South Moravian Region

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South Moravian Region
Jihomoravský kraj
Mikulov pohled 2.jpg
Flag of South Moravian Region.svg
South Moravian Region CoA CZ.svg
Jihomoravsky kraj in Czech Republic.svg
Country Czech Republic
Capital Brno
Districts Blansko District, Břeclav District, Brno-City District, Brno-Country District, Hodonín District, Vyškov District, Znojmo District
Government
  GovernorJan Grolich (KDU-ČSL)
Area
  Total7,187.8 km2 (2,775.2 sq mi)
Highest elevation
819 m (2,687 ft)
Population
 (2019-01-01 [1] )
  Total1,187,667
  Density170/km2 (430/sq mi)
ISO 3166 code CZ-64
Vehicle registration B
Website www.kr-jihomoravsky.cz

The South Moravian Region (Czech : Jihomoravský kraj; German : Südmährische Region, pronounced [zyːtˈmɛːʁɪʃə ʁeˈɡi̯oːn] ; Slovak : Juhomoravský kraj) is an administrative unit (kraj) of the Czech Republic, located in the south-western part of its historical region of Moravia (an exception is Jobova Lhota which traditionally belongs to Bohemia). The region's capital is Brno, the nation's 2nd largest city. South Moravia is bordered by the South Bohemian Region (west), Vysočina Region (north-west), Pardubice Region (north), Olomouc Region (north east), Zlín Region (east), Trenčín and Trnava Regions, Slovakia (south east) and Lower Austria, Austria (south).

Contents

Administrative divisions

The South Moravian Region is divided into 7 districts (Czech: okres):

South Moravia districts.png
Districts of South Moravia Region
   Blansko
   Břeclav
   Brno City
   Brno-Venkov (Brno Country)
   Hodonín
   Vyškov
   Znojmo

There are in total 673 municipalities in the region, of which 49 have the status of towns. There are 21 municipalities with extended powers and 34 municipalities with a delegated municipal office. [2]

The region is famous for its wine production. The area around the towns of Mikulov, Znojmo, Velké Pavlovice along with the Slovácko region provide 94% of the Czech Republic's vineyards.

Population

The region has approximately 1,188,000 inhabitants. The net migration has been positive in all years since 2003, reaching its peak in 2007 when it reached 7,374 people. Since 2007 the region has also experienced natural population growth. In 2012 there were 37 thousand foreigners living in the region, forming 3.2% of the total population of the region.

The average age of citizens in the region was 42.4 years in 2019. [1] The average age has grown by 5 years over the last two decades. The life expectancy at birth in 2012 was 75.2 years for men and 81.7 years for women. Life expectancy has been growing over recent years. The divorce-marriage ratio in the region was 60.3 in 2012. [3]

One third of the region's population lives in the capital Brno. The share of inhabitants living in towns and cities on the total population of the region has been steadily decreasing due to suburbanization. The table below displays 12 municipalities with the highest number of inhabitants in the region (as of 1 January 2019): [4]

NamePopulationArea (km2) District
Flag of Brno.svg Brno 380,681230 Brno-City District
Flag of Znojmo.svg Znojmo 33,78066 Znojmo District
Flag of Breclav.svg Břeclav 24,70477 Břeclav District
Flag of Hodonin.svg Hodonín 24,68263 Hodonín District
Vlajka mesta Vyskova.svg Vyškov 20,88350 Vyškov District
Flag of Blansko.svg Blansko 20,57245 Blansko District
Flag of Boskovice.svg Boskovice 11,62228 Blansko District
Kyjov HO CZ flag.gif Kyjov 11,21830 Hodonín District
Flag of Veseli nad Moravou.svg Veselí nad Moravou 11,00635 Hodonín District
Kurim-vlajka.png Kuřim 10,99717 Brno-Country District
Ivancice flag.svg Ivančice 9,74248 Brno-Country District
Tisnov CZ flag.gif Tišnov 9,25717 Brno-Country District

Geography

With an area of 7,187.8 km2 [2] the South Moravian Region is the fourth largest region of the Czech Republic. The highest point of the region is located in the eastern part on Durda mountain (842 m). The point with the lowest elevation (150 m) is situated in Břeclav District at the meeting of the rivers Morava and Dyje.

The northern and north-western part of the region is covered by the Bohemian-Moravian Highlands (Czech: Českomoravská vrchovina) and the Moravian Karst. There is an extensive cave complex in the Moravian Karst with a 138.5 m depth in the Macocha Gorge in the Punkva Caves. In the eastern part, the region reaches to the Carpathian Mountains. The Bohemian-Moravian Highlands and the Carpathian Mountains are separated by the Lower-Moravian Valley (Czech: Dolnomoravský úval). The southern part of the region is predominantly flat and dominated by fields, meadows, and the remainders of riparian forests.

The largest river of the region is the Morava river. Other significant rivers are the Dyje, Svratka (and its tributary the Svitava), which are all tributaries of the Morava river. The whole region belongs to the drainage basin of the Danube and subsequently of the Black Sea.

There are a number of landscape parks (Czech: chráněná krajinná oblast) located across the region: the White Carpathians Landscape Park, the Moravian Karst Landscape Park and Pálava Landscape Park. Moreover, Podyjí National Park is situated in the south-eastern part of the region.

Major events

2021 tornado

On the evening of 24 June 2021, a large F4 tornado, [5] the most powerful in modern Czech Republic history, [6] devastated multiple villages within the Břeclav and Hodonín districts. It killed at least 6 people [7] and injured at least 200 others. [8] This tornado was one of seven that touched down in Europe that day. It is estimated that this tornado caused over 15 billion CZK in damages.

Living conditions

In 2016, three-quarters of households in the region had a computer and 75% of the households had Internet connection. [9] There were in total 781 thousand motor vehicles, of which 482 thousand were cars and 110 thousand were motorbikes.

The unemployment rate in the region was 4.3% as of October 2017. [10]

Economy

The nominal gross domestic product of the South Moravian Region was 397.2 billion CZK in 2011, which is 10.3% of the national GDP. Among other regions, South Moravian Region had the third largest share on the national GDP. The GDP per capita was 341,000 CZK in the same period, which is 93.6% of the national average.

Office towers in Brno Trojcata na Sumavske I.jpg
Office towers in Brno

Mechanical engineering has an essential role in the economy of the region. Important centers of mechanical engineering are Brno (PBS, Siemens, Zetor Brno), Blansko (ČKD Blansko, Metra Blansko), Kuřim (TOS Kuřim), Boskovice (Minerva, Novibra) and Břeclav (OTIS). Electrical engineering has a tradition for more than a century. Significant producers are Siemens Drásov, VUES Brno and ZPA Brno. Food industry forms another important sector, especially in the southern and eastern part of the region. Important activities are the meat processing, canning of fruits and vegetables (Znojmia, Fruta), sugar industry, brewing (Starobrno, Černá Hora, Vyškov and Hostan) and winemaking (Znovín Znojmo, Vinium Velké Pavlovice). Chemical and pharmaceutical industry is concentrated especially in Brno (Pliva-Lachema), Ivanovice na Hané (Bioveta) and Veverská Bítýška (Hartmann Rico).

The South-Moravian Region has an important role in the nation and international transit. It is served by a network of motorways and roads of almost 4,500 km. The motorways D1 and D2 and the expressways R43 and R52 form the skeleton of the road network in the region. Brno is an important crossing of road and railway transport and a hub of the integrated regional public transport system.

Brno has an international airport Brno–Tuřany. The airport was opened in 1954 and in 2012 it served 535 thousand passengers.

The agricultural land covers 426 thousand ha, which is 59.3% of all land in the regions. The arable land occupies 49% of the total area. Znojmo District and Vyškov District have the highest proportion of arable land in the region. The agricultural production is oriented on the production of cereals, rapeseed and sugar beet. Other important agricultural sectors in the region are viticulture, fruit farming and vegetable growing. The viticulture is especially developed in Břeclav District, which has 46% of the total area of Czech vineyards.

Places of interest

See also

Related Research Articles

Moravia Historical region in the Czech Republic

Moravia is a historical region in the east of the Czech Republic and one of three historical Czech lands, with Bohemia and Czech Silesia.

Znojmo Town in the Czech Republic

Znojmo is a town in the South Moravian Region of the Czech Republic, the administrative capital of the Znojmo District. It has about 34,000 inhabitants. Including the surrounding municipalities, the population reaches up to 40,000 people. Znojmo is the historical and cultural centre of southwestern Moravia and the second most populated town in the South Moravian Region. The historical centre of Znojmo is well preserved and historically significant and is protected as an urban monument reservation.

Outer Subcarpathia

Outer Subcarpathia denotes the depression area at the outer base of the Carpathian arc, including foothills of the Outer Western Carpathians and Outer Eastern Carpathians. It stretches from northeastern Austria, through eastern Czech Republic, southern Poland, western Ukraine and northeastern Romania.

Thaya

The Thaya is a river in Central Europe, the longest tributary to the river Morava. It is 224 km (139 mi) long and meanders from west to east in the border area between Lower Austria (Austria) and South Moravia, though the frontier does not exactly follow the river's course in most parts. Its source is in two smaller rivers, namely the German Thaya and the Moravian Thaya, flowing together at Raabs.

Břeclav Town in South Moravian, Czech Republic

Břeclav is a town in the South Moravian Region of the Czech Republic. It has about 25,000 inhabitants. On the evening of June 24, 2021, the South Moravia Tornado first touched down east of the town.

Moravian Karst

The Moravian Karst is a karst landscape and protected nature reserve to the north of Brno in the eastern part of the Czech Republic, located near the town of Blansko. It encompasses a number of notable geological features, including roughly 1100 caverns and gorges and covers an area of roughly 92 km². Currently, five of the cave systems are open for public tours; another - Amatérská Cave, Býčí skála Cave or Stránská skála only for science exploration.

Macocha Gorge

The Macocha Abyss, also known as the Macocha Gorge, is a sinkhole in the Moravian Karst cave system of the Czech Republic located north of the city of Brno, near the town of Blansko. It is part of the Punkva Caves and the Punkva River flows through it. The sinkhole is about 138.7 meters deep, which makes it the deepest of its kind in Central Europe. It is a popular tourist attraction for casual visitors to the region, in addition to cavers and advanced technical divers.

Punkva

Punkva is a 29 km (18 mi) long river in South Moravia, Czech Republic. It is a Subterranean river in the Moravian Karst and a left tributary of the Svitava. It is the longest underground river in the Czech Republic.

Podhradí nad Dyjí Municipality in South Moravian, Czech Republic

Podhradí nad Dyjí is a village and municipality (obec) in Znojmo District in the South Moravian Region of the Czech Republic.

EV9 The Amber Route

EuroVelo 9 (EV9), named the Amber Route - is a 1,930 km (1,200 mi) long EuroVelo long-distance cycling route running from the city of Gdańsk, Poland on the Baltic Sea to Pula, Croatia on the Adriatic Sea. It is called the Amber Route as historically the precious stone amber found in the Baltic region was taken by routes such as this to the Mediterranean Sea. This north-south cycle route runs through Central Europe and passes successively through six countries: Poland, Czech Republic, Austria, Slovenia, Italy, and Croatia.

Vyškov Gate

The Vyškov Gate is a geomorphological feature in the Moravia. It is formed by the depression between the Western Carpathian Mountains in the east and the Bohemian massif in the west. The drainage divide between the upper River Haná to the River Morava of the Danube basin runs through it and Rakovec brook. The gate is between the Upper Morava Vale and the Dyje–Svratka Vale, all in Outer Subcarpathian depression.

Brno Highlands

The Brno Highlands is a mountain range in Moravia, Czech Republic. The Highlands, together with the Jevišovice Highlands threshold, form the South-Moravian part of Moldanubian Zone - east south part of Bohemian Massif.

Dyje–Svratka Valley

The Dyje–Svratka Valley is a geomorphological feature in Moravia. The highest prominence over the Dyje–Svratka Valley is Děvín Peak at 549 metres (1,801 ft).

Lower Morava Valley

The Lower Morava Valley is a Geomorphological formation in the Moravia. It is formed by the depression in the Western Carpathians in the west and Bílé Karpaty and Chvojnice hills in the east. The drainage to the River Morava of the Danube basin runs finally to the Black Sea.

Děvín in Moravia (Pavlov Hills)

Děvín German: Mayden Berg; ; is the highest (double-peaked) mountain of Pavlov Hills, northern part of, Moravia Czech Republic. Located nearby of the historical border between Austria and Moravia (9,2 km), and right on trace where runs line of drainage divide of Upper Dyje drainage and Dyje/Morava mesodrainage.

The Punkva Caves are a cave system of the Czech Republic located north of the city of Brno, near the town of Blansko. The Punkva River flows through it. Part of it is the Macocha Gorge, its sinkhole is about 138.7 meters deep and also the deepest of its kind in Central Europe. It is a popular tourist attraction for casual visitors to the region, in addition to cavers and advanced technical divers.

References

  1. 1 2 "Population of territorial units of the Czech republic". Czech Statistical Office. Retrieved 30 April 2019.
  2. 1 2 "Brief characteristics of South Moravian Region". South Moravian Region. Retrieved 22 May 2019.
  3. Základní tendence demografického, sociálního a ekonomického vývoje Jihomoravského kraje v roce 2012, Available online at: http://www.czso.cz/xb/redakce.nsf/i/zakladni_tendence_vyvoje_jihomoravskeho_kraje_v_roce_2012/$File/text_cely.pdf
  4. "Population of municipalities of the Czech republic". Czech Statistical Office. Retrieved 30 April 2019.
  5. televize, Česká. "Dobrovolníků je v pracovní den na jižní Moravě méně. Kraj odhaduje škody po tornádu a bouřích na 15 miliard". ČT24 - Nejdůvěryhodnější zpravodajský web v ČR - Česká televize (in Czech). Retrieved 29 June 2021.
  6. Korosec, Author Marko (25 June 2021). "The most powerful tornado on record hit the Czech Republic, leaving several fatalities and 200+ injured across the Hodonin district". Severe Weather Europe. Retrieved 29 June 2021.
  7. "Šestá oběť bouřek na jižní Moravě: v brněnské nemocnici zemřelo dítě". iDNES.cz (in Czech). 27 June 2021. Retrieved 29 June 2021.
  8. ""Hölle auf Erden": Tote und Hunderte Verletzte nach Tornado in Tschechien". kurier.at (in German). 25 June 2021. Retrieved 29 June 2021.
  9. "2f15470b-e9cc-4779-bc7e-1518969a5455".
  10. "Podíl nezaměstnaných v Jihomoravském kraji | ČSÚ v Brně". www.czso.cz. Retrieved 29 June 2021.

Coordinates: 49°10′N16°35′E / 49.167°N 16.583°E / 49.167; 16.583