The Casino of Spa
|• Mayor||Sophie Delettre (MR)|
|• Governing party/ies||MR – cdH-OC|
|• Total||39.85 km2 (15.39 sq mi)|
|• Density||260/km2 (670/sq mi)|
Spa (Walloon : Spå) is a Belgian town located in the Province of Liège, and the town where the term spa originates. The town of Spa is situated in a valley in the Ardennes mountains 35 kilometres (22 miles) southeast of Liège and 45 kilometres (28 miles) southwest of Aachen. In 2006, Spa had a population of 10,543 and an area of 39.85 square kilometres (15.39 square miles), giving a population density of 265 inhabitants per km² (685/sq mi).
Walloon is a Romance language that is spoken in much of Wallonia in Belgium, in some villages of Northern France and in the northeast part of Wisconsin, US until the mid 20th century and in some parts of Canada. It belongs to the langue d'oïl language family, whose most prominent member is the French language. The historical background of its formation was the territorial extension since 980 of the Principality of Liège to the south and west.
Belgium, officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a sovereign state in Western Europe. It is bordered by the Netherlands to the north, Germany to the east, Luxembourg to the southeast, France to the southwest, and the North Sea to the northwest. It covers an area of 30,688 km2 (11,849 sq mi) and has a population of more than 11.4 million. The capital and largest city is Brussels; other major cities are Antwerp, Ghent, Charleroi and Liège.
A spa is a location where mineral-rich spring water is used to give medicinal baths. Spa towns or spa resorts typically offer various health treatments, which are also known as balneotherapy. The belief in the curative powers of mineral waters goes back to prehistoric times. Such practices have been popular worldwide, but are especially widespread in Europe and Japan. Day spas are also quite popular, and offer various personal care treatments.
Spa is one of Belgium's main tourist cities. The town of Spa is famous for its several natural mineral springs, and is also the location of mineral water producer Spa, whose mineral water is exported worldwide. The Circuit de Spa-Francorchamps, which hosts the annual Belgian Grand Prix, is in the village of Francorchamps near Spa.
Spa is a brand of mineral water from Spa, Belgium, and is owned by the Spadel Group. Spa mineral water has been bottled since the end of the 16th century and is very common in Western Europe and especially in the Benelux countries and Germany but is also exported to other parts of the world. Spa Mineral Water is distributed in the UK by Aqua Amore Ltd. Spa mineral water comes from the grounds of the Hautes Fagnes, of which the upper layers exists from heath land and peat.
The Circuit de Spa-Francorchamps is a motor-racing circuit located in Stavelot, Belgium. It is also referred to as Spa and is the venue of the Formula One Belgian Grand Prix, and the Spa 24 Hours and 1000 km Spa endurance races.
The Belgian Grand Prix is an automobile race, part of the Formula One World Championship. The first national race of Belgium was held in 1925 at the Spa region's race course, an area of the country that had been associated with motor sport since the very early years of racing. To accommodate Grand Prix motor racing, the Circuit de Spa-Francorchamps race course was built in 1921 but it was only used for motorcycle racing until 1924. After the 1923 success of the new 24 hours of Le Mans in France, the Spa 24 Hours, a similar 24-hour endurance race, was run at the Spa track.
The first beauty pageant in the world was the Concours de Beauté, held in Spa on 19 September 1888. Spa hosted the finish of Stage 2 of the 2010 Tour de France on July 5.
A beauty pageant or beauty contest is a competition that has traditionally focused on judging and ranking the physical attributes of the contestants, although most contests have evolved to also incorporate personality traits, intelligence, talent, and answers to judges' questions as judged criteria. The term refers largely to contests for women such as the Big Four international beauty pageants.
The 2010 Tour de France was the 97th edition of the Tour de France cycle race, one of cycling's Grand Tours. It started on 3 July with an 8.9 km prologue time trial in Rotterdam, the first start in the Netherlands since 1996. The race visited three countries: the Netherlands, Belgium and France, and finished on 25 July on the Champs-Élysées in Paris.
As the famed site of healing cold springs, Spa has been frequented as a watering-place since as early as the 14th century. Though other sources of healing mineral springs have become famous throughout the world, it is the town of Spa which has become eponymous with any place having a natural water source that is believed to possess special health-giving properties, as a spa . The Spa town grew at that time, in the oldest iron and steel centre of the province of Liege. The "ban Spa", was created around 1335 and included two urban concentrations, "vilhe of Creppe" and "vilhe" Spas, 2 kilometres (1.2 miles) away. [ citation needed ] The steel industry prior to the exploitation of mineral water developed communication lines, which made it possible to develop the spa town.
An eponym is a person, place, or thing after whom or after which something is named, or believed to be named. The adjectives derived from eponym include eponymous and eponymic. For example, Elizabeth I of England is the eponym of the Elizabethan era, and "the eponymous founder of the Ford Motor Company" refers to Henry Ford. Recent usage, especially in the recorded-music industry, also allows eponymous to mean "named after its central character or creator".
A spa town is a resort town based on a mineral spa. Patrons visit spas to "take the waters" for their purported health benefits. The word spa is derived from the name of Spa, a town in Belgium.
Pliny the Elder noted "In Tongrie, country of Gaul, [ citation needed ] there is a famous source, whose water, while sparkling bubbles, a ferruginous taste that is, however, feel that when we finished drinking. This water purges the body, cures fevers and dispels calculous affections."(C lib.XXXI VIII).
In 1559 there appeared in the famous work of Gilbert Lymborh "Acid fountains of the Ardennes forest and primarily those located in Spa." It was translated into Latin, Italian and Spanish.
Latin is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. The Latin alphabet is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet.
Italian is a Romance language of the Indo-European language family. Italian descended from the Vulgar Latin of the Roman Empire and, together with Sardinian, is by most measures the closest language to it of the Romance languages. Italian is an official language in Italy, Switzerland, San Marino and Vatican City. It has an official minority status in western Istria. It formerly had official status in Albania, Malta, Monaco, Montenegro (Kotor) and Greece, and is generally understood in Corsica and Savoie. It also used to be an official language in the former Italian East Africa and Italian North Africa, where it still plays a significant role in various sectors. Italian is also spoken by large expatriate communities in the Americas and Australia. Italian is included under the languages covered by the European Charter for Regional or Minority languages in Bosnia and Herzegovina and in Romania, although Italian is neither a co-official nor a regional or a traditional language in these countries, where Italians do not represent a historical minority. In the case of Romania, Italian is listed by the Government along 10 other languages which supposedly receive a "general protection", but not between those which should be granted an "advanced or enhanced" one. Many speakers of Italian are native bilinguals of both Italian and other regional languages.
Spanish or Castilian, is a Romance language that originated in the Iberian Peninsula and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in the Americas and Spain. It is a global language and the world's second-most spoken native language, after Mandarin Chinese.
As early as 1547, Agustino, physician to the King of England, Henry VIII, was staying at Spa and helped give knowledge to the world of the value of the Spa water. In July 1565 the gentry of the provinces met in Spa under the pretext of taking the waters.
At the hotel "Aux Armes of England", those present agreed to oppose the edicts of Philip II which were austere and intolerant; this is the history "Compromise of Nobles."
In 1654, Charles II of England stayed at Spa, which made the place even more famous. A postal system between Spa and the outside world was established in 1699.
Since the 18th century casinos have also been located in the town.
In 1918, the German Army established its principal headquarters in Spa, and it was from here that the delegates set out for the French lines to meet Marshal Foch and sue for peace in the consultations leading up to the Armistice which ended the First World War.
During the Great War of 1914-1918, Spa was an important German convalescent hospital town between 1914 and 1917. The general headquarters of Kaiser Wilhelm II was, in 1918, the last place where he resided before his removal due to the German surrender. In July 1920 it hosted the Spa Conference, a meeting of the Supreme Council. German delegates were invited to this to discuss war reparations.
World War II saw Spa reoccupied by the Germans but the town escaped the Battle of the Bulge in 1945 that stopped, luckily for Spa, just at its gates.
The Marshall Plan helped Belgium to recover quickly. 1950 and 1960, gradually led to the development of mass tourism replacing the Spa elite as customers. These were decades of social tourism as well, with an attendance of more and more numerous Flemish and Dutch customers, while the Walloons went en masse to the Belgian coast in Flanders. Tourism relaxation replaced the thermal aspect of Spa.
May 17, 1983 to mark the 400th anniversary of the export of Spa waters,HM King Baudouin visited the new facilities of the Spa Monopole SA, the Henrijean Hydrology Institute and the Thermal Establishment. A special train Brussels-Spa led the morning delegates and foreign and Belgian journalists. On behalf of the European Association and the European Union Sources of natural mineral water which is headquartered in Paris, Paul Bordier, president at the annual conference of the association, gave the train a conference dealing European mineral water market. Then, arriving by helicopter, King Baudouin lands in the park fermière Company and visited the city and its tourist facilities and spa.
The years 1980 and 1990, announced the beginning of an infrastructure renewal and Spa radiation. In 1994, a new French song festival is created: the "Francofolies".
In 2007, 150,000 spectators attend the festival. In 1997, the area of Spa-Bérinzenne opens the Education Centre on the environment one of whose specialties is water, etc.
In 2005, a new center "thermoludism" born on the hill of Annette and Lubin with panoramic views of the city. It is directly linked by funicular to the heart of the city and a new hotel luxe.
In 2007, the Spa-Francorchamps circuit completely renew its infrastructure to comply with the best international standards, allowing it to continue to host each year, the Formula One Grand Prix 1 in Belgium, in addition to many other sporting events annual.
Spa has two railway stations: Spa and Spa-Géronstère, where local trains of SNCB/NMBS link the city with Theux, Verviers and Aachen. The railway line used to extend further south towards Trois-Ponts, Vielsalm and Luxembourg. Local and regional bus services in Spa are provided by the Walloon transport company TEC. Spa is located on the crosspoint of national roads N62, N629 and N686. The nearest motorway is the A27 (E42), where a junction for Spa is located in the commune of Jalhay.
The Coat of Arms for Spa is a stylized pouhon housed in a neoclassical monument to the covering surrounded by a protective wall opened its facade. The monument is topped by a blue banner bearing the "Spa-Pouhon" inscriptions. "Argent masonry money pouhon of sand topped with gold-SPA Pouhon inscriptions on a blue background." The city colours are yellow and blue. The stylized pouhon is inspired by the monument that housed the pouhon Peter the Great until 1820.
Under the Old Regime, the shield was commonly used in spa towns. It was customary for the spa guests to leave their arms at the hotel where he had stayed in recognition of the benefits of the waters. At Spa, many hotels have inscriptions like "In the Arms of England", "the Duke of Orleans," "To the King of Poland", etc.
Spa has an oceanic climate that is made more continental by its higher elevation and inland position compared to other Belgian climates at lower level or closer to the sea. Spa has a relatively high precipitation year round, with tricky weather something that the Spa-Francorchamps race track is known for. The elevation also results in cooler summers and frequent winter frost along with snowfall. Spa is quite gloomy year round although averaging both a drier and sunnier climate than nearby locations Stavelot and Malmedy that are also surrounding the race track.
|Climate data for Spa (1981–2010 normals; sunshine 1984–2013)|
|Average high °C (°F)||3.6|
|Daily mean °C (°F)||1.0|
|Average low °C (°F)||−1.6|
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||110.0|
|Average precipitation days||14.9||13.0||15.1||11.7||13.0||13.0||12.9||12.1||12.3||12.6||14.8||15.7||161.1|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||47||71||112||157||184||182||197||187||134||105||52||35||1,463|
|Source: Royal Meteorological Institute|
The 1975 film Barry Lyndon is partly set in Spa during the eighteenth century.
The 1975 film Belle is wholly set in contemporary Spa and its environs.
Agatha Christie's fictional detective Hercule Poirot was born in Spa.
Spa is twinned with:
The Meuse or Maas is a major European river, rising in France and flowing through Belgium and the Netherlands before draining into the North Sea from the Rhine–Meuse–Scheldt delta. It has a total length of 925 km.
Luxembourg, also called Belgian Luxembourg, is the southernmost province of Wallonia and of Belgium. It borders on the country of Luxembourg to the east, France to the south and southwest, and the Belgian provinces of Namur to the northwest and Liège to the northeast. Its capital is Arlon, in the south-east of the province.
Wallonia is a region of Belgium. As the southern portion of the country, Wallonia is primarily French-speaking, and accounts for 55% of Belgium's territory and a third of its population. The Walloon Region was not merged with the French Community of Belgium, which is the political entity responsible for matters related mainly to culture and education, because the French Community of Belgium encompasses both Wallonia and the majority French-Speaking Brussels-Capital Region.
The Ardennes is a region of extensive forests, rough terrain, rolling hills and ridges formed by the geological features of the Ardennes mountain range and the Moselle and Meuse River basins. Geologically, the range is a western extension of the Eifel, and both were raised during the Givetian age of the Devonian as were several other named ranges of the same greater range.
Liège is the easternmost province of Wallonia and Belgium.
Dinant is a Walloon city and municipality located on the River Meuse, in the Belgian province of Namur. It lies 90 kilometres (56 mi) south-east of Brussels, 30 kilometres (19 mi) south-east of Charleroi and 30 kilometres (19 mi) south of Namur. Dinant is situated 20 kilometres (12 mi) north of the border with France.
Namur is a city and municipality in Wallonia, Belgium. It is both the capital of the province of Namur and of Wallonia, hosting the Parliament of Wallonia, Walloon Government and administration.
Malmedy is a Walloon city and municipality of Belgium. It lies in the province of Liège. On January 1, 2006, Malmedy had a total population of 11,829. The total area is 99.96 km² which gives a population density of 118 inhabitants per km².
Stavelot is a Walloon municipality in the Belgian province of Liège. In 2006, Stavelot had a population of 6,671 and an area of 85.07 km2 (32.85 sq mi), giving a population density of 78 inhabitants per square kilometre (200/sq mi).
Bastogne is a Walloon municipality of Belgium located in the province of Luxembourg in the Ardennes. The municipality of Bastogne includes the old communes of Longvilly, Noville, Villers-la-Bonne-Eau, and Wardin. The town is situated on a ridge in the Ardennes at an elevation of 510 metres (1,670 ft).
Karlovy Vary or Carlsbad is a spa town situated in western Bohemia, Czech Republic, on the confluence of the rivers Ohře and Teplá, approximately 130 km (81 mi) west of Prague (Praha). It is named after Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor and King of Bohemia, who founded the city in 1370. It is the site of numerous hot springs, and is the most visited spa town in the Czech Republic.
Évian-les-Bains, or simply Évian, is a commune in the northern part of the Haute-Savoie department in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region in south-eastern France.
The Hesbaye (French), or Haspengouw is a geophysical region in Belgium, a plateau region of low, fertile hills, running parallel with the northern bank of a section of the Maas river that flows from west to east.
The history of Wallonia, from prehistoric times to the present day, is that of a territory which, since 1970, has approximately coincided with the territory of Wallonia, a federated component of Belgium, which also includes the smaller German-speaking Community of Belgium. Wallonia is the name colloquially given to the Walloon Region. The French word Wallonie comes from the term Wallon, itself coming from Walh. Walh is a very old Germanic word used to refer to a speaker of Celtic or Latin.
Francorchamps is an old commune now part of the Stavelot municipality, a Walloon city in the Belgian province of Liège. It is home to the motor-racing Circuit de Spa-Francorchamps.
Liège is a major Walloon city and municipality and the capital of the Belgian province of Liège.
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