South Orkney Islands

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South Orkney Islands
Signy Island Panorama.jpg
Signy Island base and panorama
South Orkney Islands-en.svg
Map of the South Orkney Islands
Geography
Area620 km2 (240 sq mi)
Highest elevation4,153 ft (1265.8 m)
Administration
Administered under the Antarctic Treaty System
Demographics
Populationapprox. 53-55 (Summer) 14 (Winter)

The South Orkney Islands are a group of islands in the Southern Ocean, about 604 kilometres (375 mi) north-east of the tip of the Antarctic Peninsula [1] and 844 kilometres (524 mi) south-west of South Georgia Island. They have a total area of about 620 square kilometres (240 sq mi). The islands are claimed both by Britain (as part of the British Antarctic Territory since 1962, previously as a Falkland Islands Dependency), and by Argentina as part of Argentine Antarctica. Under the 1959 Antarctic Treaty, sovereignty claims are held in abeyance.

Contents

South Orkney Islands
The South Orkney Islands are a group of islands in the Southern Ocean, about 604 kilometres (375 mi) north-east of the tip of the Antarctic Peninsula.

Britain and Argentina both maintain bases on the islands. The Argentine base, Orcadas, established 1904, is sited on Laurie Island. The 11 buildings of the Argentine station house up to 45 people during the summer, and an average of 14 during winter. The British Antarctic Survey base, Signy Research Station, is located on Signy Island and was established in 1947. Initially operated year-round, since 1995/6 the Signy Research Station has been open only from November to April each year (southern hemisphere summer).

Apart from personnel at the bases, there are no permanent inhabitants on the islands.

History

Signy Island base Factory Cove - Signy Island.jpg
Signy Island base

The South Orkney Islands were discovered in 1821 by two sealers, the American Nathaniel Brown Palmer and the British George Powell. The Islands were originally named Powell's Group, with the main island named Coronation Island as it was the year of the coronation of King George IV. In 1823, James Weddell visited the Islands, gave the archipelago its present name (after the Orkney Islands in the north of Scotland) and also renamed some of the islands. The South Orkney Islands are located at roughly the same latitude south as the Orkney Islands are north (60°S vs 59°N), although it is not known if this was a factor behind the naming of the islands.

Subsequently, the islands were frequently visited by sealers and whalers, but no thorough survey was done until the expedition of William Speirs Bruce on the Scotia in 1903, which overwintered at Laurie Island. Bruce surveyed the islands, reverted some of Weddell's name changes, and established a meteorological station, which was sold to the Argentine Government upon his departure in 1904. This base, renamed Orcadas in 1951, is still in operation today and is thus the oldest research station continuously staffed in the Antarctic.

A 1944 stamp of the Falkland Islands overprinted for use in the South Orkneys. 1944 FID South Orkneys 6d stamp.jpg
A 1944 stamp of the Falkland Islands overprinted for use in the South Orkneys.

In 1908, the United Kingdom declared sovereignty over various Antarctic and South American territories "to the south of the 50th parallel of south latitude, and lying between the 20th and the 80th degrees of west longitude", including the South Orkney Islands. [2] The Islands were subsequently administered as part of the Falkland Islands Dependencies. A biological research station on Signy Island was built in 1947 by the British Antarctic Survey, and was staffed year-round until 1996, when the Station staffing was reduced to 8-10 personnel who remained only during the southern hemisphere summer (November to April each year). In 1962, the islands became part of the newly established British Antarctic Territory.

The Argentine claim to the islands dates from 1925. It was originally justified by the Argentine occupation of the Laurie Island base and later subsumed into a wider territorial claim. [3]

Geography and climate

Average air temperature readings of 1901 to 2007; NASA. ORCADAS To 1901 2007.jpg
Average air temperature readings of 1901 to 2007; NASA.

The islands are situated at latitudes about 60°30' to 60°48' S and longitudes 44°25' to 46°43' W in the Southern Ocean. As a group of islands, the South Orkney Islands are at approximately 60°35′S045°30′W / 60.583°S 45.500°W / -60.583; -45.500 .

Coordinates: 60°35′S45°30′W / 60.583°S 45.500°W / -60.583; -45.500

The archipelago comprises four main islands. Coronation Island is the largest, measuring about 30 miles (48 km) long; its highest point is Mount Nivea which rises to 4,153 feet (1,266 m) above sea level. Laurie Island is the easternmost of the islands. The other main islands are Powell and Signy. Smaller islands in the group include Robertson Islands, the Saddle Islands, and Acuña Island. The total area of the archipelago is about 240 square miles (620 km2), of which about 90 percent is glaciated. [1]

The Inaccessible Islands about 15  nmi (17 mi; 28 km) to the west are considered part of the South Orkneys.

The climate of the South Orkneys is generally cold, wet, and windy. Summers are short and cold (December to March) when the average temperatures reach about 3.5  °C (38.3  °F ) and fall to about −12.8 °C (9 °F) in July. The all time temperature range is between 12 and −44 °C (53.6 and −47.2 °F). The seas around the islands are ice-covered from late April to November.

South Orkney Trough ( 60°0′S45°0′W / 60.000°S 45.000°W / -60.000; -45.000 ) is an undersea trough named in association with the South Orkney Islands and approved 10/77 (ACUF 177).

Flora and fauna

Despite the harsh conditions the islands do support vegetation and are part of the Scotia Sea Islands tundra ecoregion, along with South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, the South Shetland Islands and Bouvet Island. All these islands lie in the cold seas below the Antarctic convergence. These areas support tundra vegetation consisting of mosses, lichens and algae, while seabirds, penguins and seals feed in the surrounding waters.

The littoral zone of the South Orkneys is biologically either lifeless or very poor. Amphipods and planarians exist under rocks, along with various algaes, chitons, and some gastropods. With increasing water depth, life becomes more varied: starfish appear beyond 2–3 meters along with sponges, urchins, and ascidians. At 8–10 meters the variety of starfish increases along with the general biomass, and below 30 meters there are vast colonies of these creatures. Two penguin species, Chinstrap (Pygoscelis antarctica) and Adélie (Pygoscelis adeliae), are present on land. [4]

Research stations

Orcadas Base Orcadas Base.jpg
Orcadas Base

The two claimant nations maintain research stations on the islands.

See also

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Orcadas Base Antarctic base

Base Orcadas is an Argentine scientific station in Antarctica, and the oldest of the stations in Antarctica still in operation. It is located on Laurie Island, one of the South Orkney Islands, at 4 meters (13.1 ft) above sea level and 170 meters (558 ft) from the coastline. Established by the Scottish National Antarctic Expedition in 1903 and transferred to the Argentine government in 1904, the base has been permanently populated since, being one of six Argentine permanent bases in Argentina's claim to Antarctica, and the first permanently inhabited base in Antarctica.

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Signy Research Station is an Antarctic research base on Signy Island, run by the British Antarctic Survey.

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Laurie Island island

Laurie Island is the second largest of the South Orkney Islands. The island is claimed by both Argentina as part of Argentine Antarctica, and the United Kingdom as part of the British Antarctic Territory. However, under the Antarctic Treaty System all sovereignty claims are frozen, as the island lies south of the parallel 60°. Buchanan Point at the north-eastern end of the island, with Cape Whitson on its south coast, are Important Bird Areas.

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Scottish National Antarctic Expedition Expedition to the Antarctic in 1902-04

The Scottish National Antarctic Expedition (SNAE), 1902–1904, was organised and led by William Speirs Bruce, a natural scientist and former medical student from the University of Edinburgh. Although overshadowed in terms of prestige by Robert Falcon Scott's concurrent Discovery Expedition, the SNAE completed a full programme of exploration and scientific work. Its achievements included the establishment of a manned meteorological station, the first in Antarctic territory, and the discovery of new land to the east of the Weddell Sea. Its large collection of biological and geological specimens, together with those from Bruce's earlier travels, led to the establishment of the Scottish Oceanographical Laboratory in 1906.

Scotia Bay

Scotia Bay is a bay 4 km (2.5 mi) wide, lying immediately east of Mossman Peninsula on the south side of Laurie Island, in the South Orkney Islands of Antarctica. It was discovered and roughly charted in the course of the joint cruise by Captain George Powell and Captain Nathaniel Palmer in 1821. It was surveyed in 1903 by the Scottish National Antarctic Expedition under William Speirs Bruce who named it for the expedition ship Scotia.

Laws Glacier

Laws Glacier is a confluent glacier system which flows into Marshall Bay on the south coast of Coronation Island, in the South Orkney Islands off Antarctica. It was surveyed in 1948–49 by the Falkland Islands Dependencies Survey (FIDS), and was named by the UK Antarctic Place-Names Committee for Richard M. Laws of the FIDS, leader and biologist at Signy Research Station in 1948 and 1949, and at South Georgia in 1951.

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Ferguslie Peninsula

Ferguslie Peninsula is a peninsula 2.4 km (1.5 mi) long, lying between Browns Bay and Macdougal Bay on the north coast of Laurie Island, in the South Orkney Islands of Antarctica. The peninsula was charted in 1903 by the Scottish National Antarctic Expedition under William Speirs Bruce, who named it for Ferguslie, the residence of James Coats, chief patron of the expedition.

Mossman Peninsula is a narrow peninsula 3 nautical miles (6 km) long, extending south from the western part of Laurie Island and separating Scotia Bay and Wilton Bay, in the South Orkney Islands of Antarctica. Point Martin lies on the eastern side of the peninsula. It was discovered in 1821 by Captains George Powell and Nathaniel Palmer, and roughly charted on Powell's map of 1822. It was surveyed in 1903 by the Scottish National Antarctic Expedition under William Speirs Bruce, who named it for Robert C. Mossman, the meteorologist of the expedition.

Mill Cove is a cove entered between Cape Anderson and Valette Island on the south coast of Laurie Island, in the South Orkney Islands off Antarctica. It was charted in 1903 by the Scottish National Antarctic Expedition under William Speirs Bruce, who named it for Hugh Robert Mill, a British geographer and polar historian.

Matthews Island

Matthews Island is the largest of the Robertson Islands in the South Orkney Islands off Antarctica. It lies immediately south-east of Coronation Island, from which it is separated by a narrow channel known as the Divide. Matthews Island was mapped as part of Coronation Island until January 1957 when a Falkland Islands Dependencies Survey (FIDS) party established its insularity. It was named by the UK Antarctic Place-Names Committee in 1959 for Drummond H. Matthews, a FIDS geologist at Signy Island in 1956.

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<i>Scotia</i> (barque) steamship and research vessel

Scotia was a barque that was built in 1872 as the Norwegian whaler Hekla. She was purchased in 1902 by William Speirs Bruce and refitted as a research vessel for use by the Scottish National Antarctic Expedition. After the expedition, she served as a sealer, patrol vessel and collier. She was destroyed by fire in January 1916.

References

  1. 1 2 Antarctica: Secrets of the Southern Continent p. 122, David McGonigal, 2009
  2. International law for Antarctica p. 652, Francesco Francioni and Tullio Scovazzi, 1996
  3. Exploring polar frontiers: a historical encyclopedia, Volume 2, pp. 34–35, William James Mills, 2003
  4. Maurice Schwartz (8 November 2006). Encyclopedia of Coastal Science. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 87. ISBN   978-1-4020-3880-8.