Southeast Region, Brazil

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Southeast Region
Região Sudeste
Region
Southeast Region in Brazil.svg
Location of Southeast Region in Brazil
Coordinates: 23°33′S46°38′W / 23.550°S 46.633°W / -23.550; -46.633 Coordinates: 23°33′S46°38′W / 23.550°S 46.633°W / -23.550; -46.633
Country Flag of Brazil.svg  Brazil
States ES, MG, RJ and SP
Area
   Region 924,511.3 km2 (356,955.8 sq mi)
Area rank 4th
Population (2010 census)
   Region 80,353,724
  Rank 1st
  Density87/km2 (230/sq mi)
  Density rank 1st
   Urban 97%
GDP
  Year2015  estimate
  TotalUS$1,737 trillion (PPP) US$981.445 billions(1st)
  Per capitaUS$19,990 (PPP) US$11,294(1st)
HDI
  Year2015
  Category0.782 high (2nd)
   Life expectancy 77.5 years (2nd)
   Infant mortality 18.3 per 1,000 (4th)
   Literacy 94% (2nd)
Time zone UTC-03 (BRT)
  Summer (DST) UTC-02 (BRST)

The Southeast Region of Brazil (Portuguese : Região Sudeste do Brasil) is composed by the states of Espírito Santo, Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo. It is the richest region of the country, responsible for approximately 60% of the Brazilian GDP. São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, and Minas Gerais are three richest states of Brazil, the top three Brazilian states in terms of GDP. The Southeast of Brazil also has the highest GDP per capita among all Brazilian regions.

Brazil Federal republic in South America

Brazil, officially the Federative Republic of Brazil, is the largest country in both South America and Latin America. At 8.5 million square kilometers and with over 208 million people, Brazil is the world's fifth-largest country by area and the fifth most populous. The capital is Brasília, and the most populated city is São Paulo. The federation is composed of the union of the 26 states, the Federal District, and the 5,570 municipalities. It is the largest country to have Portuguese as an official language and the only one in the Americas; it is also one of the most multicultural and ethnically diverse nations, due to over a century of mass immigration from around the world.

Portuguese language Romance language that originated in Portugal

Portuguese is a Western Romance language originating in the Iberian Peninsula. It is the sole official language of Portugal, Brazil, Cape Verde, Guinea-Bissau, Mozambique, Angola, and São Tomé and Príncipe. It also has co-official language status in East Timor, Equatorial Guinea and Macau in China. As the result of expansion during colonial times, a cultural presence of Portuguese and Portuguese creole speakers are also found in Goa, Daman and Diu in India; in Batticaloa on the east coast of Sri Lanka; in the Indonesian island of Flores; in the Malacca state of Malaysia; and the ABC islands in the Caribbean where Papiamento is spoken, while Cape Verdean Creole is the most widely spoken Portuguese-based Creole. A Portuguese-speaking person or nation may be referred to as "Lusophone" in both English and Portuguese.

Espírito Santo State of Brazil

Espírito Santo is a state in southeastern Brazil. Its capital is Vitória, and its largest city is the nearby Vila Velha. With an extensive coastline, the state hosts some of the country's main ports, and its beaches are significant tourist attractions.

Contents

The Southeast region leads the country in population, urban population, population density, vehicles, industries, universities, airports, ports, highways, hospitals, schools, houses and many other areas.

Geography

Climate classification for Southeastern Brazil, according to the Koppen criteria. Clima da Regiao Sudeste (Koppen).svg
Climate classification for Southeastern Brazil, according to the Köppen criteria.
Ipe in Campinas. Ipes lilas na coronel quirino cambui 001.jpg
Ipê in Campinas.

Heart of the largest continued remnant of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest, the Ribeira Valley is a Natural Heritage of Humanity, granted heritage as a Biosphere Reserve by UNESCO. One of the biggest attractions is the biologic and ecosystems diversity, where approximately 400 species of birds, amphibians, reptiles and mammals live. The Alto Ribeira Tourist State Park (PETAR) is paradise for ecotourists, for its enormous diversity in geologic formations, among grottos and caves, rivers and waterfalls. There are currently 454 caves registered by the Brazilian Society of Speleology (SBE) in the State of São Paulo, all at the Ribeira Valley. The 280 caves located at PETAR represent the biggest concentration of caves in Brazil.

Atlantic Forest biome in Brazil

The Atlantic Forest is a South American forest that extends along the Atlantic coast of Brazil from Rio Grande do Norte state in the north to Rio Grande do Sul state in the south, and inland as far as Paraguay and the Misiones Province of Argentina, where the region is known as Selva Misionera.

UNESCO Specialised agency of the United Nations

The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris. Its declared purpose is to contribute to peace and security by promoting international collaboration through educational, scientific, and cultural reforms in order to increase universal respect for justice, the rule of law, and human rights along with fundamental freedom proclaimed in the United Nations Charter. It is the successor of the League of Nations' International Committee on Intellectual Cooperation.

Bird Warm-blooded, egg-laying vertebrates with wings, feathers and beaks

Birds, also known as Aves, are a group of endothermic vertebrates, characterised by feathers, toothless beaked jaws, the laying of hard-shelled eggs, a high metabolic rate, a four-chambered heart, and a strong yet lightweight skeleton. Birds live worldwide and range in size from the 5 cm (2 in) bee hummingbird to the 2.75 m (9 ft) ostrich. They rank as the world's most numerically-successful class of tetrapods, with approximately ten thousand living species, more than half of these being passerines, sometimes known as perching birds. Birds have wings which are more or less developed depending on the species; the only known groups without wings are the extinct moa and elephant birds. Wings, which evolved from forelimbs, gave birds the ability to fly, although further evolution has led to the loss of flight in flightless birds, including ratites, penguins, and diverse endemic island species of birds. The digestive and respiratory systems of birds are also uniquely adapted for flight. Some bird species of aquatic environments, particularly seabirds and some waterbirds, have further evolved for swimming.

National Park of Serra da Canastra. Parque Nacional da Serra da Canastra 2.jpg
National Park of Serra da Canastra.
Station Square in Belo Horizonte. PracaEstacaoMonumentoBH.jpg
Station Square in Belo Horizonte.
Uberlandia. Uberlandia Minas Gerais.jpg
Uberlândia.

The landscape of the State is marked by mountains, valleys and caverns. In the Serra do Cipó, Sete Lagoas, Cordisburgo and Lagoa Santa, the caves and waterfalls. Minas Gerais is the source of some of the biggest rivers in Brazil, most notably the São Francisco, the Paraná and to a lesser extent, the Rio Doce. The state also holds many hydroelectric power plants, including Furnas dam. Some of the highest peaks in Brazil are in the mountain ranges in the southern part of the state, such as Serra da Mantiqueira and Serra do Cervo, that mark the border between Minas and its neighbors São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro. The most notable one is the Pico da Bandeira, the third highest mountain in Brazil at 2890 m, standing on the border with Espírito Santo state. The state also has huge reserves of iron and sizeable reserves of gold and gemstones, including emerald, topaz and aquamarine mines.

Mountain A large landform that rises fairly steeply above the surrounding land over a limited area

A mountain is a large landform that rises above the surrounding land in a limited area, usually in the form of a peak. A mountain is generally steeper than a hill. Mountains are formed through tectonic forces or volcanism. These forces can locally raise the surface of the earth. Mountains erode slowly through the action of rivers, weather conditions, and glaciers. A few mountains are isolated summits, but most occur in huge mountain ranges.

Valley Low area between hills, often with a river running through it.

A valley is a low area between hills or mountains typically with a river running through it. In geology, a valley or dale is a depression that is longer than it is wide. The terms U-shaped and V-shaped are descriptive terms of geography to characterize the form of valleys. Most valleys belong to one of these two main types or a mixture of them, at least with respect to the cross section of the slopes or hillsides.

Cave Natural underground space large enough for a human to enter

A cave or cavern is a natural void in the ground, specifically a space large enough for a human to enter. Caves often form by the weathering of rock and often extend deep underground. The word cave can also refer to much smaller openings such as sea caves, rock shelters, and grottos, though strictly speaking a cave is exogene, meaning it is deeper than its opening is wide, and a rock shelter is endogene.

Rio de Janeiro. Christ on Corcovado mountain.JPG
Rio de Janeiro.

The state is part of the Mata Atlântica biome, and its topography comprises both mountains and plains, located between the Mantiqueira Mountains and the Atlantic Ocean. Its coast is carved by the bays of Guanabara, Sepetiba and Ilha Grande. There are prominent slopes near the ocean, featuring also diverse environments, such as restinga vegetation, bays, lagoons and tropical forests. Rio de Janeiro is the smallest state in the Southeast macroregion and one of the smallest in Brazil. It has, however, the third longest coastline in the country (second only to Bahia's and Maranhão's), extending 635 kilometers.

Biome Distinct biological communities that have formed in response to a shared physical climate

A biome is a community of plants and animals that have common characteristics for the environment they exist in. They can be found over a range of continents. Biomes are distinct biological communities that have formed in response to a shared physical climate. "Biome" is a broader term than "habitat"; any biome can comprise a variety of habitats.

Mantiqueira Mountains

The Mantiqueira Mountains are a mountain range in Southeastern Brazil, with parts in the states of São Paulo, Minas Gerais and Rio de Janeiro. It rises abruptly from the northwestern bank of the Paraíba do Sul River and extends northeastward for approximately 320 km (200 mi), reaching a height of 2,798 m (9,180 ft) at Pedra da Mina. The mountains, which eventually merge with the Serra do Espinhaço, were originally forest-covered, except for the peaks that rise above the tree line. They provide charcoal and pasture for cattle; on the lower slopes there are several health and tourist resorts, such as Campos do Jordão, Brazil's highest city. The name Mantiqueira derives from a Tupi word meaning "mountains that cry", denoting the large number of springs and streams found there.

Guanabara Bay oceanic bay located in Southeast Brazil

Guanabara Bay is an oceanic bay located in Southeast Brazil in the state of Rio de Janeiro. On its western shore lies the city of Rio de Janeiro and Duque de Caxias, and on its eastern shore the cities of Niterói and São Gonçalo. Four other municipalities surround the bay's shores. Guanabara Bay is the second largest bay in area in Brazil, at 412 square kilometres (159 sq mi), with a perimeter of 143 kilometres (89 mi).

Espirito Santos's beaches in Guarapari. Guarapa.jpg
Espirito Santos's beaches in Guarapari.

With 46.180 square kilometers, it is about the size of Estonia, or half the size of Portugal, and has a variety of habitats including coastal plains, lakes, mountain forest, mangroves and many others. The main river in the state is the Doce. Other important river basins include the Santa Maria River Basin which is the northern branch of rivers which join the sea at Vitoria, and Jucu River Basin which flows into the sea at roughly the same place, but corresponds to the southern branch (which seems to come out of Vitoria). Espírito Santo's climate is tropical along the coast, with dry winters and rainy summers. North of Doce River it's generally drier and also hot. In the mountainous regions in the south and south west of the state, the tropical climate is strongly influenced by altitude, and the average temperatures are colder. The state can be divided into two areas: the low lying coastline and the highland area known as Serra (where one can find the 2.890 m Pico da Bandeira mountain), which is part of the larger Serra do Caparaó, the Caparaó Mountain Range. In the map to the right it is in the gray area in the extreme southwest of the state, and is shared with Minas Gerais.

Doce River river in Brazil

The Doce River is a river in southeast Brazil with a length of 853 kilometres (530 mi). The river basin is economically important. In 2015 the collapse of a dam released highly contaminated water from mining into the river causing an ecological disaster.

Tropical climate climate in the tropical region

A tropical climate in the Köppen climate classification is a non-arid climate in which all twelve months have mean temperatures of warmer than 18 °C (64 °F). In tropical climates there are often only two seasons: a wet season and a dry season. Tropical climates are frost-free, and changes in the solar angle are small. In tropical climates temperature remains relatively constant (hot) throughout the year. Sunlight is intense.

Altitude or height is defined based on the context in which it is used. As a general definition, altitude is a distance measurement, usually in the vertical or "up" direction, between a reference datum and a point or object. The reference datum also often varies according to the context. Although the term altitude is commonly used to mean the height above sea level of a location, in geography the term elevation is often preferred for this usage.

Demographics

Sao Paulo. Estacao da Luz.jpg
São Paulo.

Largest cities

CityPopulation (IBGE/2010) [2]
Bandeira do Estado de Sao Paulo.svg São Paulo 11,253,503
Bandeira do estado do Rio de Janeiro.svg Rio de Janeiro 6,320,446
Bandeira de Minas Gerais.svg Belo Horizonte 2,375,151
Bandeira do Estado de Sao Paulo.svg Guarulhos 1,221,979
Bandeira do Estado de Sao Paulo.svg Campinas 1,080,113
Bandeira do estado do Rio de Janeiro.svg São Gonçalo 999,728
Bandeira do estado do Rio de Janeiro.svg Duque de Caxias 855,048
Bandeira do estado do Rio de Janeiro.svg Nova Iguaçu 796,257
Bandeira do Estado de Sao Paulo.svg São Bernardo do Campo 765,463
Bandeira do Estado de Sao Paulo.svg Santo André 676,407
Bandeira do Estado de Sao Paulo.svg Ribeirão Preto 590,593

Racial groups

Skin color/Race (IBGE/2010) [3] %
White 55.16%
Multiracial 35.69%
Afro-Brazilian 7.91%
Asian 1.11%
Amerindian 0.12%
Not declared0.01%

Economy

São Paulo state is responsible for approximately one-third of Brazilian GDP. The state's GDP (PPP) consists of 550 billion dollars, making it also the second biggest economy of South America after Brazil and the biggest subdivision economy in Latin America. Its economy is based on machinery, the automobile and aviation industries, services, financial companies, commerce, textiles, orange growing, sugar cane and coffee production. Minas Gerais is a growing state.

South America A continent in the Western Hemisphere, and mostly in the Southern Hemisphere

South America is a continent in the Western Hemisphere, mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a relatively small portion in the Northern Hemisphere. It may also be considered a subcontinent of the Americas, which is how it is viewed in the Spanish and Portuguese-speaking regions of the Americas. The reference to South America instead of other regions has increased in the last decades due to changing geopolitical dynamics.

Latin America Region of the Americas where Romance languages are primarily spoken

Latin America is a group of countries and dependencies in the Western Hemisphere where Romance languages such as Spanish, Portuguese, and French are predominantly spoken; it is broader than the terms Ibero-America or Hispanic America. The term "Latin America" was first used in an 1856 conference with the title "Initiative of the America. Idea for a Federal Congress of the Republics", by the Chilean politician Francisco Bilbao. The term was used by Napoleon III's French government in the 1860s as Amérique latine to consider French-speaking territories in the Americas, along with the larger group of countries where Spanish and Portuguese languages prevailed, including the Spanish-speaking portions of the United States Today, areas of Canada and the United States where Spanish, Portuguese and French are predominant are typically not included in definitions of Latin America.

Infrastructure

Vehicles: 36,030,943 (Jan/2012); [4] Telephones: 23,878,000 (April/2007); Cities: 1,668 (2007).

Education

University of Sao Paulo. Conjunto residencial da Cidade Universitaria - Sao Paulo - Brasil.JPG
University of São Paulo.
Federal University of Vicosa. Universidade Vicosa.jpg
Federal University of Viçosa.

Portuguese is the official national language, and thus the primary language taught in schools. English and Spanish are also part of the official high school curriculum. French is also widely studied.

Educational institutions

Infrastructure

International Airports

Sao Paulo-Guarulhos International Airport (GRU). Guarulhos5.jpg
São Paulo-Guarulhos International Airport (GRU).

São Paulo-Guarulhos International Airport connects Brazil to 28 countries and is visited every day by nearly 100 thousand people. With capacity to serve 15 million passengers a year, in two terminals, the airport currently handles 12 million users. Construction of a third passenger terminal is pending, to raise yearly capacity to 29 million passengers. The project, in the tendering phase, is part of the airport's master plan and will get under way shortly. São Paulo International Airport is also one of the main air cargo hubs in Brazil. The roughly 100 flights a day carry everything from fruits grown in the São Francisco Valley to the most sophisticated medications created by science. The airport's cargo terminal is South America's largest and stands behind only Mexico City's in all of Latin America. In 2003, over 75 thousand metric tons of freight passed through the terminal.

Since August 2004, with the transfer of many flights from Santos-Dumont Airport, Rio de Janeiro International Airport has returned to being the main doorway to Brazil. According to data from the official Brazilian travel bureau, Embratur, nearly 40% of foreign tourists who visit Brazil choose Rio as their gateway, meaning Galeão Airport. Besides linking Rio to the rest of Brazil with domestic flights, Galeão has connections to more than 18 countries. It can handle up to 15 million users a year in two passenger terminals. Located only 20 kilometers from downtown Rio, the international airport is served by several quick access routes, such as the Linha Vermelha and Linha Amarela freeways and Avenida Brasil, thus conveniently serving residents of the city's southern, northern and western zones. There are special shuttle buses linking Galeão to Santos-Dumont, and bus and taxi service to the rest of the city. The airport complex also has Brazil's longest runway at 4.240 meters, and one of South America's largest and best equipped cargo logistics terminals.

The Confins International Airport in the main hub in Minas Gerais. Aeroporto de Confins.jpg
The Confins International Airport in the main hub in Minas Gerais.

Tancredo Neves/Confins International Airport is located in the municipalities of Lagoa Santa and Confins, 38 km from Belo Horizonte, and was opened in January 1984. It was planned from the start for future expansion in steps to meet growing demand. The first step was undertaken with careful concern for the environment, including monitoring by specialized consultants, since the region has a rich archeological heritage. The airport's location is attested to by the fact it has one of the lowest rates of shutdown for bad weather in the country. Confins is certified by the ISO 9001 standard, covering ten processes in the administrative, operational, safety/security and maintenance areas. Starting in March 2005, Confins Airport will receive flights that currently use Pampulha Airport.

National Airport

Vitoria Airport is located on a land plot of just over 5.2 million square meters. Since construction of its first step, finished in 1946, Vitória Airport has undergone several expansions and modernizations, but current demand has surpassed its capacity of 560 thousand passengers a year. The recent construction of new aircraft parking boxes on the aprons has improved the airport's operational efficiency. In 2003 more than 1.2 million passengers used the airport, and in 2004 this rose to some 1.25 million. Vitória is one of the 32 airports in the Infraero network that has a cargo terminal. In May 1999 the first direct international freight connection to the United States (Miami) began operating to Vitória, facilitating imports to the state of Espírito Santo. Today there are five of such flights a week.

Highways

Dom Pedro Highway, part of Campinas Beltway. Photo by Renato M.E. Sabbatini. Dom-pedro-km145.jpg
Dom Pedro Highway, part of Campinas Beltway. Photo by Renato M.E. Sabbatini.

The Southeast Brazilian region is highly covered by Paved roads – due to the policy in the Brazil's economy in the 1960s (automobilization of the country) – which led to the car's manufacturing to be a major industry not only in the region but in Brazil as well.

The Southeast's highways are generally in good or very good conditions – some exceptions are made to the southern parts of the BR-101.

Railways are present as well (and also, the region is more covered than any other region), but mainly for freight transport – soil and iron, mainly, from the farms and mines to the seaports.

Also, a very complicated hydrocanal system is present in the region, with ten major dams.

The Pampulha Church in Belo Horizonte is one of the most expressive symbols of the Brazilian Modern Architecture. IgrejaPampulha.jpg
The Pampulha Church in Belo Horizonte is one of the most expressive symbols of the Brazilian Modern Architecture.
Sao Paulo is the largest Brazilian city. Centro SP2.jpg
São Paulo is the largest Brazilian city.

Health care and education are of major concern in the larger cities, but in smaller ones, the population are generally well-looked after.

See also

Related Research Articles

Minas Gerais State of Brazil

Minas Gerais is a state in the north of Southeastern Brazil. It ranks as the second most populous, the third by gross domestic product (GDP), and the fourth largest by area in the country. The state's capital and largest city, Belo Horizonte, is a major urban and finance center in Latin America, and the sixth largest municipality in Brazil, after the cities of São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Salvador, Brasilia and Fortaleza, but its metropolitan area is the third largest in Brazil with just over 5,500,000 inhabitants, after those of São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro. Nine Brazilian presidents were born in Minas Gerais, the most of any state.

Rio de Janeiro (state) State of Brazil

Rio de Janeiro is one of the 27 federative units of Brazil. It has the second largest economy of Brazil, with the largest being that of the state of São Paulo.

São Paulo (state) State of Brazil

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Manhuaçu Municipality in Southeast, Brazil

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Vitória, Espírito Santo Municipality in Southeast, Brazil

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Serra may refer to:

Baixo Guandu Municipality in Southeast, Brazil

Baixo Guandu is a municipality located in the Brazilian state of Espírito Santo that was founded on April 10, 1935 and established as a city on June 8, same year. The city's celebration day is April 10. Its population was 29,891 (2009) and its area is 918 km². The area is most well known for its exports of coffee, especially from the high mountains of the district of Alto Mutum Preto. The main watercourse through the municipality is the Rio Doce river whose basin is composed of 222 municipalities.

Infraero Brazilian government corporation

Empresa Brasileira de Infraestrutura Aeroportuária, Infraero in short, is a Brazilian government corporation founded in 1973, authorized by Law 5,862, being responsible for operating the main Brazilian commercial airports. In 2011 Infraero's airports carried 179,482,228 passengers and 1,464,484 tons of cargo and operated 2,893,631 take-offs and landings. It manages 63 airports, which represent 97% of the regular air carriage activity in Brazil, 81 Air Navigation Stations and 32 Cargo Logistics Terminals.

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<i>Vriesea</i> genus of plants

Vriesea is a genus of the botanical family Bromeliaceae, subfamily Tillandsioideae. The genus name is for Willem Hendrik de Vriese, Dutch botanist, physician (1806–1862). Its species are widespread over Mexico, Central America, South America and the West Indies.

São Francisco may refer to:

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Tietê Bus Terminal

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The Brazilian municipal elections of 2012 took place on October 7 and on October 28. Over 138 million voters chose mayors, deputy mayors and city councillors for the 5,568 municipalities of Brazil. These were the first elections in which the recently registered parties Partido Pátria Livre (PPL) and Partido Social Democrático (PSD) participated; they were both recognized by the Supreme Electoral Court in 2011. Political parties whose candidates wished to run for the 2012 elections had to be registered at the TSE for at least one year before the election date, while candidates also had to be affiliated to a party for the same period of time. Conventions for the selection of candidates within the parties occurred between 10 and 30 June, while the registry of candidates and alliances with the Regional Electoral Courts took place until July 5. Electoral campaign was authorized from the moment a candidacy had been registered. The free electoral program – two daily slots on free-to-air TV and radio for political advertising paid by the Electoral Justice fund – ran weekdays from 21 August until 4 October. According to the current Brazilian electoral law, the two-round system – should the leading candidate receive less than 50% +1 of the votes – is only available for cities with more than 200,000 voters. This includes all state capitals, with the exception of Boa Vista, Roraima and Palmas, Tocantins, plus 59 other municipalities. The free electoral program for the second round ran from 13 October until 26 October.

Miss Brasil 2013

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Mantiqueira Mosaic protected area mosaic in the Brazilian states of Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo and Minas Gerais

The Mantiqueira Mosaic is a protected area mosaic that contains conservation units in the states of Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo and Minas Gerais, Brazil. The conservation units are of different types and are managed at the federal, state or municipal level. The mosaic provides a level of integrated and coordinated management.

References

  1. Alvares, C. A., Stape, J. L., Sentelhas, P. C., de Moraes, G., Leonardo, J., & Sparovek, G. (2013). Köppen's climate classification map for Brazil. Meteorologische Zeitschrift, 22(6), 711-728.
  2. "2010 IBGE Census" (PDF) (in Portuguese). IBGE.gov.br. 2010. Retrieved 3 April 2012.
  3. "SIDRA IBGE - Table 3175 - Resident population by color or race" (in Portuguese). 2010. Retrieved April 25, 2012.
  4. "January 2012 Fleet - Denatran" (in Portuguese). Denatran.gov.br. Archived from the original (zip) on 1 August 2012. Retrieved 11 April 2012.