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after 52 seasons
|Level on pyramid||2|
|Promotion to||Soviet Top League|
|Relegation to||Soviet Second League|
|Last champions||FC Rotor Volgograd (1)|
|Most championships||FC Krylya Sovetov Samara (5)|
The Soviet First League in football (Russian : Первая лига СССР по футболу) was the second highest division of Soviet football, below the Soviet Top League.
While the second tier competitions in football among "teams of masters" (an official term for the Soviet professional clubs) existed since 1936,the First League has been officially formed in 1971 out of the Class A First Group. It followed the transitional 1970 season when the Class A was expanded to three groups (Vysshaya Gruppa, Pervaya Gruppa, Vtoraya Gruppa) and discontinuation of the Class B competitions for the 1971 season.
The league existed until the dissolution of the USSR in 1991.
The second tier competitions and predecessors of the First League has been known as Group B, Group 2, Class B, and Class A, group 2. The number of teams playing at this level fluctuated significantly during the history of Soviet football. In 1940s-1970s the league frequently consisted of several groups. The group winners qualified for the final tournament.
The second tier competitions among "teams of masters" existed since 1936 as part of four groups of eight All-Union competitions where each group represented a tier with Group A representing top tier, Group B representing second tier, Group V representing third tier and so on. Before the World War II the season competitions were inconsistent in every group.
Since after the World War II there existed only top two tiers for football competitions among "teams of masters". The top tier was called Pervaya Gruppa (First Group) and the second tier Vtoraya Gruppa (Second Group). In 1950 those tiers were renamed with the second tier competitions being renamed into the Class B (the top tier became the Class A).
In 1960 Class B competitions were transformed into regional competitions with separate competitions for Russia, Ukraine, and other republics. More transformations took place in 1963 when the second tier competitions were included in the Class A competitions, while the Class B competitions were shifted to the third tier for 1964 season, thus reviving the third level competitions. Following the 1963 reform, the second tier competitions became the Vtoraya Gruppa Classa A (Class A second group) and the top tier being renamed as the Pervaya Gruppa Classa A (Class A first group). The Vtoraya Gruppa did not have multi groups competition with only one group round robin tournament.
After the 1970-1971 reforms there was established the Soviet First League with a single group competition. The league became more consisted with number of teams in league and relegation/promotion rules.
One unusual feature of the league was one that have taken place before 1989. The Soviet Football Union tried to eliminate the growing amount of drawn games, thus, intensify the competition. The participated clubs were receiving a point for each drawn game, but the amount of all their drawn games could not exceed a third of all their games played. After that they received no points for any further draws that they earned. In 1987, for example, FC Fakel Voronezh was relegated by being short of a point having received no points for their two extra drawn games.
The teams that either won its group or participated in play-offs are included as well. All seasons are double-round robin unless otherwise indicated in "Notes".
|1936 (spring)||Dinamo Tiflis||ZIS Moscow||Stalinets Leningrad|
|1936 (autumn)||Serp i Molot Moscow||Temp Baku||Stalinets Moscow|
|1937||Spartak Leningrad||FC Dynamo Rostov/Don||Temp Baku|
|1938||not held, part of the Super League|
|1939||Krylya Sovetov Moscow||Lokomotivi Tbilisi||FC Dynamo Rostov/Don||single round robin|
|1940||Krasnaya Zarya Leningrad||FC Spartak Leningrad||Stroitel Yuga Baku|
|1941-44||no competition due to World War II|
|1945||Krylya Sovetov Kuybyshev||VVS Moscow||FC Moscow Military District|
|1946||South||VVS Moscow||DO Tbilisi||FC Lokomotiv Kharkov|
|East||FC Pischevik Moscow||FC Torpedo Gorky||FC MVO Moscow|
|Final||VVS Moscow||Pischevik Moscow|
|1947||Central||FC Lokomotiv Moscow||FC MVO Moscow||FC Dynamo Riga|
|Russia I||FC Torpedo Gorky||FC Dynamo Saratov||FC Zenit Izhevsk|
|Russia II||FC Dzerzhinets Chelyabinsk||ODO Novosibirsk||FC Krylia Sovetov Molotov|
|Ukraine||FC Lokomotyv Kharkiv||FC Shakhtar Donetsk||FC Kharchovyk Odessa|
|Caucasus||ODO Tbilisi||FC Dynamo Yerevan||FC Lokomotivi Tbilisi|
|Middle Asia||FC Dynamo Stalinabad||FC Dynamo Alma-Ata||FC Dynamo Tashkent|
|Final||Lokomotiv Moscow||Torpedo Gorkiy||Lokomotyv Kharkiv|
|1948||Central||FC Metallurg Moscow||FC Dynamo Riga||FC MVO Moscow|
|Russia I||FC Dynamo Kazan||FC Torpedo Gorky||FC Krasnoye Znamia Ivanovo|
|Russia II||FC Dzerzhinets Chelyabinsk||ODO Novosibirsk||ODO Sverdlovsk|
|Ukraine||FC Lokomotyv Kharkiv||FC Stal Dnipropetrovsk||ODO Kyiv|
|South||FC Dynamo Yerevan||ODO Tbilisi||FC Spartaki Tbilisi|
|Middle Asia||ODO Tashkent||FC Dynamo Alma-Ata||FC Lokomotiv Ashkhabat|
|Final||Lokomotyv Kharkiv||Metallurg Moscow||Dynamo Yerevan|
|1949||Central||FC Spartaki Tbilisi||FC Dynamo Kutaisi||Spartakas Vilnius|
|Russia I||FC Dynamo Rostov-on-Don||FC VMS Moscow||FC Dynamo Krasnodar|
|Russia II||DO Sverdlovsk||DO Novosibirsk||FC Dzerzhinets Chelyabinsk|
|Russia III||FC Sudostroitel Leningrad||DO Leningrad||FC Metallurg Moscow|
|Russia IV||FC Kalinin Kaliningrad||FC Stroitel Dulevo||FC Krasnoe Znamya Orekhovo-Zuyevo|
|Ukraine||FC Kharchovyk Odessa||FC Spartak Lviv||ODO Kyiv|
|Final||Spartak Tbilisi||Kalinin Kaliningrad||Kharchovyk Odessa|
|1950||VMS Moscow||Torpedo Gorkiy||Spartakas Vilnius|
|1951||Kalinin||Dinamo Minsk||Lokomotiv Moscow|
|1952||Kharkiv||Spartakas Vilnius||FC Lokomotyv Kharkiv||FC VMS Moscow|
|Ivanovo||DO Tbilisi||FC Krasnoe Znamya Ivanovo||FC Dinamo Alma-Ata|
|Baku||Neftçi PFK||FC Burevestnik Chișinău||FC Torpedo Gorky|
|Final||Lokomotyv Kharkiv||Spartakas Vilnius||DO Tbilisi|
|1953||Zone 1||FC Spartaki Tbilisi||FC Dynamo Yerevan||FC Torpedo Rostov-on-Don|
|Zone 2||FC Znamya Ivanovo||FC Dinamo Minsk||FC Metalurh Odessa|
|Zone 3||FC Shakhtar Stalino||FC Torpedo Gorky||FC Metalurh Zaporizhia|
|Final||Dinamo Minsk||Torpedo Gorkiy||Shakhtar Stalino|
|1954||Zone 1||FC Spartak Yerevan||Neftçi PFK||ODO Tbilisi|
|Zone 2||FC Zenit Moscow||Spartakas Vilnius||FC Khimik Moscow|
|Zone 3||FC Shakhtar Stalino||FC Torpedo Rostov-on-Don||FC Metalurh Zaporizhia|
|Final||Shakhtar Stalino||Spartakas Vilnius||Neftchi Baku|
|1955||Zone 1||Burevestnik Chisinau||Spartak Kalinin||ODO Kiev|
|Zone 2||ODO Sverdlovsk||Spartak Yerevan||ODO Tbilisi|
|1956||Zone 1||Spartak Minsk||Torpedo Taganrog||Metalurh Zaporizhia|
|Zone 2||Krylya Sovetov Kuybyshev||ODO Tbilisi||Spartak Yerevan|
|1957||Zone 1||FC Avangard Leningrad||FC Torpedo Taganrog||FC Avanhard Kharkiv|
|Zone 2||FC Spartak Stanislav||SKVO Lviv||FC Trudovyie Rezervy Leningrad|
|Zone 3||SKVO Tbilisi||FC Spartak Yerevan||Neftçi PFK|
|Far East||SKVO Khabarovsk||FC Dynamo Vladivostok||FC Burevestnik Tomsk|
|Final||Avangard Leningrad||Spartak Stanislav||SKVO Tbilisi|
|1958||Zone 1||SKVO Odessa||FC Trudovyie Rezervy Leningrad||FC Avanhard Mykolaiv|
|Zone 2||SKCF Sevastopol||FC Metalurh Zaporizhia||FC Rostselmash Rostov-on-Don|
|Zone 3||SKVO Lviv||Spartak Minsk||FC Lokomotyv Vinnytsia|
|Zone 4||SKVO Rostov-on-Don||FC Spartak Yerevan||FC Kuban Krasnodar|
|Zone 5||SKVO Sverdlovsk||FC Kairat Alma-Ata||FC Zvezda Perm|
|Zone 6||SKVO Khabarovsk||FC Tomich Tomsk||FC Urozhai Barnaul|
|Final||SKVO Rostov-na-Donu||SKVO Sverdlovsk||SKCF Sevastopol|
|1959||Zone 1||FC Trud Voronezh||FC Dynamo Kirov||FC Avanhard Mykolaiv|
|Zone 2||FC Trudovyie Rezervy Leningrad||FC Trud Glukhovo||FC Avanhard Kharkiv|
|Zone 3||FC Spartak Yerevan||FC Terek Grozny||FC Torpedo Taganrog|
|Zone 4||FC Lokomotyv Vinnytsia||FC Baltika Kaliningrad||SKVO Odessa|
|Zone 5||FC Admiralteyets Leningrad||FC Volga Kalinin||FC Zenit Izhevsk|
|Zone 6||FC Pamir Leninabad||FC Mashinostroitel Sverdlovsk||FC Metallurg Magnitogorsk|
|Zone 7||SKVO Sverdlovsk||FC Lokomotiv Krasnoyarsk||SKVO Khabarovsk|
|Russia Final||Admiralteyets Leningrad||Trudovyie Reservy Leningrad||Trud Voronezh|
|1960||Russia I||FC Trud Voronezh||FC Spartak Leningrad||FC Shakhter Stalinogorsk|
|Russia II||FC Volga Kalinin||FC Shinnik Yaroslavl||FC Dynamo Kirov|
|Russia III||FC Terek Grozny||FC Torpedo Taganrog||FC Spartak Krasnodar|
|Russia IV||FC Metallurg Nizhny Tagil||FC Zvezda Perm||FC Lokomotiv Chelyabinsk|
|Russia V||FC Irtysh Omsk||SKA Khabarovsk||FC Sibelektromotor Tomsk|
|Russia Final||Trud Voronezh||FC Irtysh Omsk||Volga Kalinin|
|Ukraine I||Sudnobudivnyk Mykolaiv||FC Lokomotyv Vinnytsia||FC Arsenal Kyiv|
|Ukraine II||FC Metalurh Zaporizhia||SKA Odessa||FC Trudovi Rezervy Luhansk|
|Ukraine Final||Metalurh Zaporizhzhya||Sudobudivnyk Mykolaiv|
|Republics I||FC Lokomotivi Tbilisi||FC Urozhai Minsk||FC Shirak Leninakan|
|Republics II||FC Torpedo Kutaisi||FC Pamir Leninabad||FC Progress Baku|
|Republics Final||Torpedo Kutaisi||Lokomotivi Tbilisi|
|1961||Russia I||FC Volga Kalinin||FC Metallurg Cherepovets||FC Dynamo Leningrad|
|Russia II||FC Dynamo Kirov||FC Baltika Kaliningrad||FC Iskra Kazan|
|Russia III||FC Krylia Sovietov Kuibyshev||FC Sokol Saratov||FC Traktor Stalingrad|
|Russia IV||FC Terek Grozny||FC Rostselmash Rostov-on-Don||FC Torpedo Taganrog|
|Russia V||FC Lokomotiv Chelyabinsk||FC Uralmash Sverdlovsk||FC Stroitel Ufa|
|Russia VI||SKA Khabarovsk||SKA Novosibirsk||FC Luch Vladivostok|
|Russia Final||Krylya Sovetov Kuybyshev||Terek Grozny||Dynamo Kirov|
|Ukraine I||FC Chornomorets Odessa||FC Lokomotyv Vinnytsia||FC Zirka Kirovohrad|
|Ukraine II||SKA Odessa||FC Trudovi Rezervy Luhansk||FC Avanhard Zhovti Vody|
|Ukraine Final||Chornomorets Odessa||SCA Odessa||Lokomotyv Vinnytsia|
|Republics I||FC Lokomotivi Tbilisi||FC Shirak Leninakan||Lokomotiv Gomel|
|Republics II||FC Torpedo Kutaisi||FC Shakhter Karaganda||FC Metallurg Rustavi|
|1962||Russia I||FC Shinnik Yaroslavl||FC Spartak Leningrad||FC Tekstilshchik Ivanovo|
|Russia II||FC Trud Voronezh||FC Trudovyie Rezervy Kursk||FC Serpukhov|
|Russia III||FC Spartak Krasnodar||FC Traktor Volgograd||FC Rostselmash Rostov-on-Don|
|Russia IV||FC Uralmash Sverdlovsk||FC Lokomotiv Chelyabinsk||FC Iskra Kazan|
|Russia V||SKA Novosibirsk||SKA Khabarovsk||FC Luch Vladivostok|
|Russia Final||Spartak Krasnodar||Trud Voronezh||Uralmash Sverdlovsk|
|Ukraine I||FC Chornomorets Odessa||FC Polissya Zhytomyr||FC Lokomotyv Donetsk|
|Ukraine II||SKA Odessa||FC Metalurh Zaporizhia||SKA Kyiv|
|Ukraine III||FC Trudovi Rezervy Luhansk||Avanhard Simferopol||FC Lokomotyv Vinnytsia|
|Ukraine Final||Trudovye Rezervy Lugansk||Chornomorets Odessa||Avanhard Simferopol|
|Republics I||Lokomotiv Gomel||FC Shirak Leninakan||FC Nairi Yerevan|
|Republics II||FC Shakhter Karaganda||FC Alga Frunze||FC Metallurg Chimkent|
|Republics Final||Shakhtyor Karaganda||Lokomotiv Gomel|
|1963||Shinnik Yaroslavl||Torpedo Gorkiy||Trud Voronezh|
|1964||Subgroup 1||FC Avanhard Kharkiv||FC Chornomorets Odessa||Žalgiris Vilnius|
|Subgroup 2||SCA Odessa||FC Shakhter Karaganda||Lokomotiv Moscow|
|Final||Lokomotiv Moscow||SCA Odessa||Pakhtakor Tashkent|
|1965||Subgroup 1||FC Tekstilshchik Ivanovo||FC Uralmash Sverdlovsk||FC Avanhard Kharkiv|
|Subgroup 2||FC Shinnik Yaroslavl||FC Zorya Luhansk||Žalgiris Vilnius|
|Final||Ararat Yerevan||Kairat Alma-Aty||Avanhard Kharkiv|
|1966||Subgroup 1||Žalgiris Vilnius||FC Tekstilshchik Ivanovo||FC Kuban Krasnodar|
|Subgroup 2||FC Zorya Luhansk||SKA Kyiv||SKA Lviv|
|Subgroup 3||FC Politodel||FC Shakhter Karaganda||FC Stroitel Ufa|
|Final||Zorya Luhansk||Žalgiris Vilnius||Politotdel Tashkent|
|1967||Subgroup 1||FC Dinamo Kirovabad||FK Daugava Riga||FC Kuban Krasnodar|
|Subgroup 2||SKA Kyiv||FC Metalurh Zaporizhia||SKA Lviv|
|Subgroup 3||FC Shakhter Karaganda||FC Uralmash Sverdlovsk||FC Alga Frunze|
|Final||Dynamo Kirovabad||Shakhtar Karaganda||SKA Kyiv|
|1968||Subgroup 1||FC Karpaty Lviv||SKA Kyiv||SKA Odessa|
|Subgroup 2||Sudnobudivnyk Mykolaiv||FC Metalist Kharkiv||FC Dnipro Dnipropetrovsk|
|Subgroup 3||FC Uralmash Sverdlovsk||FC Spartak Ordzhonikidze||FC Dynamo Makhachkala|
|Subgroup 4||FC Irtysh Omsk||FC Kuzbass Kemerovo||SKA Khabarovsk|
|Final||Uralmash Sverdlovsk||Karpaty Lviv||Irtysh Omsk|
|1969||Subgroup 1||FC Spartak Ordzhonikidze||FC Dynamo Leningrad||FC Kuban Krasnodar|
|Subgroup 2||SKA Khabarovsk||FC Rubin Kazan||FC Metallurg Kuibyshev|
|Subgroup 3||FC Dnipro Dnipropetrovsk||SKA Kyiv||FC Metalist Kharkiv|
|Subgroup 4||Žalgiris Vilnius||FC Shakhter Karaganda||FC Lokomotivi Tbilisi|
|Final||Spartak Ordzhonikidze||Dnipro Dnipropetrovsk||SKA Khabarovsk|
|1970||Karpaty Lviv||Kairat Alma-Aty||Dnipro Dnipropetrovsk|
|1971||Dnipro Dnipropetrovsk||Lokomotiv Moscow||Chornomorets Odessa|
|1972||Pakhtakor Tashkent||Shakhtar Donetsk||FC Chornomorets Odessa|
|1973||Chornomorets Odessa||Nistru Kishenev||Lokomotiv Moscow|
|1974||Lokomotiv Moscow||SKA Rostov/Donu||Dinamo Minsk|
|1975||Krylya Sovetov Kuybyshev||Dinamo Minsk||Torpedo Kutaisi|
|1976||Kairat Almaty||Neftchi Baku||Pakhtakor Tashkent|
|1977||Spartak Moscow||Pakhtakor Tashkent||Tavriya Simferopol|
|1978||Krylya Sovetov Kuybyshev||SKA Rostov/Donu||Dinamo Minsk|
|1979||Karpaty Lviv||Kuban Krasnodar||Pamir Dushanbe|
|1980||Tavriya Simferopol||Dnipro Dnipropetrovsk||Metalist Kharkiv|
|1981||Metalist Kharkiv||Torpedo Kutaisi||Lokomotiv Moscow|
|1982||Žalgiris Vilnius||Nistru Kishenev||Kolos Nikopol|
|1983||Kairat Almaty||SKA Rostov/Donu||Fakel Voronezh|
|1984||Fakel Voronezh||Torpedo Kutaisi||SKA Karpaty Lviv|
|1985||West||FC Daugava Riga||SKA Karpaty Lviv||FC Kotayk|
|East||FC Shinnik Yaroslavl||FC Pamir Dushanbe||FC CSKA Moscow|
|Final||Daugava Rīga||CSKA Moscow||SKA Karpaty Lviv|
|1986||CSKA Moscow||Guria Lanchkhuti||Daugava Rīga|
|1987||Chornomorets Odessa||Lokomotiv Moscow||Daugava Rīga|
|1988||Pamir Dushanbe||Rotor Volgograd||CSKA Moscow|
|1989||CSKA Moscow||Guria Lanchkhuti||Kairat Alma-Aty|
|1990||Spartak Vladikavkaz||Pakhtakor Tashkent||Metalurh Zaporizhia|
|1991||Rotor Volgograd||Tiligul Tiraspol||Uralmash Yekaterinburg|
|Club||Winners||Runners-Up||3rd Position||Years Won|
|FC Krylia Sovietov Kuibyshev||5||1945, 1956*, 1961*, 1975, 1978|
|FC Lokomotiv Moscow||3||2||3||1947, 1964, 1974|
|FC Chernomorets Odessa||3||1||3||1961*, 1973, 1987|
|FC Dinamo Minsk||2||2||2||1953, 1956*|
|FC Torpedo Kutaisi||2||2||1||1960*, 1961*|
|FC Kairat Alma-Ata||2||2||1||1976, 1983|
|FC Fakel Voronezh||2||1||3||1960*, 1984|
|FC Ararat Yerevan||2||1||2||1959*, 1965|
|FC CSKA Moscow||2||1||1||1986, 1989|
|FC Karpaty Lvov||2||1||1970, 1979|
|FC Lokomotiv Kharkov||2||1||1948, 1952|
|FC Admiralteyets Leningrad||2||1957, 1959*|
|FC Zarya Lugansk||2||1962*, 1966|
|FC Spartak Ordzhonikidze||2||1969, 1990|
|FC Zhalgiris Vilnius||1||3||1||1982|
|FC Pakhtakor Tashkent||1||2||2||1972|
|FC Dnepr Dnepropetrovsk||1||2||1||1971|
|FC Zimbru Kishinev||1||2||1955*|
|FC Shakhter Donetsk||1||1||1||1954|
|Serp i Molot Moscow||1||1||1936|
|FC Spartak Leningrad||1||1||1937|
|FC Shakhter Karaganda||1||1||1962*|
|FC Lokomotivi Tbilisi||1||1||1961*|
|FC Kuban Krasnodar||1||1||1962*|
|FC Rotor Volgograd||1||1||1991|
|SC Tavriya Simferopol||1||2||1980|
|FC Metallist Kharkov||1||2||1981|
|FC Daugava Riga||1||2||1985|
|FC Metallurg Zaporozhie||1||2||1960*|
|FC Uralmash Sverdlovsk||1||2||1968|
|FC Lokomotiv Vinnitsa||1||1||1959*|
|FC Pamir Dushanbe||1||1||1988|
|FC Krylia Sovietov Moscow||1||1939|
|FC Krasnaya Zarya Leningrad||1||1940|
|FC Spartaki Tbilisi||1||1949|
|FC VMS Moscow||1||1950|
|FC MVO Moscow||1||1951|
|FC Shinnik Yaroslavl||1||1963|
|FC Pamir Leninabad||1||1959*|
|FC Spartak Moscow||1||1977|
There were over 260 teams that played in the Soviet First League.
|SKA Karpaty Lvov||Ukraine||23||1949||1989||813||344||202||267||1058||918||1234|
1Three points for a win. In 1973, a point for a draw was awarded only to a team that won the subsequent penalty shootout. In 1978–1988, the number of draws for which points were awarded was limited.
|Season||Champion||Runner-Up||3rd Position||Top Goalscorer|
|1971||Chernomorets Odessa (1)||Metallurg Zaporozhye||Dnepr Dnepropetrovsk|
|1974||SKA Rostov-na-Donu (1)||Dinamo Minsk||Krylya Sovetov Kuibyshev|
|1978||Dinamo Minsk (1)||SKA Rostov-na-Donu||Karpaty Lvov|
|1979||Zhalgiris Vilnius (1)||Pamir Dushanbe||Karpaty Lvov|
|1980||Kolos Nikopol (1)||SKA Odessa||Metallist Kharkov|
|1982||SKA-Karpaty Lvov (1)||SKA Odessa||Kolos Nikopol|
|1983||Iskra Smolensk (1)||Lokomotiv Moscow||SKA Rostov-na-Donu|
|Metallurg Zaporozhye (1)||Kairat Alma-Ata||SKA-Karpaty Lvov|
|1984||Iskra Smolensk (2)||Zvezda Dzhizak||Nistru Kishinev|
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