016 presidential election United States presidential election in South Carolina, 2016.svg
Treemap of the popular vote by county, 2016 presidential election

South Carolina's state government consists of the Executive, Legislative, and Judicial branches. Also relevant are the state constitution, law enforcement agencies, federal representation, state finances, and state taxes.

South Carolina has historically had a weak executive branch and a strong legislature. Before 1865, governors in South Carolina were appointed by the General Assembly, and held the title "President of State". The 1865 Constitution changed this process, requiring a popular election. Local governments were also weak. But, the 1867 Constitution, passed during the Reconstruction era, extended democratization by establishing home rule for counties, which were established from the formerly designated districts of the state.

The 1895 state constitution overturned this, reducing the role of counties and strengthening the relative role of the state legislature; essentially the counties were agents of the state and ruled by the General Assembly through the legislative delegation for each county. [44] They are geographically comprehensive; all areas of the state are included in counties. As each county had one state senator, that position was particularly powerful. This status continued until 1973, when the state constitution was amended to provide for home rule for the counties. During this time the state had changed, with increasing urbanization, but rural counties retained proportionally more power as the legislature was based in representatives elected from counties rather than population districts. [45]

The federal court case, Reynolds v. Sims (1964), "established the one-man, one-vote concept for electoral representation at the state level. Legislators were now supposed to represent more or less equal numbers of people." [45] Residents of urban areas had been found to be markedly underrepresented in the legislature under the county-based system. Reapportionment made obvious the need for other changes to county structure, leading to the legislature passing the constitutional amendment. The Home Rule Act of 1975 implemented the amendment giving more power to the counties. With urbanization, their governments have become increasingly important in the state. [45]

Several changes to the state constitution have affected the office of the governor and the cabinet. In 1926 the governor's term was extended from two to four years; in 1982 the governor was allowed to run for a second succeeding term. In 1993, the state passed an amendment requiring a limited cabinet (all of whom must be popularly elected).

As of January 2, 2016, there were 2,948,772 registered voters. [46] [47]

History

Precolonial period

There is evidence of human activity in the area about 40,000 years ago. At the time Europeans arrived, marking the end of the Pre-Columbian era around 1600, there were many separate Native American tribes, the largest being the Cherokee, and the Catawba, and the total population being up to 20,000. [48]

Up the rivers of the eastern coastal plain lived about a dozen tribes of Siouan background. Along the Savannah River were the Apalachee, Yuchi, and the Yamasee. Further west were the Cherokee, and along the Catawba River, the Catawba. These tribes were village-dwellers, relying on agriculture as their primary food source. [48] The Cherokee lived in wattle and daub houses made with wood and clay, roofed with wood or thatched grass. [49]

Top left, the shores of Florida and the future Carolina explored in 1500 and showed in 1502 on the Cantino planisphere Anonimo portoghese, carta navale per le isole nuovamente trovate in la parte dell'india (de cantino), 1501-02 (bibl. estense) 02.jpg
Top left, the shores of Florida and the future Carolina explored in 1500 and showed in 1502 on the Cantino planisphere

About a dozen separate small tribes summered on the coast harvesting oysters and fish, and cultivating corn, peas and beans. Travelling inland as much as 50 miles (80 km) mostly by canoe, they wintered on the coastal plain, hunting deer and gathering nuts and fruit. The names of these tribes survive in place names like Edisto Island, Kiawah Island, and the Ashepoo River. [48]

Exploration

The Spanish were the first Europeans in the area. From June 24 to July 14, 1521, they explored the land around Winyah Bay. On October 8, 1526, they founded San Miguel de Gualdape, near present-day Georgetown, South Carolina. It was the first European settlement in what is now mainland USA. Established with five hundred settlers, it was abandoned eight months later by one hundred and fifty survivors. In 1540, Hernando de Soto explored the region and the main town of Cofitachequi, where he captured the queen of the Maskoki (Muscogee) and the Chelaque (Cherokee) who had welcomed him.

Later map of French Florida Floride francaise Pierre du Val.jpg
Later map of French Florida

In 1562 French Huguenots established a settlement at what is now the Charlesfort-Santa Elena archaeological site on Parris Island. Many of these settlers preferred a natural life far from civilization and the atrocities of the Wars of Religion. The garrison lacked supplies, however, and the soldiers (as in the France Antarctique) soon ran away. The French returned two years later but settled in present-day Florida rather than South Carolina. [48]

Colonization

The Carolina Colony grants of 1663 and 1665 Wpdms carolina colony grant.png
The Carolina Colony grants of 1663 and 1665

Sixty years later, in 1629, King of England Charles I established the Province of Carolina, an area covering what is now South and North Carolina, Georgia and Tennessee. In 1663, Charles II granted the land to eight Lords Proprietors in return for their financial and political assistance in restoring him to the throne in 1660. [50] Anthony Ashley Cooper, one of the Lord Proprietors, planned the Grand Model for the Province of Carolina and wrote the Fundamental Constitutions of Carolina, which laid the basis for the future colony. [51] His utopia was inspired by John Locke, an English philosopher and physician, widely regarded as one of the most influential of Enlightenment thinkers and commonly known as the "Father of Liberalism".

In the 1670s, English planters from Barbados established themselves near what is now Charleston. Settlers from all over Europe built rice plantations in the South Carolina Lowcountry, east of the Atlantic Seaboard fall line. Plantation labor was done by African slaves who formed the majority of the population by 1720. [52] Another cash crop was the Indigo plant, a plant source of blue dye, developed by Eliza Lucas.

Meanwhile, Upstate South Carolina, west of the Fall Line, was settled by small farmers and traders, who displaced Native American tribes westward. Colonists overthrew the proprietors' rule, seeking more direct representation. In 1719, the colony was officially made a crown colony. In 1729, North Carolina was split off into a separate colony.

South Carolina prospered from the fertility of the Low Country and the harbors, such as at Charleston. It allowed religious toleration, encouraging Settlements spread, and trade in deerskin, lumber, and beef thrived. Rice cultivation was developed on a large scale.

By the second half of the 1700s, South Carolina was one of the richest of the Thirteen Colonies. [52]

The American Revolution

On March 26, 1776, the colony adopted the Constitution of South Carolina, [53] electing John Rutledge as the state's first president. In February, 1778, South Carolina became the first state to ratify the Articles of Confederation, [54] the initial governing document of the United States, and in May 1788, South Carolina ratified the United States Constitution, becoming the eighth state to enter the union.

During the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), about a third of combat action took place in South Carolina, [55] more than in any other state. [52] Inhabitants of the state endured being invaded by English forces and an ongoing civil war between loyalists and partisans that devastated the backcountry. [55] It is estimated 25,000 slaves (30% of those in South Carolina) fled, migrated or died during the war. [56]

Antebellum

Millford Plantation (1839-41), an example of Greek Revival architecture Millford Plantation HABS color 2.jpg
Millford Plantation (1839–41), an example of Greek Revival architecture

America's first census in 1790 put the state's population at nearly 250,000. By the 1800 census the population had increased 38 per cent to nearly 340,000 of which 146,000 were slaves. At that time South Carolina had the largest population of Jews in the 16 United States, mostly based in Savannah and Charleston, [57] the latter being the country's fifth largest city. [58]

In the Antebellum period (before the Civil War) the state's economy and population grew. Cotton became an important crop after the invention of the cotton gin. While nominally democratic, from 1790 until 1865, wealthy landowners were in control of South Carolina. For example, a man was not eligible to sit in the State House of Representatives unless he possessed an estate of 500 acres of land and 10 Negroes, or at least 150 pounds sterling, diminishing the electorate. Further, the state maintained indirect election of electors by the state legislature until 1868, the last state to do so. Voters thus did not participate in presidential elections, other than through state-wide elections. [59]

Columbia, the new state capital was founded in the center of the state, and the State Legislature first met there in 1790. The town grew after it was connected to Charleston by the Santee Canal in 1800, one of the first canals in the United States.

As dissatisfaction with the federal government grew, in the 1820s John C. Calhoun became a leading proponent of states' rights, limited government, nullification of the U.S. Constitution, and free trade. In 1832, the Ordinance of Nullification declared federal tariff laws unconstitutional and not to be enforced in the state, leading to the Nullification Crisis. The federal Force Bill was enacted to use whatever military force necessary to enforce federal law in the state, bringing South Carolina back into line.

In the United States presidential election of 1860 voting was sharply divided, with the south voting for the Southern Democrats and the north for Abraham Lincoln's Republican Party. Lincoln was anti-slavery, did not acknowledge the right to secession, and would not yield federal property in Southern states. Southern secessionists believed Lincoln's election meant long-term doom for their slavery-based agrarian economy and social system. [60]

Lincoln was elected president on November 6, 1860. The state House of Representatives three days later passed the "Resolution to Call the Election of Abraham Lincoln as U.S. President a Hostile Act", [61] and within weeks South Carolina became the first state to secede. [52]

Civil War 1861–1865

Charleston in ruins, 1865 Broad Street Charleston South Carolina 1865.jpg
Charleston in ruins, 1865

On April 12, 1861, Confederate (southern) batteries began shelling the Union (northern) Fort Sumter in Charleston Harbor, and the American Civil War began. In November of that year the Union attacked Port Royal Sound and soon occupied Beaufort County and the neighboring Sea Islands. For the rest of the war this area served as a Union base and staging point for other operations. Whites abandoned their plantations, [62] leaving behind about ten thousand slaves. Several Northern charities partnered with the federal government to help these people run the cotton farms themselves under the Port Royal Experiment. Workers were paid by the pound harvested and thus became the first former slaves freed by the Union forces to earn wages. [63]

Although the state was not a major battleground, the war ruined the economy. Under conscription, all men aged 18–35 (later 45) were drafted for Confederate service. More than 60,000 served, [62] and the state lost nearly one-third of the white male population of fighting age. [64]

At the end of the war in early 1865, the troops of General William Tecumseh Sherman marched across the state devastating plantations and most of Columbia.

Reconstruction 1865–1877

After the war, South Carolina was restored to the United States during Reconstruction. Under presidential Reconstruction (1865–66), freedmen (former slaves) were given limited rights. Under Radical reconstruction (1867–1877), a Republican coalition of freedmen, carpetbaggers and scalawags was in control, supported by Union Army forces. They established public education, welfare institutions, and home rule for counties, expanding democracy.[ citation needed ]

In Texas vs. White (1869), the Supreme Court ruled the ordinances of secession (including that of South Carolina) were invalid, and thus those states had never left the Union. However, South Carolina did not regain representation in Congress until that date.

Until the 1868 presidential election, South Carolina's legislature, not the voters, chose the state's electors for the presidential election. South Carolina was the last state to choose its electors in this manner. On October 19, 1871 President Ulysses S. Grant suspended habeas corpus in nine South Carolina counties under the authority of the Ku Klux Klan Act. [65] Led by Grant's Attorney General Amos T. Akerman, hundreds of Klansmen were arrested while 2000 Klansmen fled the state. [65] This was done to suppress Klan violence against African-American and white voters in the South. [65] In the mid to late 1870s, white Democrats used paramilitary groups such as the Red Shirts to intimidate and terrorize black voters. They regained political control of the state under conservative white "Redeemers" and pro-business Bourbon Democrats. In 1877, the federal government withdrew its troops as part of the Compromise of 1877 that ended Reconstruction.

Populist and agrarian movements

The state became a hotbed of racial and economic tensions during the Populist and Agrarian movements of the 1890s. A Republican-Populist biracial coalition took power away from White Democrats temporarily. To prevent that from happening again, Democrats gained passage of a new constitution in 1895 which effectively disenfranchised almost all blacks and many poor whites by new requirements for poll taxes, residency, and literacy tests that dramatically reduced the voter rolls. By 1896, only 5,500 black voters remained on the voter registration rolls, although they constituted a majority of the state's population. [66] The 1900 census demonstrated the extent of disenfranchisement: the 782,509 African American citizens comprised more than 58% of the state's population, but they were essentially without any political representation in the Jim Crow society. [67]

The 1895 constitution overturned local representative government, reducing the role of the counties to agents of state government, effectively ruled by the General Assembly, through the legislative delegations for each county. As each county had one state senator, that person had considerable power. The counties lacked representative government until home rule was passed in 1975. [44]

Governor "Pitchfork Ben Tillman", a Populist, led the effort to disenfranchise the blacks and poor whites, although he controlled Democratic state politics from the 1890s to 1910 with a base among poor white farmers. During the constitutional convention in 1895, he supported another man's proposal that the state adopt a one-drop rule, as well as prohibit marriage between whites and anyone with any known African ancestry.

Some members of the convention realized prominent white families with some African ancestry could be affected by such legislation. In terms similar to a debate in Virginia in 1853 on a similar proposal (which was dropped), George Dionysius Tillman said in opposition:

If the law is made as it now stands respectable families in Aiken, Barnwell, Colleton, and Orangeburg will be denied the right to intermarry among people with whom they are now associated and identified. At least one hundred families would be affected to my knowledge. They have sent good soldiers to the Confederate Army, and are now landowners and taxpayers. Those men served creditably, and it would be unjust and disgraceful to embarrass them in this way. It is a scientific fact that there is not one full-blooded Caucasian on the floor of this convention. Every member has in him a certain mixture of ... colored blood. The pure-blooded white has needed and received a certain infusion of darker blood to give him readiness and purpose. It would be a cruel injustice and the source of endless litigation, of scandal, horror, feud, and bloodshed to undertake to annul or forbid marriage for a remote, perhaps obsolete trace of Negro blood. The doors would be open to scandal, malice and greed; to statements on the witness stand that the father or grandfather or grandmother had said that A or B had Negro blood in their veins. Any man who is half a man would be ready to blow up half the world with dynamite to prevent or avenge attacks upon the honor of his mother in the legitimacy or purity of the blood of his father. [68] [69] [70] [71]

The state postponed such a one-drop law for years. Virginian legislators adopted a one-drop law in 1924, forgetting that their state had many people of mixed ancestry among those who identified as white.

20th century

Some children went to school half a day and worked before school, and several hours after school--and eight or nine hours on Saturday. Some of the children who go to school half a day.jpg
Some children went to school half a day and worked before school, and several hours after school—and eight or nine hours on Saturday.

Early in the 20th century, South Carolina developed a thriving textile industry. The state also converted its agricultural base from cotton to more profitable crops; attracted large military bases through its powerful Democratic congressional delegation, part of the one-party South following disfranchisement of blacks at the turn of the century; and created tourism industries. During the early part of the 20th Century, millions of African Americans left South Carolina and other southern states for jobs, opportunities and relative freedom in U.S. cities outside the former Confederate states. In total from 1910 to 1970, 6.5 million blacks left the South in the Great Migration. By 1930 South Carolina had a white majority [72] for the first time since 1708.

South Carolina was one of several states that initially rejected the Nineteenth Amendment (1920) giving women the right to vote. The South Carolina legislature later ratified the amendment on July 1, 1969.

See also: Civil Rights movement in South Carolina

The struggle of the civil rights movement took place in South Carolina as they did in other Southern states. However, South Carolina experienced a much less violent movement than other Southern states. [73] This tranquil transition from a Jim Crow society occurred because the state's white and black leaders were willing to accept slow change rather than being utterly unwilling to accept change at all. [74] Other South Carolinians, like Sen. Strom Thurmond, on the other hand, were among the nation's most radical and effective opponents of social equality and integration.

21st century

As of 2015, South Carolina had one of the lowest percentages among all states of women in state legislature, at 13.5% (only Louisiana, Oklahoma, and Wyoming had a lower percentage; the national average is 24.3%; with the highest percentage being in Colorado at 41%). [75] In 2011, South Carolina ranked first in the country in the rate of women killed by men. [76]

As the 21st century progresses, South Carolina attracts new business by having a 5% corporate income tax rate, no state property tax, no local income tax, no inventory tax, no sales tax on manufacturing equipment, industrial power or materials for finished products; no wholesale tax, no unitary tax on worldwide profits. [77]

South Carolina was one of the first states to stop paying for 'early elective' deliveries of babies, under either Medicaid and private insurance. The term early elective is defined as a labor induction or Cesarean section between 37–39 weeks that is not medically based. This change is intended to result in healthier babies and fewer unnecessary costs for South Carolina. [78]

On November 20, 2014, South Carolina became the 35th state to legalize same-sex marriages, when a federal court ordered the change. [79]

Culture

Arts

South Carolina has many venues for visual and performing arts. The Gibbes Museum of Art in Charleston, the Greenville County Museum of Art, the Columbia Museum of Art, Spartanburg Art Museum, and the South Carolina State Museum in Columbia among others provide access to visual arts to the state. There are also numerous historic sites and museums scattered throughout the state paying homage to many events and periods in the state's history from Native American inhabitation to the present day.

South Carolina also has performing art venues including the Peace Center in Greenville, the Koger Center for the Arts in Columbia, and the Newberry Opera House, among others to bring local, national, and international talent to the stages of South Carolina. Several large venues can house major events, including Colonial Life Arena in Columbia, Bon Secours Wellness Arena in Greenville, and North Charleston Coliseum.

One of the nation's major performing arts festivals, Spoleto Festival USA, is held annually in Charleston. There are also countless local festivals throughout the state highlighting many cultural traditions, historical events, and folklore.

According to the South Carolina Arts Commission, creative industries generate $9.2 billion annually and support over 78,000 jobs in the state. [80] A 2009 statewide poll by the University of South Carolina Institute for Public Service and Policy Research found that 67% of residents had participated in the arts in some form during the past year and on average citizens had participated in the arts 14 times in the previous year.

Religion in South Carolina [81]

  Historically Black Protestant (15%)
  Catholic (10%)
  Other Christian (2%)
  Other (2%)
  Unaffiliated ("none") (19%)
  Don't Know (1%)

Religion

According to the Association of Religion Data Archives (ARDA), in 2010 the largest denominations were the Southern Baptist Convention with 913,763 adherents, the United Methodist Church with 274,111 adherents, and the Roman Catholic Church with 181,743 adherents. Fourth largest is the African Methodist Episcopal Church with 564 congregations and 121,000 members and fifth largest is the Presbyterian Church (USA) with 320 congregations and almost 100,000 members. [82]

As of 2010, South Carolina is the American state with the highest per capita proportion of Baha'is with 17,559 adherents, [83] making the Baha'i Faith the second largest religion in the state. [84]

Sports

Although no major league professional sports teams are based in South Carolina, the Carolina Panthers do have training facilities in the state and played their inaugural season's home games at Clemson's Memorial Stadium, however, they currently play in North Carolina. The Panthers consider themselves "The Carolinas' Team" and refrained from naming themselves after Charlotte or either of the Carolinas. The state is also home to numerous minor league professional teams. College teams represent their particular South Carolina institutions, and are the primary options for football, basketball and baseball attendance in the state. South Carolina is also a top destination for golf and water sports.

South Carolina is also home to one of NASCAR's first tracks and its first paved speedway, Darlington Raceway northwest of Florence.

Economy and infrastructure

The Arthur Ravenel Jr. Bridge from Charleston Harbor Arthur Ravenel Bridge (from water).jpg
The Arthur Ravenel Jr. Bridge from Charleston Harbor

According to the U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, South Carolina's gross state product (GSP) in current dollars was $97 billion in 1997 and $153 billion in 2007. Its per-capita real gross domestic product (GDP) in chained 2000 dollars was $26,772 in 1997 and $28,894 in 2007; that represents 85% of the $31,619 per-capita real GDP for the United States overall in 1997, and 76% of the $38,020 for the U.S. in 2007. The state debt in 2012 was calculated by one source to be $22.9bn, or $7,800 per taxpayer. [86]

Major agricultural outputs of the state are tobacco, poultry, cotton, cattle, dairy products, soybeans, hay, rice, and swine. Industrial outputs include textile goods, chemical products, paper products, machinery, automobiles, automotive products and tourism. [87] [88] According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, as of March 2012, South Carolina had 1,852,700 nonfarm jobs of which 12% are in manufacturing, 11.5% are in leisure and hospitality, 19% are in trade, transportation, and utilities, and 11.8% are in education and health services. The service sector accounts for 83.7% of the South Carolina economy. [89]

Many large corporations have moved their locations to South Carolina. Boeing opened an aircraft manufacturing facility in Charleston in 2011, which serves as one of two final assembly sites for the 787 Dreamliner. South Carolina is a right-to-work state [90] and many businesses utilize staffing agencies to temporarily fill positions. Domtar, in Rock Hill, is the only Fortune 500 company headquartered in South Carolina. [91] The Fortune 1000 list includes SCANA, Sonoco Products and ScanSource.

South Carolina also benefits from foreign investment. There are 1,950 foreign-owned firms operating in South Carolina employing almost 135,000 people. [92] Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) brought 1.06 billion dollars to the state economy in 2010. [93] Since 1994, BMW has had a production facility in Spartanburg County near Greer and since 1996 the Zapp Group operates in Summerville near Charleston.

Media

There are 36 TV stations (including PBS affiliates) serving South Carolina with terrestrial, and some online streaming access. Markets in which the stations are located include Columbia, Florence, Allendale, Myrtle Beach, Greenville, Charleston, Conway, Beaufort, Hardeeville, Spartanburg, Greenwood, Anderson and Sumter.

Transportation

Roads

I-26 (SC).svg
US 76.svg
South Carolina 9.svg

The state has the fourth largest state-maintained system in the country, consisting of 11 Interstates, numbered highways, state highways, and secondary roads, totalling approximately 41,500 miles. [94]

On secondary roads, South Carolina uses a numbering system to keep track of all non-interstate and primary highways that the South Carolina Department of Transportation maintains. Secondary roads are numbered by the number of the county followed by a unique number for the particular road.

Rail

Passenger rail
Amtrak operates four passenger routes in South Carolina: the Crescent , the Palmetto , the Silver Meteor , and the Silver Star . The Crescent route serves the Upstate cities, the Silver Star serves the Midlands cities, and the Palmetto and Silver Meteor routes serve the low country cities.

Station stops

StationConnections
Camden
North Charleston
   Palmetto
Columbia
Clemson
   Crescent
Denmark
Dillon
   Palmetto
Florence
   Palmetto
Greenville
   Crescent
Kingstree
   Palmetto
Spartanburg
   Crescent
Yemassee
   Palmetto

Freight
CSX Transportation and Norfolk Southern are the only Class I railroad companies in South Carolina, as other freight companies in the state are short lines.

Major and regional airports

There are seven significant airports in South Carolina, all of which act as regional airport hubs. The busiest by passenger volume is Charleston International Airport. [95] Just across the border in North Carolina is Charlotte/Douglas International Airport, the 30th busiest airport in the world, in terms of passengers. [96]

Education

As of 2010, South Carolina is one of three states that have not agreed to use competitive international math and language standards. [97]

In 2014, the South Carolina Supreme Court ruled the state had failed to provide a "minimally adequate" education to children in all parts of the state as required by the state's constitution. [98]

South Carolina has 1,144 K–12 schools in 85 school districts with an enrollment of 712,244 as of fall 2009. [99] [100] As of the 2008–2009 school year, South Carolina spent $9,450 per student which places it 31st in the country for per student spending. [101]

In 2015, the national average SAT score was 1490 and the South Carolina average was 1442, 48 points lower than the national average. [102]

South Carolina is the only state which owns and operates a statewide school bus system. As of December 2016, the state maintains a 5,582-bus fleet with the average vehicle in service being fifteen years old (the national average is six) having logged 236,000 miles. [103] Half of the state's school buses are more than 15 years old and some are reportedly up to 30 years old. In 2017 in the budget proposal, Superintendent of Education Molly Spearman requested the state lease to purchase 1,000 buses to replace the most decrepit vehicles. An additional 175 buses could be purchased immediately through the State Treasurer's master lease program. [104] On January 5, 2017, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency awarded South Carolina more than $1.1 million to replace 57 school buses with new cleaner models through its Diesel Emissions Reduction Act program. [105]

Institutions of higher education

South Carolina has diverse institutions from large state-funded research universities to small colleges that cultivate a liberal arts, religious or military tradition.

Furman University bell tower near Greenville Furman-Belltower2.jpg
Furman University bell tower near Greenville

Universities and colleges ranked by endowment, 2010

State
Rank
National
Rank
InstitutionLocationPublic or
Private
Endowment FundsPercentage Change YOY
1142 Furman University Greenville Private$650,000,0007.8%
2151 University of South Carolina Columbia &
regional campuses
Public$625,186,0006.0%
3153 Clemson University Clemson Public$623,200,0009.5%
4236 Medical University of South Carolina Charleston Public$272,319,00013.7%
5270 The Citadel Charleston Public$244,000,0008.1%
6324 Wofford College Spartanburg Private$166,619,00010.2%
7447 Presbyterian College Clinton Private$97,590,00011.0%
8530 Converse College Spartanburg Private$78,240,0046.4%
9782 Winthrop University Rock Hill Public$43,600,00013.6%
10658 Coker College Hartsville Private$37,660,0004.9%

[109]

Health care

For overall health care, South Carolina is ranked 33rd out of the 50 states, according to the Commonwealth Fund, a private health foundation working to improve the health care system. [110] The state's teen birth rate was 53 births per 1,000 teens, compared to the national average of 41.9 births, according to the Kaiser Family Foundation. [111] The state's infant mortality rate was 9.4 deaths per 1,000 births compared to the national average of 6.9 deaths. [112]

There were 2.6 physicians per 1,000 people compared to the national average of 3.2 physicians. [113] There was $5,114 spent on health expenses per capita in the state, compared to the national average of $5,283. [114] There were 26 percent of children and 13 percent of elderly living in poverty in the state, compared to 23 percent and 13 percent, respectively, doing so in the U.S. [115] And, 34 percent of children were overweight or obese, compared to the national average of 32 percent. [116]

See also

Notes

    1. Mean monthly maxima and minima (i.e. the expected highest and lowest temperature readings at any point during the year or given month) calculated based on data at said location from 1981 to 2010.
    2. Official records for Greenville kept April 1884 to 10 December 1941 at downtown, 11 December 1941 to 14 October 1962 at Greenville Downtown Airport, and at Greenville–Spartanburg Int'l near Greer since 15 October 1962. For more information, see Threadex
    3. Mean monthly maxima and minima (i.e. the expected highest and lowest temperature readings at any point during the year or given month) calculated based on data at said location from 1981 to 2010.
    4. Official records for Columbia were kept at downtown from June 1887 to December 1947, and at Columbia Airport since January 1948. For more information, see Threadex

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    List of TV stations in South Carolina: Television Stations - Station Index

    Preceded by
    Maryland
    List of U.S. states by date of admission to the Union
    Ratified Constitution on May 23, 1788 (8th)
    Succeeded by
    New Hampshire