Great Han / Great Yue
|Common languages||Middle Chinese|
|Historical era||Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period|
• Renamed from "Yue" to "Han"
• Ended by the Song dynasty
|Today part of|
Southern Han (Chinese :南漢; pinyin :Nán Hàn; 917–971), originally Great Yue (Chinese :大越), was one of the ten kingdoms that existed during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period. It was located on China's southern coast, controlling modern Guangdong and Guangxi. The kingdom greatly expanded its capital Xingwang Fu (Chinese :興王府; pinyin :Xìngwángfǔ, (present-day Guangzhou). It attempted but failed to annex the Tang province of Annam (modern northern Vietnam).
Traditional Chinese characters are Chinese characters in any character set that does not contain newly created characters or character substitutions performed after 1946. They are most commonly the characters in the standardized character sets of Taiwan, of Hong Kong and Macau, and in the Kangxi Dictionary. The modern shapes of traditional Chinese characters first appeared with the emergence of the clerical script during the Han Dynasty, and have been more or less stable since the 5th century.
Hanyu Pinyin, often abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese in mainland China and to some extent in Taiwan. It is often used to teach Standard Mandarin Chinese, which is normally written using Chinese characters. The system includes four diacritics denoting tones. Pinyin without tone marks is used to spell Chinese names and words in languages written with the Latin alphabet, and also in certain computer input methods to enter Chinese characters.
Chinese is a group of related, but in many cases not mutually intelligible, language varieties, forming the Sinitic branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family. Chinese is spoken by the Han majority and many minority ethnic groups in China. About 1.2 billion people speak some form of Chinese as their first language.
Liu Yin was named regional governor and military officer by the Tang court in 905. Though the Tang fell two years later, Liu did not declare himself the founder of a new kingdom as other southern leaders had done. He merely inherited the title of Prince of Nanping in 909.
Liu Yin (劉隱), formally Prince Xiang of Nanhai (南海襄王), later further posthumously honored Emperor Xiang (襄皇帝) with the temple name of Liezong (烈宗) by his younger brother Liu Yan, was a warlord late in the Chinese dynasty Tang Dynasty and Tang's succeeding dynasty Later Liang of the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period, who ruled Qinghai Circuit as its military governor (Jiedushi). It was on the basis of his rule that Liu Yan was later able to establish the state of Southern Han.
It was not until Liu Yin's death in 917 that his brother, Liu Yan, declared the founding of a new kingdom, which he initially called "Great Yue" (大越); he changed the name to Great Han (大漢) in 918. This was because his surname Liu (劉) was the imperial surname of the Han dynasty and he claimed to be a descendant of that famous dynasty. The kingdom is often referred to as the Southern Han Dynasty throughout China's history.
The Han dynasty was the second imperial dynasty of China, preceded by the Qin dynasty and succeeded by the Three Kingdoms period. Spanning over four centuries, the Han period is considered a golden age in Chinese history. To this day, China's majority ethnic group refers to themselves as the "Han Chinese" and the Chinese script is referred to as "Han characters". It was founded by the rebel leader Liu Bang, known posthumously as Emperor Gaozu of Han, and briefly interrupted by the Xin dynasty of the former regent Wang Mang. This interregnum separates the Han dynasty into two periods: the Western Han or Former Han and the Eastern Han or Later Han (25–220 AD).
Some modern scholars have been trying to ascribe a foreign origin to the Liu of Southern Han and attack the traditional historical records and the claims of the Liu clan themselves that said their ancestors were Han Chinese from northern China who migrated south.Historical texts like the Old History of the Five Dynasties and the New Book of Tang record that this Liu family said they themselves originated in northern China, from Shangcai in Henan and Pengcheng in Jiangsu until their ancestor Liu Anren (劉安仁) migrated south to Fujian and Guangdong and the Southern Han Liu emperors claimed to be Han Chinese descended from the Han dynasty royal family who shared the same surname, Liu. Liu Zhiqian was of low class and rank and because of this the aristocratic Wei family said he was "not of our kind" (非我族类) but despite Liu's low rank, the military governor Wei Zhou married his niece to Liu Zhiqian over his family's objections. The Japanese scholar Fujita Toyohachi in 1910 tried claiming that the Liu family of Southern Han were descendants of Arabs who came to Fujian and Guangdong by sea by pointing to an Arab from the later Song dynasty who used the surname Liu and claiming it sounded similar to Arabic names like Ali or Alaa, and claimed that the Liu family tried to for Han ancestry from northern China. His claims of the Liu being of Arab or foreign descent were rubbished and attacked by another Japanese scholar, Masahiro Kawahara who pointed out it was a custom for reigning Chinese Emperors to grant the usage of their surnames to foreign merchants like the Tang dynasty which granted the imperial family's surname Li to foreigners, and that the foreign Arab merchant likely received his Liu surname from the reigning Liu Emperors of Southern Han and not the other way around, and he pointed out that the Southern Han did not believe in Islam but practiced Buddhism. Masahiro suggested instead that the Liu were from a local non-Han native ethnic minority of Guangdong from Fengzhou who then forged Han descent from northern China to claim descent from the Han dynasty. Both Fujita and Masahiro's theories were attacked by another historian because both of their theories are based on their own pure conjecture and opinions and have no solid evidence or historical data or texts to support their claims, saying that the phrase "not of our kind" "非我族类" referred to the socially stratified Tang dynasty aristocracy in China since 族 means clan the Liu were not a clan of the Wei's social status ("Not of our clan") and not referring to the modern meaning of 族 which means ethnicity or race, and using this statement "not of our kind" to suddenly jump to the conclusion that they were "Arab" is massively inappropriate for a historian. The aristocratic Wei family would have looked down and despised people of low rank like the Liu. Masahiro's suggestion that the Liu were native non-Han ethnic minority also has no evidence based in any historical texts and there is nothing to suggest that the existing historical texts like New History of the Five Dynasties are false. Both are seen as theories with no proof. The Southern Han did not believe in Islam and were not Sultans. Arabs referred to the Southern Han as the "Chinese rose" monarchy because that rose originated from China, Guangzhou was known as the flower city and Southern Han planted lots of roses. Statues of two of he last Southern Han Emperor's Liu Chang's sons were described as looking like "barbarian devils". The two sons may have come from a Persian woman who was Liu Chang's concubine. A large number of Han Chinese moved to southern China like Southern Han as the Tang dynasty was collapsing and helped build Southern Han when it become independent.The arguments over the origin of the Liu family who ruled Southern Han again were looked at and determined that they were Han Chinese.
The Old History of the Five Dynasties was an official history of the Five Dynasties (907–960), which controlled much of northern China. It was compiled by the Song Dynasty official-scholar Xue Juzheng in the first two decades of the Song Dynasty, which was founded in 960. It is one of the Twenty-Four Histories recognized through Chinese history.
The New Book of Tang, generally translated as "New History of the Tang", or "New Tang History", is a work of official history covering the Tang dynasty in ten volumes and 225 chapters. The work was compiled by a team of scholars of the Song dynasty, led by Ouyang Xiu and Song Qi.
Shangcai County is a county in the south of Henan province, China. It is under the administration of Zhumadian City.
Liu Yan's tomb was found to Beitang village's south.The Southern Han spread sinicization in the lands they ruled.
With its capital at present-day Guangzhou, the domains of the kingdom spread along the coastal regions of present-day Guangdong, Guangxi, Hanoi and the island of Hainan. It had borders with the kingdoms of Min, Chu and the Southern Tang as well as the non-Chinese kingdoms of Dali. The Southern Tang occupied all of the northern boundary of the Southern Han after Min and Chu were conquered by the Southern Tang in 945 and 951 respectively.
Guangzhou, also known as Canton, is the capital and most populous city of the province of Guangdong in southern China. On the Pearl River about 120 km (75 mi) north-northwest of Hong Kong and 145 km (90 mi) north of Macau, Guangzhou has a history of over 2,200 years and was a major terminus of the maritime Silk Road, and continues to serve as a major port and transportation hub, as well as one of China's three largest cities.
Guangdong is a province in South China, on the South China Sea coast. Guangdong surpassed Henan and Shandong to become the most populous province in China in January 2005, registering 79.1 million permanent residents and 31 million migrants who lived in the province for at least six months of the year; the total population was 104,303,132 in the 2010 census, accounting for 7.79 percent of Mainland China's population. This also makes it the most populous first-level administrative subdivision of any country outside of South Asia, as its population is surpassed only by those of the Pakistani province of Punjab and the Indian states of Bihar, Maharashtra and Uttar Pradesh. The provincial capital Guangzhou and economic hub Shenzhen are among the most populous and important cities in China. The population increase since the census has been modest, the province registering 108,500,000 people in 2015.
Guangxi ( ; formerly romanised as Kwangsi; Chinese: 广西; Zhuang: Gvangjsih, officially the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, is an autonomous region of the People's Republic of China, located in south China and bordering Vietnam. Formerly a province, Guangxi became an autonomous region in 1958.
While the Tang Dynasty was strong, the region of the present-day Vietnam remained a stable, secure part of the Southern Han's Viet domains. However, as the Tang weakened late in the 9th century, the Viet sought to regain control over their own affairs. Hanoi, which had developed as a political center during the Tang Dynasty, was the center of an early Vietnamese polity.
The Southern Han sought to bring the Viet into its orbit; however, their invasion was unsuccessful and was repelled. In 939, the Viet in the Chinese province of Annam, under the leadership of Ngo Quyen (吳權), redeclared independence.
The Five Dynasties ended in 960 when the Song Dynasty was founded to replace the Later Zhou. From that point, the new Song rulers set themselves about to continue the reunification process set in motion by the Later Zhou. Through the 960s and 970s, the Song increased its influence in the south until finally it was able to force the Southern Han dynasty to submit to its rule in 971.
|Temple Names||Posthumous Names||Personal Names||Period of Reigns||Era Names|
|Gao Zu (高祖gāo zǔ)||Tian Huang Da Di (天皇大帝tiān huáng dà dì)|| Liu Yan (劉巖liú yán) |
Liu Yan (劉龑liú yǎn) after 926
|917–941||Qianheng (乾亨qián hēng) 917–925|
Bailong (白龍bái lóng) 925–928
|Did not exist||Shang Di (殤帝shāng dì)||Liu Bin (劉玢liú bīn)||941–943||Guangtian (光天guāng tiān) 941–943|
|Zhong Zong (中宗zhōng zōng)||Wénwǔ Guāngmíng Xiào (文武光明孝皇帝) |
Too tedious thus not used when referring to this sovereign
|Liu Sheng (劉晟liú shèng)||943–958||Yingqian (應乾yìng qián) 943|
Qianhe (乾和qiàn hé) 943–958
|Hou Zhu (後主hòu zhǔ)||Did not exist||Liu Chang (劉鋹liú chǎng)||958–971||Dabao (大寶dà bǎo) 958–971|
|Rulers family tree|
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The Teochew people are a Chinese people native to the historical Chaozhou prefecture of eastern Guangdong province who speak the Teochew dialect. Today, most Teochew people live outside China in Southeast Asia, especially in Singapore, Malaysia, Thailand, Cambodia, Vietnam, Philippines, and Indonesia. They can also be found almost anywhere in the world, including North America, Australia and France.
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