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A sports game is a video game genre that simulates the practice of sports. Most sports have been recreated with a game, including team sports, track and field, extreme sports and combat sports. Some games emphasize actually playing the sport (such as the Madden NFL series), whilst others emphasize strategy and sport management (such as Championship Manager and Out of the Park Baseball ). Some, such as Need for Speed , Arch Rivals and Punch-Out!! , satirize the sport for comic effect. This genre has been popular throughout the history of video games and is competitive, just like real-world sports. A number of game series feature the names and characteristics of real teams and players, and are updated annually to reflect real-world changes. Sports genre is one of the oldest genres in gaming history.
A video game genre is a classification assigned to a video game based on its gameplay interaction rather than visual or narrative differences. A video game genre is defined by a set of gameplay challenges and are classified independently of their setting or game-world content, unlike other works of fiction such as films or books. For example, a shooter game is still a shooter game, regardless of where or when it takes place.
Sport includes all forms of competitive physical activity or games which, through casual or organised participation, aim to use, maintain or improve physical ability and skills while providing enjoyment to participants, and in some cases, entertainment for spectators. Hundreds of sports exist, from those between single contestants, through to those with hundreds of simultaneous participants, either in teams or competing as individuals. In certain sports such as racing, many contestants may compete, simultaneously or consecutively, with one winner; in others, the contest is between two sides, each attempting to exceed the other. Some sports allow a "tie" or "draw", in which there is no single winner; others provide tie-breaking methods to ensure one winner and one loser. A number of contests may be arranged in a tournament producing a champion. Many sports leagues make an annual champion by arranging games in a regular sports season, followed in some cases by playoffs.
A team sport includes any sport where individuals are organized into opposing teams which compete to win. Team members act together towards a shared objective. This can be done in a number of ways such as outscoring the opposing team. Team members set goals, make decisions, communicate, manage conflict, and solve problems in a supportive, trusting atmosphere in order to accomplish their objectives. Examples are basketball, volleyball, rugby, water polo, handball, lacrosse, cricket, baseball, and the various forms of football and hockey.
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Sports games involve physical and tactical challenges, and test the player's precision and accuracy.Most sports games attempt to model the athletic characteristics required by that sport, including speed, strength, acceleration, accuracy, and so on. As with their respective sports, these games take place in a stadium or arena with clear boundaries. Sports games often provide play-by-play and color commentary through the use of recorded audio.
Sports games sometimes make use of different modes for different parts of the game. This is especially true in games about American football such as the Madden NFL series, where executing a pass play requires six different gameplay modes in the span of approximately 45 seconds.Sometimes, other sports games offer a menu where players may select a strategy while play is temporarily suspended. Association football video games sometimes shift gameplay modes when it is time for the player to attempt a penalty kick, a free shot at goal from the penalty spot, taken by a single player. Some sports games also require players to shift roles between the athletes and the coach or manager. These mode switches are more intuitive than other game genres because they reflect actual sports.
American football, referred to as football in the United States and Canada and also known as gridiron, is a team sport played by two teams of eleven players on a rectangular field with goalposts at each end. The offense, which is the team controlling the oval-shaped football, attempts to advance down the field by running with or passing the ball, while the defense, which is the team without control of the ball, aims to stop the offense's advance and aims to take control of the ball for themselves. The offense must advance at least ten yards in four downs, or plays, and otherwise they turn over the football to the defense; if the offense succeeds in advancing ten yards or more, they are given a new set of four downs. Points are primarily scored by advancing the ball into the opposing team's end zone for a touchdown or kicking the ball through the opponent's goalposts for a field goal. The team with the most points at the end of a game wins.
Madden NFL is an American football video game series developed by EA Tiburon for EA Sports. It is named after Pro Football Hall of Fame coach and commentator John Madden, and has sold more than 130 million copies, and influenced many players and coaches of the physical sport. Among the game's realistic features are sophisticated playbooks and player statistics, and voice commentary that allows players to hear the game as if it were a real TV broadcast. As of 2013 the franchise has generated over $4 billion in sales.
Older 2D sports games sometimes used an unrealistic graphical scale, where athletes appeared to be quite large in order to be visible to the player. As sports games have evolved, players have come to expect a realistic graphical scale with a high degree of verisimilitude.Sports games often simplify the game physics for ease of play, and ignore factors such as a player's inertia. Games typically take place with a highly accurate time-scale, although they usually allow players to play quick sessions with shorter game quarters or periods.
Sports games sometimes treat button-pushes as continuous signals rather than discrete moves, in order to initiate and end a continuous action. For example, football games may distinguish between short and the long passes based on how long the player holds a button. Golf games often initiate the backswing with one button-push, and the swing itself is initiated by a subsequent push.
In 1958, William Higinbotham created a game called Tennis for Two , a competitive two-player tennis game played on an oscilloscope. The players would select the angle at which to put their racket, and pressed a button to return it. Although this game was incredibly simple, it demonstrated how an action game (rather than previous puzzles) could be played on a computer.
William Higinbotham was an American physicist. A member of the team that developed the first nuclear bomb, he later became a leader in the nonproliferation movement. He also has a place in the history of video games for his 1958 creation of Tennis for Two, the first interactive analog computer game and one of the first electronic games to use a graphical display.
Tennis for Two is a sports video game, which simulates a game of tennis, and was one of the first games developed in the early history of video games. American physicist William Higinbotham designed the game in 1958 for display at the Brookhaven National Laboratory's annual public exhibition after learning that the government research institution's Donner Model 30 analog computer could simulate trajectories with wind resistance. He designed the game, displayed on an oscilloscope and played with two custom aluminum controllers, in a few hours, after which he and technician Robert V. Dvorak built it over three weeks. The game's visuals show a representation of a tennis court viewed from the side, and players adjust the angle of their shots with a knob on their controller and try to hit the ball over the net by pressing a button.
A multiplayer video game is a video game in which more than one person can play in the same game environment at the same time, either locally or over the internet. During its early history, video games were often single-player-only activities, putting the player against preprogrammed challenges or AI-controlled opponents, which lack the flexibility of human thought. Multiplayer games allow players interaction with other individuals in partnership, competition or rivalry, providing them with social communication absent from single-player games. In multiplayer games, players may compete against one or more human contestants, work cooperatively with a human partner to achieve a common goal, supervise other players' activity, co-op. Multiplayer games typically require players to share the resources of a single game system or use networking technology to play together over a greater distance.
Video games prior to the late 1970s were primarily played on university mainframe computers under timesharing systems that supported multiple computer terminals on school campuses. The two dominant systems in this era were Digital Equipment Corporation's PDP-10 and Control Data Corporation's PLATO. Both could only display text, and not graphics, originally printed on teleprinters and line printers, but later printed on single-color CRT screens.
Around that time, electro-mechanical sports arcade games were being produced. Examples include Taito's Crown Soccer Special (1967),Sega's racing game Grand Prix (1969), and Chicago Coin's racing game Speedway (1969). In the 1970s, arcade video games began to appear, many of them centered around the sports genre, after it was popularized by the first commercially successful video game, Atari's Pong (1972).
In 1973, Taito released an early team sport video game, Davis Cup , a tennis doubles game with similar ball-and-paddle gameplay but played in doubles, with both players controlling two paddles each.That year, Taito also released another early team sport video game, Soccer , based on association football; it was also a ball-and-paddle game, but with a green background to simulate a playfield, allowed each player to control both a forward and a goalkeeper, and let them adjust the size of the players who were represented as paddles on screen. Both Davis Cup and Soccer were designed by Tomohiro Nishikado of Space Invaders fame. Early hockey video games were also released in 1973: Sega's Hockey TV, and Taito's Pro Hockey , which had similar gameplay to Pong, but with boundaries around the screen and only a small gap for the goal.
In 1974, Taito released Basketball . It displays images both for the players and the baskets, and is an early attempt at accurately simulating a team sport. Each player controls two team members, a forward and a guard. The ball can be dribbled and passed between team members before shooting, and the ball had to fall into the opposing team's basket to score a point.That same year, Sega released an association football game, Goal Kick, which was played like an early vertical ball-and-paddle game. The first driving video games were also released that year: Taito's Speed Race (1974) which introduced scrolling graphics, and Atari's Gran Trak 10 . In 1976, the driving subgenre was extended into three dimensions, with the forward-scrolling third-person perspective of Sega's motorbike racing game Moto-Cross , soon re-branded as Fonz that same year, and with the first-person perspective of Atari's Night Driver .
In 1975, Universal Research Laboratories (URL) released an early four-player multiple-sports game, Video Action, which featured several different sporting minigames, including Pong-style variants of tennis, hockey, and association football, as well as an early volleyball game and a unique four-court tennis game. Video Action was also an early example of cooperative gameplay, as each sport could be played in teams of two.That same year, Nintendo released EVR-Race, an early horse racing simulation game with support for up to six players. In 1976, Sega released an early combat sport game, Heavyweight Champ , based on boxing and now considered the first fighting game. In 1978 Atari released Atari Football , which is considered to be the first video game to accurately emulate American football; it also popularized the use of the trackball, having been inspired by an earlier Taito soccer game that used a trackball. Taito also released an early bowling game in 1978, Top Bowler , followed by an early baseball game in 1979, Ball Park .
Between 1980 and 1984, Atari and Mattel's Intellivision waged a series of high-stakes TV advertising campaigns promoting their respective systems, marking the start of the first console wars. Atari prevailed in arcade games and had a larger customer base due to its lower price, while Intellivision touted its visually superior sports games. Sports writer George Plimpton was featured in the Intellivision ads,which showed the parallel games side by side. Both Atari and Intellivision fielded at least one game for baseball, American football, hockey, basketball, auto racing and association football.
In 1981, Taito released Alpine Ski , an early extreme sport game, based on winter sports. It was a vertical scrolling game that involved maneuvering a skier through multiple events: a downhill ski course, a slalom racing course, and a ski jumping competition.That same year, Sega's Turbo introduced a third-person perspective into the genre, with Namco's Pole Position then popularizing the now common rear-view racer format and introducing AI opponents the following year.
In 1982, Taito released an early golf game, Birdie King ,Tehkan released an early swimming game, Swimmer , and Data East released an early fishing game, Angler Dangler . That same year, ZX Spectrum released the first association football management simulation, Football Manager , while Konami released an early Olympic-themed athletics game, Track & Field , which featured multiple Olympic track & field events (including the 100-meter dash, long jump, javelin throw, 110-meter hurdles, hammer throw, and high jump) and allowed up to four players to compete. In 1983, EA produced their first sports game Dr. J and Larry Bird Go One on One , which was also the first licensed sports game based on the names and likenesses of famous athletes. The inclusion of famous real world athletes would become one of the most important selling points for sports games.
Also in 1983, Alpha Denshi's arcade release Champion Baseball published by Sega displayed the playfield using several different camera angles, including a close-up shot of the player and batter, and gave players the option of selecting relief pitchers or pinch hitters, while an umpire looks on attentively to make the game calls. The game was very popular in Japanese arcades at the time.That same year, Mattel released Intellivision World Series Baseball (IWSB) by Don Daglow and Eddie Dombrower, possibly the earliest sports game to use multiple camera angles to show the action in a manner resembling a television broadcast. Earlier sports games prior to this had displayed the entire field on screen, or scrolled across static top-down fields to show the action. IWSB mimicked television baseball coverage by showing the batter from a modified "center field" camera, the baserunners in corner insets and defensive plays from a camera behind the batter. It was also, along with Champion Baseball, one of the first sports games to feature audibly-speaking players (as opposed to text), using the Mattel Intellivoice module.
Another early sports game to show multiple camera angles in 1983 was Irem's MotoRace USA , a motorbike racing game that switched between vertical-scrolling and third-person views depending on the player's location on the map, switching to third-person view when near a city and to a vertical-scrolling view when on country roads.Another early sports game to feature digitized voices from that year was Alpha Denshi's Exciting Soccer , an early influential soccer football game, which let one or two players choose from six teams, featured a control scheme where they could tackle, shoot, short-pass, and long-pass, featured an overhead view, and had realistic touches like corner kicks, throw-ins, penalty shots, and cheerleaders. Other early soccer football games from that same year were Data East's Pro Soccer and Commodore's International Soccer. Two early water sport games, both based on waterskiing, were also released that year: Taito's Water Ski and Irem's Tropical Angel , the latter also featuring a female player character. That same year, Taito released Joshi Volleyball , an early volleyball game, and they released Irem's 10-Yard Fight , an American-football game that featured an early career mode, where the player progresses from high school, to college, professional, playoff, and Super Bowl, as the difficulty increases with each step. Meanwhile, Kaneko released Roller Aces, an early roller skating game played from a third-person perspective. An early wrestling game, Technōs Japan's Tag Team Wrestling , was also released that year, and was followed by another wrestling game, Sega's Appoooh, the year after.
In 1984, several early sports laserdisc video games were released, including Universal's Top Gear which featured 3D animated race car driving,while Sega's GP World and Taito's Laser Grand Prix featured live-action footage. Sega also produced a unique bullfighting game, Bull Fight , and a multiple-watersports game Water Match (published by Bally Midway), which included swimming, kayaking and boat racing; while Taito released a fully third-person motorbike racing game Kick Start , an early female sports game based on high-school track & field, The Undoukai, and an early dirt track racing game Buggy Challenge , featuring a buggy. Other early dirt racing games from that year were dirt bike games: Nintendo's Excitebike and SNK's motocross game Jumping Cross . Nintendo also released an early four-player racquet sport game, Vs. Tennis (the Nintendo Vs. System version of Tennis ), while SNK released an early horse racing game, Gladiator 1984 .
That same year, early ice hockey games were also released: Alpha Denshi's Bull Fighterand Data East's Fighting Ice Hockey . Data East also released a unique lawn sports game Haro Gate Ball, based on croquet, while Nichibutsu released a unique game based on roller derby, Roller Jammer. Meanwhile, Technos Japan released a unique game based on sumo wrestling, Syusse Oozumou, and the first martial arts combat-sport game, Karate Champ , considered one of the most influential fighting games. That same year, game designer Scott Orr founded GameStar, a game publisher specializing in Commodore 64 sports games, and served as its lead designer. GameStar was the most successful sports computer game company of its era, until Orr sold the company to Activision in 1986.
In 1985, Sega released Hang-On , a popular early Grand Prix style rear-view motorbike racer,considered the first full-body-experience video game. That same year, Nintendo released an early arm wrestling game, Arm Wrestling , while Konami released a table tennis game that attempted to accurately reflect the sport, Konami's Ping Pong . That year, Tehkan also released Tehkan World Cup , one of the first multiplayer soccer football games featuring a trackball controller, where a button was used for kicking the ball and the trackball used for the direction and speed of the shot, with gameplay that was fairly realistic. In 1988, EA released Earl Weaver Baseball again developed by Don Daglow and Eddie Dombrower, which for the first time combined a highly accurate simulation game with high quality graphics. This was also the first game in which an actual baseball manager provided the computer AI. In 1996 Computer Gaming World named 'EWB the 25th of its Best 150 Games of All Time, the second highest ranking for any sports game in that 1981–1996 period (after FPS Football).
The 1990s began in the 16 bit era, as a wave of fourth generation video game consoles were created to handle more complex games and graphics.
In 1989 Electronic Arts producer Richard Hilleman hired GameStar's Scott Orr to re-design John Madden Football for the fast-growing Sega Genesis. In 1990 Orr and Hilleman released the game that is still recognized today as Madden Football, the best-selling sports game in North America up until that time.[ citation needed ] They focused on producing a head-to-head two-player game with an intuitive interface and responsive controls.
Also in 1990, Taito released Football Champ , an early soccer football game to allow up to four players in multiplayer mode, involving both competitive and cooperative gameplay. It also let players perform a number of actions, including a back heel, power kick, high kick, sliding tackle, super shot, and fouling other players (kicking, punching, and pulling shirts), which the player can get away with if the referee isn't looking, but the referee will hand out a yellow or red penalty card if he spots foul play.In 1991, the American football game Tecmo Super Bowl was the first mainstream sports game to feature both the league and player association licenses of the sport it emulated; previous titles either had one license or the other, but Tecmo Super Bowl was the first to feature real NFL players on real teams.
Orr joined EA full-time in 1991 after the success of Madden on the Sega Genesis, and began a ten-year period of his career where he personally supervised the production of the Madden Football series. During this time EA formed EA Sports, a brand name used for sports games they produced. EA Sports created several ongoing series, with a new version released each year to reflect the changes in the sport and its teams since the previous release.
Eventually in the 1990s, 3D graphics were introduced in sports arcade games. In particular, Sega's Virtua Striker in 1994 was the first association football game to use 3D computer graphics, and was also notable for its early use of texture mapping.That same year saw the arrival of the 32-bit era of video game consoles, with the release of the Sega Saturn and Sony's PlayStation, both capable of 3D graphics. Soon after, 3D graphics cards were introduced for personal computers (PCs). These updated systems allowed home sports games to also be made in 3D. The first sports console game to exploit these updates was Gremlin Interactive's Actua Soccer , released in 1995 for the PlayStation.
Meanwhile, Sierra Online released Front Page Sports Football in 1995 for the PC. The following year Computer Gaming World named it twelfth of the Best 150 Games of All Time, the highest ranking sports game in the list.
At the end of the 20th and beginning of the 21st century, extreme sport video games began to appear more frequently.
In 1996, two early snowboarding games were released: Namco's Alpine Surfer in the arcades,and the UEP Systems game Cool Boarders for the PlayStation console. The following year, Square's popular role-playing video game, Final Fantasy VII , included a snowboarding minigame that was later released as an independent snowboarding game, Final Fantasy VII Snowboarding , for mobile phones. In 2000, SSX was released. Based around boardercross, the game featured fast downhill races, avoiding various objects whilst using others to perform jumps and increase the player's speed.
In 1997, Sega released one of the first mainstream skateboarding games, Top Skater ,in the arcades, where it introduced a skateboard controller interface. The following year saw the release of the console skateboarding game Street Sk8er , developed by Atelier Double and published by Electronic Arts. In 1999, the subgenre was further popularized by Tony Hawk's Pro Skater , an arcade-like skateboarding game where players were challenged to execute elaborate tricks or collect a series of elements hidden throughout the level.
On December 13, 2004, Electronic Arts began a string of deals that granted exclusive rights to several prominent sports organizations, starting with the NFL.This was quickly followed with two deals in January 2008 securing rights to the AFL and ESPN licenses. This was a particularly hard blow to Sega, the previous holder of the ESPN license, who had already been affected by EA's NFL deal. As the market for football brands was being quickly taken by EA, Take-Two Interactive responded by contacting the Major League Baseball Players Association and signing a deal that granted exclusive third-party major-league baseball rights; a deal not as restrictive, as first-party projects were still allowed. The NBA was then approached by several developers, but declined to enter into an exclusivity agreement, instead granting long-term licenses to Electronic Arts, Take-Two Interactive, Midway Games, Sony, and Atari. In April 2005, EA furthered its hold on American football licensing by securing rights to all NCAA brands.
In 1993, Sega released the Sega Activator, a motion detection game controller designed to respond to a player's body movements, for their Genesis console.The Activator was based on the Light Harp, a MIDI controller invented by Assaf Gurner.
Like the Light Harp, the Activator is an octagonal frame that lies on the floor. Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) on the frame vertically project thin, invisible beams of infrared light. When something, such as a player's arm or leg, ineerrupts a beam, the device reads the distance at which the interruption occurred, and interprets the signal as a command. The device can also interpret signals from multiple beams simultaneously (i.e., chords) as a distinct command.
Sega designed especial Activator motions for a few of their own game releases. By tailoring motion signals specifically for a game, Sega attempted to provide a more intuitive gaming experience. A player could, for example, compete in Greatest Heavyweights of the Ring or Eternal Champions by miming punches.
Despite these efforts, the Activator was a commercial failure. Like the Power Glove of 1989, it was widely rejected for its "unwieldiness and inaccuracy".
In 2006, Nintendo released Wii Sports , a sports game for the Wii console in which the player had to physically move their Wii Remote to move their avatar.The game contained five different sports—boxing, bowling, golf, tennis, and baseball—which could all be played individually or with multiple players. Players could also track their skill progress through the game, as they became more proficient at the different sports, and use the training mode to practice particular situations. As of 2013, Wii Sports became the second-highest selling video game of all time.
Wii Sports opened the way for other physically reactive sports-based video games, such as Mario & Sonic at the Olympic Games , the first official title to feature both Mario and Sonic the Hedgehog, in which players used the Wii Remote to simulate running, jumping and other Olympic sports.In 2008, Nintendo released Wii Fit , which allowed players to do aerobic and fitness exercises using the Wii Balance Board. In a similar light, 2008 saw the release of Mario Kart Wii , a racing game which allowed the player to use their remote with a Wii Wheel to act as a steering wheel, akin to those on traditional arcade racing games.
The sports genre is currently dominated by EA Sports and 2K Sports, who hold licenses to produce games based on official leagues. EA's franchises include the Madden NFL series, the NHL series, the FIFA series, and the NBA Live series. 2K Sports' franchises include the WWE 2K series, NHL 2K, and the NBA 2K series. All of these games feature real leagues, competitions and players. These games continue to sell well today despite many of the product lines being over a decade old, and receive, for the most part, consistently good reviews.
With 2K & EA Sports' domination, the market has become very difficult to enter; competing games in any of the above genres, with the exception of racing games, tend to be unsuccessful. This has led to a sharp drop in sports-themed titles over recent years. One of the most notable exceptions is Konami's Pro Evolution Soccer series, which is often hailed as an alternative to the FIFA series, but does not contain as many licensed teams, players, kits, or competitions. Another deviation from the norm is Sony's MLB The Show series, which now has a monopoly on the baseball genre after the withdrawal of 2K after MLB 2K13.Racing games, due to the variation that the sport can offer in terms of tracks, cars and styles, offer more room for competition and the selection of games on offer has been considerably greater (examples being F1 and the World Rally Championship, and many unlicensed games). Sports management games, while not as popular as they used to be, live on through small and independent software development houses. Management titles today have transitioned to the very popular fantasy sports leagues, which are available through many websites such as Yahoo . Independent developers are also creating sports titles like Super Mega Baseball, The Golf Club, and Freestyle2: Street Basketball.
Nintendo has been able to make an impact upon the sports market by producing several Mario-themed titles, such as Super Mario Strikers , Mario Hoops 3-on-3 , Mario Tennis Open , and Mario Golf: World Tour . These titles sell respectfully, but are only available on Nintendo's video game consoles, for example Nintendo GameCube, Nintendo 64, Nintendo 3DS, Wii, Wii U and Nintendo Switch.
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Sports games have traditionally been very popular arcade games. The competitive nature of sports lends itself well to the arcades where the main objective is usually to obtain a high score. The arcade style of play is generally more unrealistic and focuses on a quicker gameplay experience. However the competitive nature of sports and being able to gain a high score while compete against friends for free online, has made online sports games very popular. Examples of this include the NFL Blitz and NBA Jam series.
Simulation games are more realistic than arcade games, with the emphasis being more on realism than on how fun the game is to pick up and play. Simulation games tend to be slower and more accurate while arcade games tend to be fast and can have all kinds of ad-hoc rules and ideas thrown in, especially pre-2000. For example, NBA Jam had only two players on each team and there was a NES game where every bicycle kick performed no matter where in the field it was made the screen flash and ended up as a goal.
A sports management game puts the player in the role of team manager. Whereas some games are played online against other players, management games usually pit the player against AI controlled teams in the same league. Players are expected to handle strategy, tactics, transfers, and financial issues. Various examples of these games can be found in the sports management category.
Since Track & Field, games have combined multiple sports into a single game. Wii Sports and Wii Sports Resort are recent examples. Multisport tournaments are becoming the basis for computer games.
Sports-based fighting games are titles that fall firmly within the definitions of both the Fighting game and Sports game genre, such as boxing and wrestling video games. As such, they are usually put in their own separate subgenres. Often the fighting is far more realistic than in traditional fighting games (though the amount of realism can greatly vary), and many feature real-world franchises or fighters. Examples of this include the Fight Night , UFC 2009 Undisputed and WWE 2K series.
More and more, video sports games are starting to look and act like their TV counterparts as developers focus on creating realistic commentary and camera-angles. Additionally, televised sports, namely American football, have started to model some of their cameras on those seen in video games.[ when? ]
A light gun is a pointing device for computers and a control device for arcade and video games, typically shaped to resemble a pistol. In aviation and shipping, it can also be a directional signal lamp.
Arkanoid is an arcade game released by Taito in 1986. It expanded upon Atari's Breakout games of the 1970s by adding power-ups, different types of bricks, a variety of level layouts, and more sculpted, layered visuals. The title refers to a doomed mother ship from which the player's ship, the Vaus, escapes. It was widely ported to contemporary systems and followed by a series of remakes and sequels, including the 1987 arcade game Arkanoid: Revenge of Doh. Arkanoid revived the Breakout concept, resulting in many clones and similar games for home computers, even over a decade later.
The racing video game genre is the genre of video games, either in the first-person or third-person perspective, in which the player partakes in a racing competition with any type of land, water, air or space vehicles. They may be based on anything from real-world racing leagues to entirely fantastical settings. In general, they can be distributed along a spectrum anywhere between hardcore simulations, and simpler arcade racing games. Racing games may also fall under the category of sports games.
This is a list of all video game lists on Wikipedia, sorted by varying classifications.
Chase H.Q. is a 1988 arcade racing game, released by Taito. It is sometimes seen as a spiritual successor to Taito's earlier Full Throttle. The player assumes the role of a police officer named Tony Gibson, member of the "Chase Special Investigation Department." Along with his partner, Raymond Broady, he must stop fleeing criminals in high-speed pursuits in a black Porsche 928.
Elevator Action is a 1983 arcade game by Taito. A mix of the platform and shooter genres, the player assumes the role of a spy infiltrating a 30-story building filled with elevators and enemy agents who appear from behind closed doors.
Tomohiro Nishikado is a Japanese video game developer. He is best known as the creator of the shooter game Space Invaders, released to the public in 1978 by the Taito Corporation of Japan, often credited as the first shoot 'em up and for beginning the golden age of video arcade games. Originally Nishikado wanted to use airplanes as enemies for Space Invaders, but would have encountered problems making them move smoothly due to the limited computing power at the time. Humans would have been easier to render, but management at Taito forbade the use of human targets. Prior to Space Invaders, he was also the designer for many of Taito's earlier hits, including the early team sport games Soccer and Davis Cup in 1973, the early scrolling racing video game Speed Race in 1974, the early dual-stick on-foot multi-directional shooter Gun Fight in 1975, and the first-person combat flight simulator Interceptor in 1975.
Fueled by the previous year's release of the colorful and appealing Pac-Man, the audience for arcade games in 1981 became much wider. Pac-Man influenced maze games began appearing in arcades and on home systems. Nintendo broke from their mediocre early releases with Donkey Kong which defined the platform genre.
1976 has several new titles such as Road Race, Night Driver and Heavyweight Champ.
A side-scrolling game, side-scroller or 2D is a video game in which the gameplay action is viewed from a side-view camera angle, and the onscreen characters can generally only move to the left or right. These games make use of scrolling computer display technology. The move from single-screen or flip-screen graphics to scrolling graphics, during the golden age of video arcade games and during third-generation consoles, would prove to be a pivotal leap in game design, comparable to the move to 3D graphics during the fifth generation. Although side-scrolling games have been supplanted by 3D games, they continue to be produced, particularly for handheld devices or for digital-only releases.
Lock 'n' Chase (ロック・ン・チェイス) is a 1981 maze arcade game developed and published by Data East in Japan in 1981, and later published in North America by Taito. Lock 'n' Chase was Data East's response to Pac-Man. The game was licensed to Mattel who produced the Intellivision and Atari 2600 home console versions in 1982 and an Apple II version in January 1983.
Ever since Pole Position in 1983, Formula One has always played a part of the racing genre in video games. Geoff Crammond's 1991 simulation Grand Prix played an integral role in moving Formula One games from arcade games to being full simulations of the sport. Platforms: Arcade, SG-1000, Intellivision, ColecoVision, Commodore 64, ZX Spectrum, Atari 7800, Nintendo Entertainment System, Game Boy, Commodore 16, Commodore Plus/4, Amstrad CPC, MSX, Amiga, Atari ST, PC DOS, Sega Mega Drive/Sega Genesis, Sega Game Gear, TurboGrafx-16, Super Nintendo Entertainment System, Sega Master System, Sega CD, Sega Saturn, PlayStation, Microsoft Windows, Nintendo 64, Dreamcast, Game Boy Color, PlayStation 2, Xbox, GameCube, PlayStation Portable, PlayStation 3, Wii, Xbox 360, iOS, PlayStation Vita, Nintendo 3DS, Mac OS X, Wii U, PlayStation 4, Xbox One, macOS, Android, tvOS, Linux
A motion controller is a type of game controller that uses accelerometers or other sensors to track motion and provide input.
In video games, first person is any graphical perspective rendered from the viewpoint of the player's character, or a viewpoint from the cockpit or front seat of a vehicle driven by the character. Many genres incorporate first-person perspectives, among them adventure games, driving, sailing, and flight simulators. Most notable is the first-person shooter, in which the graphical perspective is an integral component of the gameplay.
Atari Football is a 2-player 1978 arcade game. It was developed and published by Atari, Inc.. In this game, the sport of American football is emulated, with players represented by Xs and Os. The game was one of the most popular arcade games in its day. In 1979, Atari released a more challenging four-player version programmed by Dave Theurer, the creator of Missile Command and Tempest.
A vertically scrolling video game or vertical scroller is a video game in which the player views the field of play principally from a top-down perspective, while the background scrolls from the top of the screen to the bottom to create the illusion that the player character is moving in the game world.
Contrary to a popular notion, Football was not the first game to use a trak-ball controller. According to Dave Stubben, who created the hardware for Atari Football, Taito beat Atari to market with a soccer game that used one. According to Steve Bristow, when his engineers saw the game, they brought a copy into their lab and imitated it.