Southern Carpathians

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Southern Carpathians
Romanian: Carpații Meridionali
Negoiu.jpg
Negoiu Peak (2535m)
Highest point
PeakMoldoveanu
Elevation 2,544 m (8,346 ft)
Coordinates 45°30′N24°15′E / 45.500°N 24.250°E / 45.500; 24.250 Coordinates: 45°30′N24°15′E / 45.500°N 24.250°E / 45.500; 24.250
Geography
Carpatii Meridionali.png
Location of the Southern Carpathians in Romania
CountryRomania
Parent range Carpathians
Geology
Orogeny Alpine orogeny
Age of rock Mostly Triassic

The Southern Carpathians (also known as the Transylvanian Alps; [1] [2] Romanian : Carpații Meridionali [ k a r ˈ p a ts ij   m e ˌ r i d j o ˈ n a ] ; Hungarian : Déli-Kárpátok) are a group of mountain ranges located in southern Romania. [3] They cover the part of the Carpathian Mountains located between the Prahova River in the east and the Timiș and Cerna Rivers in the west. To the south they are bounded by the Balkan mountain range in eastern Serbia.

Contents

Heights

Lake Vidraru in the Fagaras Mountains Vidraru-Romania.jpg
Lake Vidraru in the Făgăraș Mountains

The Southern Carpathians are the second highest group of mountains in the Carpathian Mountain range (after Tatra), reaching heights of over 2,500 meters. Although considerably smaller than the Alps, they are classified as having an alpine landscape. Their high mountain character, combined with great accessibility, makes them popular with tourists and scientists.

The highest peaks are:

Despite the heights, some of the most accessible passages in the Carpathians in Romania are along the rivers, which cross the mountain range (the Olt River) or form wide valleys (along the Prahova River Valley or along the Jiu River Valley).

Geology

The South Carpathians represent an intricate pile of tectonic nappes, overthrusted from west eastwards during the Austrian (Middle Cretaceous) and Laramian paroxysmal phases, corresponding to various plate fragments. The napes are (from west eastwards): the Supragetic, Getic, Severin and Danubian Units. The Getic Nappe was identified by Murgoci (1905), [4] while the general understanding over the Alpine structure of the South Carpathians was later refined by Codarcea (1940), [5] Codarcea et al. (1961), [6] Năstăseanu et al. (1981), [7] Săndulescu (1984), [8] Săndulescu and Dimitrescu (2004), [9] and Mutihac (1990). [10] The first to apply the global tectonics concepts for the Romanian Carpathians were Rădulescu and Săndulescu (1973). [11]

The Supragetic, Getic Nappes as well as the Danubian Units represent units with both a metamorphic basement and a sedimentary cover, while the Severin Nappe includes only a sedimentary sequence. The Getic Nappe and the Danubian Units sediments include a Palaeozoic sequence (Upper Carboniferous, Lower Permian) and a Mesozoic sequence (Lowermost Jurassic – Middle Cretaceous). The Supragetic Nappe comprises mainly metamorphosed rocks (gneisses, micashists), while the Severin Nappe includes only Upper Jurassic – Lower Cretaceous sediments.

Mountain ranges

Moldoveanu peak (2544 m) is the highest in Romania and one of the highest peaks of the Carpathians Rumunia 06 147.jpg
Moldoveanu peak (2544 m) is the highest in Romania and one of the highest peaks of the Carpathians
Lake Bucura in the Retezat Mountains Lacul Bucura, Lacul Ana a Lacul Bucurelu.jpg
Lake Bucura in the Retezat Mountains

From east to west, four mountain groups can be identified, separated by different river valleys.

The first two groups are steepest on the North side, and the last two are steepest on the South side.[ citation needed ]

See also

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Piatra may refer to the following places:

Făgăraș Mountains Mountain range in Romania

Făgăraș Mountains are the highest mountains of the Southern Carpathians, in Romania.

Apuseni Mountains Mountains in Romania

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Divisions of the Carpathians

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Retezat-Godeanu Mountains group

The Retezat-Godeanu mountain group is a subgroup of mountains in the Southern Carpathians, Romania. It is named after the highest mountains in the group, the Retezat Mountains.

Parâng Mountains group

The Parâng mountain group is a subgroup of mountains in the Southern Carpathians. It is named after the highest of the mountains in the group, the Parâng Mountains.

Făgăraș Mountains group

The Făgăraș mountain group is a subgroup of mountains in the Southern Carpathians. It is named after the highest of the mountains in the group, the Făgăraș Mountains.

Piatra Craiului Mountains

The Piatra Craiului Mountains are a mountain range in the Southern Carpathians in Romania. Its name is translated as Kings' Rock or The Rock of the Prince. The mountain range is located in Brașov and Argeș counties; it is included in the Piatra Craiului National Park, which covers an area of 14,766 hectares (60 sq mi).

Leaota Mountains

The Leaota Mountains are located in central Romania, north of the city Târgovişte. They are part of the Southern Carpathians group of the Carpathian Mountains, and have as neighbours the Bucegi Mountains to the east and Piatra Craiului to the west.

Parângu Mare mountain peak

Parângu Mare is a mountain peak in Romania. At 2,519 metres above sea level, it is the highest peak of the Parâng Mountains, located in the Parâng Mountains group of the Southern Carpathians. It is situated on the border of the Romanian counties of Gorj and Hunedoara. It is the most prominent peak in Romania, its parent mountain being Gerlachovský štít in Slovakia.

Romanian Carpathians Section of the Carpathian Mountains in Romania

The Romanian Carpathians are a section of the Carpathian Mountains, within the borders of modern Romania. The Carpathians are a "subsystem" of the Alps-Himalaya System and are further divided into "provinces" and "subprovinces".

Păpușa Peak (Parâng Mountains) Mountain in Romania

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Vâlcan Mountains

The Vâlcan Mountains are a chain of mountains in the Southern Carpathians in Gorj County, Romania. They are part of the Retezat-Godeanu Mountains group. They run for approximately 54 kilometres (34 mi) and the highest peak is the Vâlcan Peak at 1,946 metres (6,385 ft). The mountains run the length of the Jiu Valley, and serve as a barrier to entry on the southern side of the valley.

Șureanu Mountains

The Șureanu Mountains,, belong to Romania's Parâng range in the Southern Carpathians, with peaks frequently exceeding 2,000 metres (6,600 ft).

Domogled-Valea Cernei National Park

The Domogled-Valea Cernei National Park is a protected area situated in Romania, on the administrative territory of counties Caraş-Severin, Gorj and Mehedinţi.

Mehedinți Mountains

The Mehedinți Mountains are a mountain range in southwestern Romania, part of the Retezat-Godeanu Mountains group.

Iezer Mountains

The Iezer Mountains are a mountain range in the Southern Carpathians in Romania. It is part of the Făgăraș Mountains group. Its total area is 535 km2 (207 sq mi). Its highest elevation is 2,470 m (8,100 ft), at Roșu Peak.

References

  1. Comănescu, Laura, & Alexandru Nedelea. 2016. Geomorphosites Assessments of the Glacial and Periglacial Landforms from Southern Carpathoans. In: Maria Radoane & Alfred Vespremeanu-Stroe (eds.), Landform Dynamics and Evolution in Romania, pp. 215–248. Cham: Springer, p. 202.
  2. Quinn, Joyce Ann, & Susan L Woodward. 2015. Earth's Landscape: An Encyclopedia of the World's Geographic Features. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, p. 138.
  3. Carpathians.pl Archived 2010-04-06 at the Wayback Machine
  4. Murgoci, G.M., 1905. Sur l'existence d'une grande nappe de recouvrement dans les Carpathes meridionales. C. R. Acad. Sci., 7: 31.
  5. Codarcea , A., 1940. Vues nouvelles sur la tectonique du Banat meridional et du Plateau de Mehedinți. D. S. Inst. Geol. Rom., 20: 1–74.
  6. Codarcea, A., Răileanu, G., Pavelescu, L., Gherasi, N., Năstăseanu, S., Bercia, I. and Mercus, D., 1961. Guide des excursions. Carpates Meridionales, București, 130 pp.
  7. Năstăseanu, S., Bercia, I., Iancu, V., Vlad and Hârtopanu, I., 1981. The structure of the South Carpathians (Mehedinți – Banat Area). Guidebooks series, 22. IGR, Bucuresti, 3–100 pp.
  8. Săndulescu, M., 1984. Geotectonica României. Editura Tehnică, București, 336 pp.
  9. Săndulescu, M. and Dimitrescu, R., 2004. Geological structure of the Romanian Carpathians, Florence, 48 pp.
  10. Mutihac, V., 1990. Structura geologică a teritoriului României. Editura Tehnică, Bucharest, 419 pp.
  11. Rădulescu, D. and Săndulescu, M., 1973. The plate-tectonics concept and the geological structure of the Carpathians. Tectonophysics, 16: 155–161.
  12. "Moldoveanu : Climbing, Hiking & Mountaineering : SummitPost". www.summitpost.org. Retrieved 2020-10-07.