Special cities of Japan

Last updated
(Circle click-able)
-- Designated cities
-- Core cities
-- Special cities Map of Japanese Designated cities, Core cities and Special cities.svgAkitaChibaNiigataFukuiWakayamaTottoriSagaŌitaMiyazaki
(Circle click-able)
      ― Designated cities
      ― Core cities
      ― Special cities

A special city (特例市, Tokureishi) of Japan is a city with a population of at least 200,000, and is delegated functions[ specify ] normally carried out by prefectural governments. Those functions are a subset of the ones delegated to a core city.

Contents

This category was established by the Local Autonomy Law, article 252 clause 26. They are designated by the Cabinet after a request by the city council and the prefectural assembly.

Because the level of autonomy delegated to special cities is similar to that for core cities, after consultation with local governments the category of special cities was abolished in the revision of the Local Autonomy Act enacted on April 1, 2015, and cities with a population of at least 200,000 may now apply to be directly promoted to core city status. Special cities which have not been promoted may still retain autonomy, and are called special cities for the enforcement period (施行時特例市, Shikōji Tokurei shi). As a special case, within five years of the abolishment of the category of special cities, i.e. before April 1, 2020, special cities with a population under 200,000 may also apply to be promoted to core city status. [1]

The special cities are not the same as the special wards of Tokyo. They are also different from special cities (特別市, tokubetsu-shi) that were legally established in the Local Autonomy Law between 1947 and 1956, but never implemented. They would have been prefecture-independent cities (in an analogous way, special wards are city-independent wards). They were the legal successors to the 1922 "six major cities" (roku daitoshi; only five were left in 1947 as Tokyo City had been abolished in the war) and precursors to the 1956 designated major cities which have expanded autonomy, but not full independence from prefectures. [2]

List of special cities

As of 1 April 2021, 23 cities have been designated special cities:

NameJapaneseFlagPopulation (2012)Date of designationRegionPrefecture
Atsugi 厚木市 Flag of Atsugi, Kanagawa.svg 224,1812002-04-01 Kantō Kanagawa
Chigasaki 茅ヶ崎市 Flag of Chigasaki, Kanagawa.svg 239,8742003-04-01 Kantō Kanagawa
Fuji 富士市 Flag of Fuji, Shizuoka.png 245,0152001-04-01 Chūbu Shizuoka
Hiratsuka 平塚市 Flag of Hiratsuka, Kanagawa.svg 260,0612001-04-01 Kantō Kanagawa
Ibaraki 茨木市 Flag of Ibaraki, Osaka.svg 276,4742001-04-01 Kansai Osaka
Isesaki 伊勢崎市 Flag of Isesaki, Gunma.svg 207,2532007-04-01 Kantō Gunma
Jōetsu 上越市 Flag of Joetsu, Niigata.svg 202,3662007-04-01 Chūbu Niigata
Kakogawa 加古川市 Flag of Kakogawa, Hyogo.svg 268,1752002-04-01 Kansai Hyōgo
Kasugai 春日井市 Flag of Kasugai, Aichi.svg 306,5732002-04-01 Chūbu Aichi
Kasukabe 春日部市 Flag of Kasukabe, Saitama.svg 236,9762008-04-01 Kantō Saitama
Kishiwada 岸和田市 Flag of Kishiwada, Osaka.svg 197,6292002-04-01 Kansai Osaka
Kumagaya 熊谷市 Flag of Kumagaya, Saitama.svg 201,8142009-04-01 Kantō Saitama
Nagaoka 長岡市 Flag of Nagaoka, Niigata.svg 281,1012007-04-01 Chūbu Niigata
Numazu 沼津市 Flag of Numazu, Shizuoka.svg 199,8832000-04-01 Chūbu Shizuoka
Odawara 小田原市 Flag of Odawara, Kanagawa.svg 194,6722000-04-01 Kantō Kanagawa
Ōta 太田市 Flag of Ota, Gunma.svg 217,1072007-04-01 Kantō Gunma
Saga 佐賀市 Flag of Saga, Saga.svg 237,5012014-04-01 Kyushu Saga
Sōka 草加市 Flag of Soka, Saitama.svg 244,8512004-04-01 Kantō Saitama
Takarazuka 宝塚市 Flag of Takarazuka, Hyogo.svg 227,6172003-04-01 Kansai Hyōgo
Tokorozawa 所沢市 Flag of Tokorozawa, Saitama.svg 344,1942002-04-01 Kantō Saitama
Tsukuba つくば市 Flag of Tsukuba, Ibaraki.svg 244,5282007-04-01 Kantō Ibaraki
Yamato 大和市 Flag of Yamato, Kanagawa.svg 230,3572000-04-01 Kantō Kanagawa
Yokkaichi 四日市市 Flag of Yokkaichi, Mie.svg 306,1072000-04-01 Chūbu Mie

Related Research Articles

Prefectures of Japan Overview of the prefectures of Japan

Japan is divided into 47 prefectures, forming the country's first level of jurisdiction and administrative division. They include 43 prefectures proper, two urban prefectures, one "circuit" or "territory" and one "metropolis". In 1868, the Meiji Fuhanken sanchisei administration created the first prefectures to replace the urban and rural administrators in the parts of the country previously controlled directly by the shogunate and a few territories of rebels/shogunate loyalists who had not submitted to the new government such as Aizu/Wakamatsu. In 1871, all remaining feudal domains (han) were also transformed into prefectures, so that prefectures subdivided the whole country. In several waves of territorial consolidation, today's 47 prefectures were formed by the turn of the century. In many instances, these are contiguous with the ancient ritsuryō provinces of Japan.

Cities of Japan Overview of local administrative units in Japan

A city is a local administrative unit in Japan. Cities are ranked on the same level as towns and villages, with the difference that they are not a component of districts. Like other contemporary administrative units, they are defined by the Local Autonomy Law of 1947.

Special wards of Tokyo special form of municipalities in Honshu, Japan

Special wards are a special form of municipalities in Japan under the 1947 Local Autonomy Law. They are city-level wards: primary subdivisions of a prefecture with municipal autonomy largely comparable to other forms of municipalities.

Kawagoe, Saitama Core city in Kantō, Japan

Kawagoe is a city in Saitama Prefecture, Japan. As of 1 February 2021, the city had an estimated population of 353,214 in 162,210 households and a population density of 3200 persons per km². The total area of the city is 109.13 square kilometres (42.14 sq mi). The city is known locally as "Little Edo" after the old name for Tokyo, due to its many historic buildings.

Numazu Special city in Chūbu, Japan

Numazu is a city located in eastern Shizuoka Prefecture, Japan. As of 1 December 2019, the city had an estimated population of 189,486 in 91,986 households, and a population density of 1,014 persons per km². The total area of the city is 186.96 square kilometres (72.19 sq mi).

Tatsuno, Hyōgo City in Kansai, Japan

Tatsuno is a city in Hyōgo Prefecture, Japan. The city was founded on April 1, 1951.

Cities designated by government ordinance of Japan Type of Japanese city

A city designated by government ordinance, also known as a designated city or government ordinance city, is a Japanese city that has a population greater than 500,000 and has been designated as such by order of the Cabinet of Japan under Article 252, Section 19 of the Local Autonomy Law.

Core cities of Japan

A core city is a class or category of Japanese cities. It is a local administrative division created by the national government. Core cities are delegated many functions normally carried out by prefectural governments, but not as many as designated cities. To become a candidate for core city status, a city must have a population greater than 300,000 and an area greater than 100 square kilometers, although special exceptions may be made by order of the cabinet for cities with populations under 300,000 but over 200,000. After the abolition of special city status on April 1, 2015, any city with a population above 200,000 may apply for core city status.

Provincial city (Taiwan)

A city, previously provincial city, is an administrative division unit in Taiwan.

The Japanese addressing system is used to identify a specific location in Japan. When written in Japanese characters, addresses start with the largest geographical entity and proceed to the most specific one. When written in Latin characters, addresses follow the convention used by most Western addresses and start with the smallest geographic entity and proceed to the largest. The Japanese system is complex and idiosyncratic, the product of the natural growth of urban areas, as opposed to the systems used in cities that are laid out as grids and divided into quadrants or districts.

Municipalities of Japan

Japan has three levels of government: national, prefectural, and municipal. The nation is divided into 47 prefectures. Each prefecture consists of numerous municipalities, with 1,719 in total. There are four types of municipalities in Japan: cities, towns, villages and special wards. In Japanese, this system is known as shikuchōson (市区町村), where each kanji in the word represents one of the four types of municipalities. Some designated cities also have further administrative subdivisions, also known as wards. But, unlike the Special wards of Tokyo, these wards are not municipalities.

Tokyo City Former municipality in Japan

Tokyo City was a municipality in Japan and part of Tokyo-fu which existed from 1 May 1889 until its merger with its prefecture on 1 July 1943. The historical boundaries of Tokyo City are now occupied by the 23 Special Wards of Tokyo. The new merged government became what is now Tokyo, also known as the Tokyo Metropolis, or, ambiguously, Tokyo Prefecture.

Tokyo Prefecture Former Japanese government entity

Tokyo Prefecture was a Japanese government entity that existed between 1868 and 1943.

Japanese place names include names for geographic features, present and former administrative divisions, transportation facilities such as railroad stations, and historic sites in Japan. The article Japanese addressing system contains related information on postal addresses.

The bureaucratic administration of Japan is divided into three basic levels; national, prefectural, and municipal. Below the national government there are 47 prefectures, six of which are further subdivided into subprefectures to better service large geographical areas or remote islands. The municipalities are the lowest level of government; the twenty most-populated cities outside Tokyo Metropolis are known as designated cities and are subdivided into wards.

Same-sex marriage is not recognized in Japan. Several municipalities and prefectures of Japan issue same-sex partnership certificates which provide some benefits but do not offer any legal recognition. Most polls conducted since 2013 have found that a majority of Japanese people support the legalization of same-sex marriage or partnerships, and a 2018 poll found it supported by an overwhelming majority of those under age 60.

The politics of Tokyo City, as the capital of the Empire of Japan, took place under special regulations that limited its local autonomy compared to other municipalities in Japan. In 1943, the city's independent institutions were eliminated altogether under the authoritarian Tōjō cabinet and the administration was absorbed by the appointed government of Tokyo prefecture.

Politics of Osaka City, as in all municipalities of Japan, takes place in the framework of local autonomy that is guaranteed by chapter 8 of the Constitution and laid out in the Local Autonomy Law. As one of Japan's 20 major cities designated by government ordinance, Osaka City has some administrative responsibilities that are handled by the prefectures in ordinary municipalities and is subdivided into wards.

Shanghai Japanese School

The Shanghai Japanese School (SJS) is a Japanese international school serving primary and junior high school levels in Shanghai. It has two campuses, one in Hongqiao and one in Pudong. The school's teachers are Japanese citizens. The school also has a senior high school component.

References

  1. 日本總務省 - 中核市・施行時特例市. soumo.go.jp.
  2. Satoru Ohsugi (2011): The Large City System of Japan Council of Local Authorities for International Relations and Institute for Comparative Studies in Local Governance, National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies. – Note: this paper translates tokurei-shi as "special case city" and uses "special city" for tokubetsu-shi