Southern Maori

Last updated

Southern Maori was one of New Zealand's four original parliamentary Māori electorates established in 1868, along with Eastern Maori, Western Maori and Eastern Maori. In 1996, with the introduction of MMP, the Maori electorates were updated, and Southern Maori was replaced with the Te Tai Tonga and Te Puku O Te Whenua electorates.

Contents

Population centres

From its initial definition of the Maori electorates in 1867 to the 1954 Maori electoral boundary redefinition, the Southern Maori electorate covered the entire South Island plus it included Stewart Island. [1] It did not include the Chatham Islands, which did not belong to any Maori electorate until after a change to the Legislative Act and from the 1922 election, the Chatham Islands belonged to the Western Maori electorate. [2] The 1954 redefinition responded to the fact that the Southern Maori electorate had a much lower voter base than the three other Maori electorates, and this was responded to by adding the south-eastern part of the North Island to the Southern Maori electorate. Population centres that came to the electorate through this measure included Wellington, Masterton, Palmerston North, Napier, and Wairoa. These changes became effective with the 1954 election. [3]

The next redistribution of Maori electoral boundaries was carried out in 1983, just after the responsibility for doing so had been transferred to the Representation Commission. The North Island boundaries of the Southern Maori electorate were adjusted, and Palmerston North transferred to the Western Maori electorate in that process. These boundaries were used in the 1984 election. [4] Further boundary adjustments were undertaken in 1987, which became operative with the 1987 election. [5]

Tribal areas

Ngāi Tahu and Ngati Kahungunu were the dominant tribes within the area covered by the electorate.

History

The Southern Maori electorate included the whole of the South Island to 1954, but its population was less than that of the other Māori electorates. In 1954 the boundaries were extended to include much of the East Coast of the North Island up to Napier and Wairoa in Hawkes Bay.

The first member of parliament for the new Māori electorate of Southern Maori from 1868 was John Patterson; he retired in 1870.

In 1932, Eruera Tirikatene won the electorate in a by-election and became the first Rātana MP; and then a Labour MP following the Labour-Ratana pact. When he died in 1967 his daughter Whetu Tirikatene-Sullivan took over the seat in a 1967 by-election.

In 1993 the National Party did not stand a candidate in the electorate as their proposed candidate did not apply in time.

In 1996 with mixed-member proportional (MMP) representation, the Te Tai Tonga electorate covering the South Island took over the major part of the Southern Maori electorate. Whetu Tirikatene-Sullivan who had held the Southern Maori electorate for many years narrowly lost the new seat to Tu Wyllie of New Zealand First and retired from politics.

Members of Parliament

The Southern Maori electorate was represented by ten Members of Parliament: [6]

Key

  Independent     Liberal     Reform     United     Ratana     Labour   

ElectionWinner
1868 Māori election John Patterson
1871 election Hōri Kerei Taiaroa
1876 election
1879 by-election Ihaia Tainui
1879 election
1881 by-election Hōri Kerei Taiaroa (2nd period)
1881 election
1884 election
1885 by-election Tame Parata
1887 election
1890 election
1893 election
1896 election
1899 election
1902 election
1905 election
1908 election
1911 election Taare Parata
1914 election
1918 by-election Hopere Uru
1919 election
1922 by-election Henare Uru
1922 election
1925 election
1928 election Tuiti Makitanara
1931 election
1932 by-election Eruera Tirikatene
1935 election
1938 election
1943 election
1946 election
1949 election
1951 election
1954 election
1957 election
1960 election
1963 election
1966 election
1967 by-election Whetu Tirikatene-Sullivan
1969 election
1972 election
1975 election
1978 election
1981 election
1984 election
1987 election
1990 election
1993 election
(Electorate abolished in 1996; see Te Tai Tonga)

Election results

Note that the affiliation of many early candidates is not known.

1993 election

1993 general election: Southern Maori [7]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Labour Whetu Tirikatene-Sullivan 9,631 57.94 -16.56
NZ First Jules Parkinson3,29119.80
Alliance Tikirau Stevens2,54115.28+3.64
Mana Māori Movement Reitu Noble Harris7024.22
Christian Heritage Rawiri Whare3362.02
Natural Law Tim Irwin1190.71
Majority6,34038.14-24.72
Turnout 16,62063.96-5.69
Registered electors 25,984

1990 election

1990 general election: Southern Maori [8]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Labour Whetu Tirikatene-Sullivan 9,024 74.50 -2.38
Mana Motuhake Tikirau Stevens1,41011.64+1.92
National Jack Mei1,28710.62+2.81
Independent Dun Mihaka 3913.22+0.80
Majority7,61462.86-4.29
Turnout 12,11258.27-10.69
Registered electors 20,785

1987 election

1987 general election: Southern Maori [9]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Labour Whetu Tirikatene-Sullivan 10,130 76.88 -1.40
Mana Motuhake Tikirau Stevens1,2829.72
National Jack Mei1,0307.81+1.30
Democrats Robert Aramakuru3442.61+1.11
Independent Dun Mihaka 3192.42+1.25
Independent Clive Dooley710.53
Majority8,84867.15-2.52
Turnout 13,17668.96-9.08
Registered electors 19,104

1984 election

1984 general election: Southern Maori [9]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Labour Whetu Tirikatene-Sullivan 11,792 78.28 +6.64
Mana Motuhake Amster Reedy1,2978.61-3.05
National Jack Mei9826.51
NZ Party Willard Amaru4272.83
Social Credit Robert Aramakuru2261.50-6.20
Independent Dun Mihaka 1771.17-0.70
Independent H Watene1611.06
Majority10,49569.67+9.70
Turnout 15,06278.04+4.90
Registered electors 19,300

1981 election

1981 general election: Southern Maori [9]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Labour Whetu Tirikatene-Sullivan 10,685 71.64 -10.68
Mana Motuhake Amster Reedy1,74011.66
Social Credit Robert Aramakuru1,1497.70
National Barry Kiwara1,0607.10
Independent Dun Mihaka 2801.87
Majority8,94559.97-13.76
Turnout 14,91473.14+32.94
Registered electors 20,390

1978 election

1978 general election: Southern Maori [9]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Labour Whetu Tirikatene-Sullivan 10,250 82.32 +7.72
National Charles Piharo Maitai1,0708.59
Social Credit Waireti Ate Mangai Gregory1,0138.13
Values Martin Burdan1170.93
Majority9,18073.73+11.29
Turnout 12,45040.20-16.31
Registered electors 30,966

1975 election

1975 general election: Southern Maori [9]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Labour Whetu Tirikatene-Sullivan 7,708 74.60 -13.06
National Willard Amaru1,25612.15
Social Credit Lucy Kaumau5985.78
Independent Labour William Whareupoko Mohi3583.46
Values Wiki Cuirrie2462.38
Independent Te Puke Watson1661.60
Majority6,45262.44-26.89
Turnout 10,33256.51-14.79
Registered electors 18,282

1972 election

1972 general election: Southern Maori [9]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Labour Whetu Tirikatene-Sullivan 9,078 87.66 +4.71
National Kate Parahi8277.98
Social Credit Gale M. Ngakuru4504.34
Majority9,25189.33+18.84
Turnout 10,35571.30+0.81
Registered electors 14,522

1969 election

1969 general election: Southern Maori [10]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Labour Whetu Tirikatene-Sullivan 7,802 82.95 +8.64
National Norra Woodbane Pomare1,17212.46
Social Credit Tamati W. Makitanare2903.08
Independent Kenneth Rangi1411.49
Majority6,63070.49+16.69
Turnout 9,40570.40+19.93
Registered electors 13,359

1967 by-election

1967 Southern Maori by-election [10]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Labour Whetu Tirikatene 4,968 74.31
National Baden Pere1,37120.51-1.17
Social Credit James Hugh MacDonald3475.18-0.85
Majority3,59753.80
Turnout 6,68650.47-12.21
Registered electors 13,248

1966 election

1966 general election: Southern Maori [10]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Labour Eruera Tirikatene 5,474 72.28 -5.09
National Baden Pere1,64221.68
Social Credit James Hugh MacDonald4576.03
Majority3,83250.60-12.91
Turnout 7,57362.68-7.37
Registered electors 12,081

1963 election

1963 general election: Southern Maori [10]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Labour Eruera Tirikatene 6,065 77.37 +1.80
National Ben Couch 1,08713.86
Young Maori Rua Bristowe3874.93
Social Credit Matua Ereatara Niania2993.81
Majority4,97863.51+5.39
Turnout 7,83870.05-1.21
Registered electors 11,189

1960 election

1960 general election: Southern Maori [10]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Labour Eruera Tirikatene 5,132 75.57 -2.95
National Ngarangi Whakaupoko Tutaki1,18517.44
Social Credit Matua Ereatara Niania4746.97
Majority3,94758.12-6.39
Turnout 6,79171.26-11.19
Registered electors 9,529

1957 election

1957 general election: Southern Maori [10]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Labour Eruera Tirikatene 5,335 78.52 +14.43
National Thomas Stratton95214.01
Social Credit Hinerapa Ihipera Ropiha3945.79
KauhananuiTamati Wi Makitanare1131.66
Majority4,38364.51+23.28
Turnout 6,79482.45-10.33
Registered electors 8,240

1954 election

1954 general election: Southern Maori [10]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Labour Eruera Tirikatene 4,452 64.09 -11.27
National Turi Carroll 1,58822.86
Independent Labour Rangi Logan4776.86
Social Credit Matenga Baker2613.75
Maori LabourA T Huata1682.41
Majority2,86441.23-9.50
Turnout 6,94692.78+1.95
Registered electors 7,486

1951 election

1951 general election: Southern Maori [10]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Labour Eruera Tirikatene 979 75.36 -0.89
National William Beaton32024.63
Majority65950.73-3.27
Turnout 1,29990.83-3.04
Registered electors 1,430

1949 election

1949 general election: Southern Maori [11]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Labour Eruera Tirikatene 970 76.25 +1.71
National Huro Nathanial Bates28322.24
Informal votes191.49+0.28
Majority68754.00+3.70
Turnout 1,27293.87
Registered electors 1,355

1946 election

1946 general election: Southern Maori [12]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Labour Eruera Tirikatene 861 74.54
National Vernon Ohaia Mason Thomas28024.24
Informal votes141.21
Majority58150.30
Turnout 1,155

1932 by-election

1932 Southern Maori by-election [13]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Ratana Eruera Tirikatene 425 44.69 +10.34
United/Reform William Teihoka Parata 18419.35
Independent Peter McDonald13213.88
Independent Joseph Beaton (United–Reform Coalition)11311.88
Independent Tame Bragg (Reform)949.88
Independent Wiremu Mihaka30.32
Majority24125.34+23.27
Turnout 951

1931 election

1931 general election: Southern Maori [14]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
United Tuiti Makitanara 334 36.42
Ratana Eruera Tirikatene 31534.35
Independent Hari Wi Katene26829.23
Majority192.07
Turnout 917

1922 by-election

1922 Southern Maori by-election
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Reform Henare Uru 36444.83
Independent Teone Matapura Erihana25030.79+16.69
Independent Wereta Tainui Pitama 10813.30
Independent Bill Barrett 9011.08
Turnout 812
Majority11414.04-16.05

1918 by-election

1918 Southern Maori by-election [15]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Independent Hopere Uru 242 38.78
Independent Henare Parata22335.74
Independent Teone Matapura Erihana (Ellison)15925.48
Turnout 624
Majority193.04

1899 election

1899 general election: Southern Maori [16]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Liberal Tame Parata 387 63.86 +24.64
Taituha Hape21936.14
Majority16827.72+10.81
Turnout 606

1896 election

1896 general election: Southern Maori [17] [18]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Liberal Tame Parata 262 39.22 -27.63
Thomas Ellison 14922.31
Riki Te Mairaki Taiaroa14421.56
Teoti Pita Mutu11316.92-16.24
Majority39111.93-16.78
Turnout 668

1893 election

1893 general election: Southern Maori [19]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Liberal Tame Parata 367 66.85
Teoti Pita Mutu18233.15
Majority18533.70
Turnout 549

1887 election

1887 general election: Southern Maori [20] [21]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Independent Tame Parata 140 33.49 -9.12
Independent Thomas Ellison 10324.64
Independent Kahu10324.64
Independent Hone Taare Tikao 7217.22-10.03
Majority378.85-3.61
Turnout 418

1885 by-election

1885 Southern Maori by-election [22]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Independent Tame Parata 14742.61
Independent Henare Paratini [23] 10430.14
Independent Hone Taare Tikao [24] 9427.25
Majority4312.46
Turnout 345

1879 by-election

1879 Southern Maori by-election [25] [26] [27]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Independent Ihaia Tainui 191 49.23
Independent Tari Wi or Toihaka7820.10
Independent Hori Paratene6015.46
Majority11329.12
Turnout 388

Notes

  1. McRobie 1989, pp. 132–139.
  2. McRobie 1989, p. 135.
  3. McRobie 1989, pp. 138f.
  4. McRobie 1989, pp. 140f.
  5. McRobie 1989, pp. 142f.
  6. Wilson 1985, p. 272.
  7. Part 1: Votes recorded at each polling place (Technical report). New Zealand Chief Electoral Office. 1993. p. 156.
  8. Part 1: Votes recorded at each polling place (Technical report). New Zealand Chief Electoral Office. 1990. p. 161.
  9. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Norton 1988, pp. 401.
  10. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Norton 1988, pp. 400.
  11. "The General Election, 1949". National Library. 1950. pp. 1–5, 8. Retrieved 3 January 2014.
  12. "The General Election, 1946". National Library. 1947. pp. 1–11, 14. Retrieved 1 January 2014.
  13. The General Election, 1931. Government Printer. 1932. p. 6. Retrieved 25 December 2014.
  14. The General Election, 1931. Government Printer. 1932. p. 6. Retrieved 2 November 2014.
  15. "Southern Maori Election". The Lake District Press. 28 February 1918.
  16. "The General Election, 1899". Wellington: Appendix to the Journals of the House of Representatives. 19 June 1900. p. 3. Retrieved 15 March 2014.
  17. "Untitled". The Evening Post . Vol. LIII, no. 1. 2 January 1897. p. 4. Retrieved 15 January 2014.
  18. "The Maori Elections". The Press . Vol. LIII, no. 9591. 4 December 1896. p. 6. Retrieved 15 January 2014.
  19. "The General Election, 1893". Government Printer. 1894. p. 3. Retrieved 19 November 2013.
  20. "The Maori Members". The Press . Vol. XLIV, no. 6861. 20 September 1887. p. 6. Retrieved 16 January 2014.
  21. "The Southern Native Member". The Press . Vol. XLIV, no. 6856. 14 September 1887. p. 6. Retrieved 16 January 2014.
  22. "Election of Maori Representative". Otago Daily Times . No. 7287. 25 June 1885. p. 4. Retrieved 16 January 2014.
  23. "The Southern Maori Election". The New Zealand Herald . Vol. XXII, no. 7363. 25 June 1885. p. 5. Retrieved 16 January 2014.
  24. "Southern Maori Election". The Timaru Herald . Vol. XLI, no. 3340. 11 June 1885. p. 3. Retrieved 16 January 2014.
  25. "Southern Maori Election". The New Zealand Herald. 17 July 1879.
  26. "Southern Maori Election". Star. 16 July 1879.
  27. "Southern Maori Election". Evening Post. 17 July 1879.

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Māori electorates</span> Electoral districts for Māori voters in New Zealand

In New Zealand politics, Māori electorates, colloquially known as the Māori seats, are a special category of electorate that give reserved positions to representatives of Māori in the New Zealand Parliament. Every area in New Zealand is covered by both a general and a Māori electorate; as of 2020, there are seven Māori electorates. Since 1967, candidates in Māori electorates have not needed to be Māori themselves, but to register as a voter in the Māori electorates people need to declare that they are of Māori descent.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Whetu Tirikatene-Sullivan</span> New Zealand politician

Tini "Whetu" Marama Tirikatene-Sullivan was a New Zealand politician. She was an MP from 1967 to 1996, representing the Labour Party, and was New Zealand’s first Māori woman cabinet minister. At the time of her retirement, she was the second longest-serving MP in Parliament, being in her tenth term of office. She was one of twenty holders of the Order of New Zealand, the highest honour of the country.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Coromandel (New Zealand electorate)</span> Electoral district in Waikato, New Zealand

Coromandel is a New Zealand electoral division returning one member to the House of Representatives. It is currently represented by Scott Simpson, a member of the National Party.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Rotorua (New Zealand electorate)</span> Electoral district in Bay of Plenty, New Zealand

Rotorua is a New Zealand parliamentary electorate, returning one Member of Parliament to the New Zealand House of Representatives. It was first established in 1919, and has existed continuously since 1954. The current MP for Rotorua is Todd McClay of the National Party, who won the electorate in the 2008 general election from incumbent Labour MP Steve Chadwick.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Te Atatū (New Zealand electorate)</span> Electoral district in Auckland, New Zealand

Te Atatū is a parliamentary electorate, returning one Member of Parliament to the New Zealand House of Representatives. The current MP for Te Atatū is Phil Twyford of the Labour Party.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Te Tai Tonga</span> Māori electorate in New Zealand

Te Tai Tonga is a New Zealand parliamentary Māori electorate, returning one Member of Parliament to the New Zealand House of Representatives. It was established for the 1996 general election, replacing Southern Maori. The current MP for Te Tai Tonga is Rino Tirikatene of the Labour Party.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Miramar (New Zealand electorate)</span> Former electorate in Wellington, New Zealand

Miramar was a New Zealand parliamentary electorate in the south-eastern suburbs of Wellington. It was created in 1946, replacing Wellington East, and was replaced by Rongotai for the first MMP election of 1996.

Hauraki is a former New Zealand parliamentary electorate, from 1928 to 1987 and 1993 to 1996. In the 1987 general election it was renamed Coromandel, the name that had been used from 1972 to 1981. In 1993 it reverted to Hauraki, but became Coromandel again for the first MMP election in 1996.

Franklin was a rural New Zealand parliamentary electorate. It existed from 1861 to 1996 during four periods.

Gisborne is a former New Zealand parliamentary electorate. It existed from 1908 to 1996, and it was represented by 12 Members of Parliament.

Manukau is a former New Zealand parliamentary electorate in the south Auckland Region. It existed from 1881 to 1978, with a break from 1938 to 1954. It was represented by nine Members of Parliament. Two by-elections were held in the electorate.

Wellington South is a former New Zealand parliamentary electorate. It existed for two periods between 1881 and 1946. It was represented by seven Members of Parliament.

Fendalton is a former New Zealand parliamentary electorate. It existed during two periods between 1946 and 1996. The electorate was in the western suburbs of Christchurch, New Zealand. Fendalton is an expensive suburb, and was always represented by the National Party.

Waiapu was a New Zealand parliamentary electorate in the Gisborne – East Coast Region of New Zealand, from 1893 to 1908.

Western Maori was one of New Zealand's four original parliamentary Māori electorates established in 1868, along with Northern Maori, Eastern Maori and Southern Maori. In 1996, with the introduction of MMP, the Maori electorates were updated, and Western Maori was replaced with the Te Tai Hauāuru and Te Puku O Te Whenua electorates.

Northern Maori was one of New Zealand's four original parliamentary Māori electorates established in 1868, along with Eastern Maori, Western Maori and Southern Maori. In 1996, with the introduction of MMP, the Maori electorates were updated, and Northern Maori was replaced with the Te Tai Tokerau electorate.

Eastern Maori was one of New Zealand's four original parliamentary Māori electorates established in 1868, along with Northern Maori, Western Maori and Southern Maori. In 1996, with the introduction of MMP, the Maori electorates were updated, and Eastern Maori was replaced with the Te Tai Rawhiti and Te Puku O Te Whenua electorates.

Dunedin West was a New Zealand parliamentary electorate, in the city of Dunedin. It existed for three periods between 1881 and 1996 and was represented by seven Members of Parliament.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Rino Tirikatene</span> New Zealand politician

Rino Tirikatene is a New Zealand politician and a member of the House of Representatives, representing the Te Tai Tonga electorate since the 2011 election. He is a member of the Labour Party. He comes from a family with a strong political history.

The Southern Māori by-election of 1967 was a by-election for the electorate of Southern Maori on 11 March 1967 during the 35th New Zealand Parliament. The by-election resulted from the death of the previous member Sir Eruera Tirikatene on 11 January 1967.

References