Southern pudu

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Southern pudu
Southern Pudu, Edinburgh Zoo.jpg
Southern pudu (P. puda)
CITES Appendix I (CITES) [2]
Scientific classification OOjs UI icon edit-ltr.svg
Domain: Eukaryota
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Artiodactyla
Family: Cervidae
Subfamily: Capreolinae
Genus: Pudu
Species:
P. puda
Binomial name
Pudu puda
(Molina, 1782)
Pudu puda Range.png
Geographic range of Pudu puda
Synonyms

Capra pudaMolina, 1782 [3]

The southern pudu (Pudu puda, Mapudungun püdü or püdu, [4] Spanish : pudú, Spanish pronunciation:  [puˈðu] ) is a species of South American deer native to the Valdivian temperate forests of south-central Chile and adjacent Argentina. It is classified as Near Threatened in the IUCN Red List. [1]

Contents

Description

The southern pudu is characterized by being the second smallest deer in the world. It is slightly larger than its sister species, the northern pudu, being 35 to 45 cm (14 to 18 in) tall at the shoulder and weighs 6.4 to 13.4 kg (14 to 30 lb). The antlers of the southern pudu grow to be 5.3 to 9 cm (2.1 to 3.5 in) long and tend to curve back, somewhat like a mountain goat. Its coat is a dark chestnut-brown, and tends to tuft in the front, covering the antlers. [5]

Range and habitat

The southern pudu lives in forests, including both mature and disturbed forests, typically with a dense understory, but it does nevertheless prefer open spaces with rich vegetation for feeding. [6] It is found at lower elevations than its sister species, from sea level to 1,700 m (5,600 ft) elevation. In the Chilean Coast Range the pudu is found in primary and secondary broadleaf evergreen and alerce ( Fitzroya cupressoides ) forests, and sometimes in Eucalyptus plantations. In the southern Andes of Chile and Argentina it is associated with thickets of bamboo ( Chusquea spp.) and Nothofagus dombeyi forests. [1]

Foraging by southern pudu is thought to be detrimental for the regeneration of burned forests of Pilgerodendron uviferum . [6]

Genetic diversity

Analysis of the mtDNA control region and cytochrome b of the southern pudu across Chile revealed that different populations have marked genetic differences, with a large number of unique haplotypes in each population and few shared haplotypes between populations. This indicates that gene flow is reduced and most populations are reproductively isolated from each other. [7] The population from Chiloé Island is estimated to have become isolated from continental populations more than 200 thousand years ago and may constitute a separate subspecies. [8] This reproductive isolation makes each population an important evolutionary unit but also increases their vulnerability since a drastic reduction in the number of individuals would decrease genetic diversity without recovery from migrating individuals coming from neighboring areas. [7]

Further reading

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Deer</span> Family of mammals

A deer or true deer is a hoofed ruminant mammal of the family Cervidae. The two main groups of deer are the Cervinae, including muntjac, elk (wapiti), red deer, and fallow deer; and the Capreolinae, including reindeer (caribou), white-tailed deer, roe deer, and moose. Male deer of all species, as well as female reindeer, grow and shed new antlers each year. In this, they differ from permanently horned antelope, which are part of a different family (Bovidae) within the same order of even-toed ungulates (Artiodactyla).

<i>Pudu</i> Genus of mammals belonging to the deer, muntjac, roe deer, reindeer, and moose family of ruminants

The pudus are two species of South American deer from the genus Pudu, and are the world's smallest deer. The chevrotains are smaller, but they are not true deer. The name is a loanword from Mapudungun, the language of the indigenous Mapuche people of central Chile and south-western Argentina. The two species of pudus are the northern pudu from Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru, and the southern pudu from southern Chile and south-western Argentina. Pudus range in size from 32 to 44 centimeters tall, and up to 85 centimeters (33 in) long. The southern pudu is classified as near threatened, while the northern pudu is classified as Data Deficient in the IUCN Red List.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Monito del monte</span> Species of marsupial

The monito del monte or colocolo opossum, Dromiciops gliroides, also called chumaihuén in Mapudungun, is a diminutive marsupial native only to southwestern South America. It is the only extant species in the ancient order Microbiotheria, and the sole New World representative of the superorder Australidelphia. The species is nocturnal and arboreal, and lives in thickets of South American mountain bamboo in the Valdivian temperate forests of the southern Andes, aided by its partially prehensile tail. It eats primarily insects and other small invertebrates, supplemented with fruit.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Valdivian temperate forests</span> Temperate forest ecoregion in Chile and Argentina

The Valdivian temperate forests (NT0404) is an ecoregion on the west coast of southern South America, in Chile and Argentina. It is part of the Neotropical realm. The forests are named after the city of Valdivia. The Valdivian temperate rainforests are characterized by their dense understories of bamboos, ferns, and for being mostly dominated by evergreen angiosperm trees with some deciduous specimens, though conifer trees are also common.

<i>Pilgerodendron</i> Species of plant

Pilgerodendron is a genus of conifer belonging to the cypress family Cupressaceae. It has only one species, Pilgerodendron uviferum, which is endemic to the Valdivian temperate rain forests and Magellanic subpolar forests of southern Chile and southwestern Argentina. It grows from 40 to 54°20' S in Tierra del Fuego, where it is the southernmost conifer in the world. It is a member of subfamily Callitroideae, a group of distinct Southern Hemisphere genera associated with the Antarctic flora.

The Picunche, also referred to as picones by the Spanish, were a Mapudungun-speaking people living to the north of the Mapuches or Araucanians and south of the Choapa River and the Diaguitas. Until the Conquest of Chile the Itata was the natural limit between the Mapuche, located to the south, and Picunche, to the north. During the Inca attempt to conquer Chile the southern Picunche peoples that successfully resisted them were later known as the Promaucaes.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Brocket deer</span> Species of deer in the genus Mazama

Brockets or brocket deer are the species of deer in the genus Mazama. They are medium to small in size, and are found in the Yucatán Peninsula, Central and South America, and the island of Trinidad. Most species are primarily found in forests. They are superficially similar to the African duikers and the Asian muntjacs, but only distantly related. About 10 species of brocket deer are described.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Tolhuaca National Park</span> National Park in Araucanía Region, Chile

Tolhuaca National Park is a Protected Area created on October 16, 1935, in an area of 3,500 ha that was previously part of the Malleco National Reserve. In 1985, a second section of Malleco National Reserve was also made part of the national park. Malleco National Reserve was the first protected wildlife area in both Chile and South America, so the land within Tolhuaca National Park is one of the oldest protected areas on the continent.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Zona Sur</span> Natural region of continental Chile

Zona Sur is one of the five natural regions on which CORFO divided continental Chile in 1950. Its northern border is formed by the Bío-Bío River, which separates it from the Central Chile Zone. The Southern Zone borders the Pacific Ocean to the west, and to the east lies the Andean mountains and Argentina. Its southern border is the Chacao Channel, which forms the boundary with the Austral Zone. While the Chiloé Archipelago belongs geographically to the Austral Zone in terms of culture and history, it lies closer to the Southern Zone.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">South Andean deer</span> Species of deer

The south Andean deer, also known as the southern guemal, south Andean huemul, southern huemul, or Chilean huemul or güemul, is an endangered species of deer native to the mountains of Argentina and Chile. Along with the northern guemal or taruca, it is one of the two mid-sized deer in the Hippocamelus genus and ranges across the high mountainsides and cold valleys of the Andes. The distribution and habitat, behaviour, and diet of the deer have all been the subject of study. The viability of the small remaining population is an outstanding concern to researchers.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Taruca</span> Species of deer

The taruca, also known as the Peruvian guemal, north Andean deer, north Andean huemul, northern huemul or northern guemal, is a mid sized deer species that inhabits the high regions of the Andes mountains in South America. The common name taruca means "deer" in both the Quechua and Aymara languages, though these are not interrelated. The taruca is closely related to the southern guemal, the only other member of the Hippocamelus genus.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Chiloé Archipelago</span> Group of islands in Los Lagos Region, Chile

The Chiloé Archipelago is a group of islands lying off the coast of Chile, in the Los Lagos Region. It is separated from mainland Chile by the Chacao Channel in the north, the Sea of Chiloé in the east and the Gulf of Corcovado in the southeast. All islands except the Desertores Islands form Chiloé Province. The main island is Chiloé Island. Of roughly rectangular shape, the southwestern half of this island is a wilderness of contiguous forests, wetlands and, in some places, mountains. The landscape of the northeastern sectors of Chiloé Island and the islands to the east is dominated by rolling hills, with a mosaic of pastures, forests and cultivated fields.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Diuca finch</span> Species of bird

The diuca finch is a species of bird in the tanager family Thraupidae. It is the only member of the genus Diuca. It is found in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, and Uruguay. Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical dry shrubland, subtropical or tropical high-altitude shrubland, and heavily degraded former forest.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Northern pudu</span> Species of small South American deer

The northern pudu is a species of South American deer native to the Andes of Colombia, Venezuela, Peru and Ecuador. It is the world's smallest deer and is classified as Data Deficient in the IUCN Red List.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Chilihueque</span> Extinct South American camelid

The chilihueque or hueque was a South American camelid variety or species that existed in central and south-central Chile in Pre-Hispanic and colonial times. There are two main hypotheses on their status among South American camelids: the first one suggests that they are locally domesticated guanacos and the second that they are a variety of llamas brought from the north into south-central Chile. The alpaca has also been suggested as a possible identity. A 2016 mitochondrial DNA study concluded that the chilihueque from Mocha Island could derive from the wild guanaco populations of southern Chile.

The origin of the Mapuche has been a matter of research for over a century. The genetics of the Mapuche do not show overly clear affinities with any other known indigenous group in the Americas, and the same goes for linguistics, where the Mapuche language is considered a language isolate. Archaeological evidence shows Mapuche culture has existed in Chile at least since 600 to 500 BC. Mapuches are late arrivals in their southernmost and easternmost (Pampas) areas of settlement, yet Mapuche history in the north towards Atacama Desert may be older than historic settlement suggest. The Mapuche has received significant influence from Pre-Incan (Tiwanaku?), Incan and Spanish peoples, but deep origins of the Mapuche predates these contacts. Contact and conflict with the Spanish Empire are thought by scholars such as Tom Dillehay and José Bengoa to have had a profound impact on the shaping of the Mapuche ethnicity.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Maulino forest</span>

Maulino forest is a forest type naturally growing in the Chilean Coast Range of Central Chile from latitude 35°55 to 36°20 S. The forest grows in the transition zone between Mediterranean climate and humid temperate climate. Precipitation varies from 1000 to 700 mm/a and is concentrated in winter. According to geographers Humberto Fuenzalida and Edmundo Pisano the forest is one of mesophytes on the transition zone of temperate rain forests.

Meullín-Puye Nature Sanctuary is a protected area in Aysén Region of southern Chile. The sanctuary is in the basin of the Cuervo River, and protects an expanse of primary Valdivian temperate rain forest, along with lakes, wetlands and grasslands. It is managed by the Fundación Kreen.

References

  1. 1 2 3 Silva-Rodríguez, E.; Pastore, H.; Jiménez, J. (2016). "Pudu puda". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species . 2016: e.T18848A22164089. doi: 10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-1.RLTS.T18848A22164089.en . Retrieved 24 April 2023.
  2. "Appendices | CITES". cites.org. Retrieved 2022-01-14.
  3. Molina, Giovanni Ignazio (1782). "Il Pudu, Capra Puda". Saggio sulla storia naturale del Chili. Bologna: S. Tommaso d'Aquino. pp. 308–309.
  4. Muñoz Urrutia, Rafael, ed. (2006). Diccionario Mapuche: Mapudungun/Español, Español/Mapudungun (in Spanish) (2nd ed.). Santiago, Chile: Editorial Centro Gráfico Ltda. p. 184. ISBN   956-8287-99-X.
  5. "Forest South America". Animal Welfare Institute. Archived from the original on 2009-02-18. Retrieved 20 September 2009.
  6. 1 2 Burger, Andreas; Bannister, Jan R.; Galindo, Nicole; Vargas-Gaete, Rodrigo; Vidal, Osvaldo J.; Schlegel, Bastienne (2019). "Browsing evidence of the native and near-threatened Pudu puda deer in restoration plantings on Chiloé Island, Chile". Gayana. Botánica . 76 (1): 24–33. doi: 10.4067/S0717-66432019000100024 . S2CID   202853005.
  7. 1 2 Colihueque, Nelson; Cabello, Javier; Fuentes-Moliz, Andrea (21 June 2022). "Genetic divergence and demography of pudu deer (Pudu puda) in five provinces of southern Chile, analyzed through latitudinal and longitudinal ranges". Neotropical Biology and Conservation. 17 (2): 117–142. doi: 10.3897/neotropical.17.e81324 . eISSN   2236-3777. S2CID   249933031. Open Access logo PLoS transparent.svg
  8. Fuentes-Hurtado, Marcelo; Marín, Juan C.; González-Acuña, Daniel; Verdugo, Claudio; Vidal, Fernando; Vianna, Juliana A. (14 March 2011). "Molecular divergence between insular and continental Pudu deer (Pudu puda) populations in the Chilean Patagonia". Studies on Neotropical Fauna and Environment. 46 (1): 23–33. doi:10.1080/01650521.2010.537906. eISSN   1744-5140. ISSN   0165-0521. S2CID   85158582.