St. Bernard (dog)

Last updated

St. Bernard
Hummel Vedor vd Robandahoeve.jpg
Saint Bernard, male, longhaired, 14 months old
Other namesSaint Bernhardog
St. Bernhardshund
Alpine Spaniel
Common nicknamesSaint
Origin [1]
Height Dogs 70 to 90 cm (28 to 35 in) [1]
Bitches 65 to 80 cm (26 to 31 in) [1]
Weight Dogs 64 to 82 kg (140 to 180 lb) [2]
Bitches 54 to 64 kg (120 to 140 lb) [2]
Litter size 10 puppies
Life span 8-10 years
Kennel club standards
FCI standard
Dog ( domestic dog )

The Saint Bernard or St. Bernard ( UK: /ˈbɜːnəd/ , US: /bərˈnɑːrd/ ) is a breed of very large working dog from the Western Alps in Italy and Switzerland. [3] They were originally bred for rescue work by the hospice of the Great St Bernard Pass on the Italian-Swiss border. [4] [5] The hospice, built by and named after Italian monk Bernard of Menthon, acquired its first dogs between 1660 and 1670. [4] The breed has become famous through tales of Alpine rescues, as well as for its large size, and gentle temperament.



The St. Bernard is recognized internationally today as one of the molosser breeds. [6] It is a giant dog. The coat can be either smooth or rough; the smooth coat being close and flat, while the rough is dense, flat, and more profuse around the neck and legs. The colour is typically a red shade with white, or a mahogany brindle with white. Black shading is usually found on the face and ears. The tail is long and heavy, hanging high. The eyes are usually brown, but sometimes can be icy blue, and should have naturally tight lids, with haws only slightly visible.

History of the St. Bernard

A St. Bernard in use as an avalanche dog (1929) Hospice du Grand Saint-Bernard, Gustav Nunnicke 03.jpg
A St. Bernard in use as an avalanche dog (1929)

The earliest written records of the St. Bernard are from monks at the Great St Bernard Hospice at the Great St Bernard Pass in 1707, with paintings and drawings of the dog dating even earlier. [7] Early British accounts of the breed described the breed as the Alpine Spaniel. [8] The first evidence that the dogs were in use at the monastery is in two paintings dating to 1690 by Italian artist Salvator Rosa. The most famous St. Bernard to save people at the pass was Barry (sometimes spelled Berry), who reportedly saved somewhere between 40 and 100 lives. There is a monument to Barry in the Cimetière des Chiens, and his body was preserved in the Natural History Museum in Bern. [9] Another famous dog was Rutor, the faithful companion of the Italian priest Pierre Chanoux, who was named after the peak Tête du Rutor located above the Little St. Bernard pass. The classic St. Bernard looked very different from the St. Bernard of today because of crossbreeding. Severe winters from 1816 to 1818 led to increased numbers of avalanches, killing many of the dogs used for breeding while they were performing rescues. [10] [11] In an attempt to preserve the breed, the remaining St. Bernards were crossed with Newfoundlands brought from the Colony of Newfoundland in the 1850s and so lost much of their use as rescue dogs in the snowy climate of the Alps because the long fur they inherited would freeze and weigh them down. [12]

The dogs never received any special training from the monks. Instead, younger dogs would learn how to perform search and rescue operations from older dogs. [13]

The Swiss St. Bernard Club was founded in Basel on 15 March 1884. The St. Bernard was the first breed entered into the Swiss Stud Book in 1884, and the breed standard was finally approved in 1888. Since then, the breed has been a Swiss national dog. [7]

The dogs at the Great St Bernard Hospice were working dogs that were smaller than today's show St. Bernards. Originally about the size of a German Shepherd Dog, [14] the St. Bernard grew to the size of today's dog as kennel clubs and dog shows emphasized appearance over the dog's working ability, along with a closed stud book. [15]

An open stud book would have allowed breeders to correct such errors by breeding in working dogs of other dog breeds.


A statue of Bernard of Menthon in Ascona (Genoa), Italy Santo Stefano d'Aveto-statua san bernardo di mentone ad Ascona.jpg
A statue of Bernard of Menthon in Ascona (Genoa), Italy

The name "St. Bernard" originates from the Great St Bernard Hospice, a traveler's hospice on the often treacherous Great St Bernard Pass in the Western Alps, between Switzerland and Italy. [4] The pass, the lodge, and the dogs are named for Bernard of Menthon, the 11th century Italian monk who established the station. [16]

"St. Bernard" was not in widespread use until the middle of the 19th century. The dogs were called "Saint Dogs", "Noble Steeds", or "Barry Dogs" before that time.[ citation needed ]

The breed is strikingly similar to the English Mastiff. The modern St. Bernard is radically different from the original dogs kept at the Great St Bernard Hospice, most notably by being much larger in size and build. Since the late 1800s, the St. Bernard breed has been ever refined, using many different large molosser-type breeds, including the Newfoundland, Great Pyrenees, Greater Swiss Mountain Dog, Bernese Mountain Dog, Great Dane, English Mastiff and possibly the Tibetan Mastiff and Caucasian Shepherd Dog. It is suspected that many of these large breeds were used to redevelop each other to combat the threat of their extinction after World War II, which may explain why all of them played a part in the creation of the St. Bernard as it is seen today. [17]

The four Sennenhund (Swiss mountain dog) breeds, the Grosser Schweizer Sennenhund (Greater Swiss Mountain Dog), the Berner Sennenhund (Bernese Mountain Dog), the Appenzeller Sennenhund (Appenzeller Mountain Dog) and the Entlebucher Sennenhund (Entlebucher Mountain Dog), are similar in appearance to the St. Bernard and share the same location of origin and history, but are tricolour (black, tan and white) rather than red and white or mahogany brindle and white, as the St. Bernand is.

The Russian army kennels crossbred St. Bernards with Caucasian Shepherd Dogs to produce the Moscow Watchdogs that are still used as military service dogs in Russia today. [18] St. Bernards have in common many characteristics of livestock guardian dog breeds.

Kennel Club recognition

The St. Bernard is recognised internationally by the Fédération Cynologique Internationale as a Molosser in Group 2, Section 2. The breed is recognised by The Kennel Club (UK), the Canadian Kennel Club, and the American Kennel Club in the Working Dog group. The United Kennel Club in the United States places the breed in the Guardian Dog Group. The New Zealand Kennel Club and the Australian National Kennel Council place the breed in the Utility Group

Modern activities – Great St Bernard Pass and Little St Bernard Pass

A St. Bernard performing agility at the Rose City Classic AKC Show 2007, Portland, Oregon, US St Bernard Dog agility.jpg
A St. Bernard performing agility at the Rose City Classic AKC Show 2007, Portland, Oregon, US

St. Bernards are no longer used for Alpine rescues, the last recorded instance of which was in 1955. As late as 2004, the Great St Bernard Hospice still retained 18 of the dogs for reasons of tradition and sentiment. In that year, the Barry Foundation created breeding kennels for the breed at the town of Martigny down the Great Saint Bernard Pass, and purchased the remaining dogs from the Hospice. During the summer months each year, a number of the animals are temporarily relocated from Martigny to the Hospice for viewing by tourists.

An annual celebration of the breed takes place on the Little Saint Bernard Pass and at the town of Rosières-Montvalzan on the French side. St. Bernard enthusiasts and breeders gather for a dog show and parades. [19]

The animals bred by the Foundation are trained to participate in a variety of dog sports, including carting and weight pulling. The dogs at the Barry Foundation are reportedly smaller than the average St. Bernard.[ citation needed ]


The very fast growth rate and the weight of a St. Bernard can lead to very serious deterioration of the bones if the dog does not get proper food and exercise. Many dogs are genetically affected by hip dysplasia or elbow dysplasia. Osteosarcoma (bone cancer) has been shown to be hereditary in the breed. [20] They are susceptible to eye disorders called entropion and ectropion, in which the eyelid turns in or out. The breed standard indicates that this is a major fault. The breed is also susceptible to epilepsy and seizures, a heart disease called dilated cardiomyopathy, and eczema.

U.S. and U.K. breed clubs put the average lifespan for a St. Bernard at 8–10 years. [21] [22] [23] A 2003 Danish breed survey (35 dogs) puts the median lifespan at 9.5 years, while a U.K. breed survey in 2004 (53 dogs) puts the median lifespan at 7 years. In the U.K. survey, about one in five lived to >10 years, with the longest-lived dog at 12 years and 9 months. [24] [25]

A study of genetically related polyneuropathy in the breed was conducted. [26]


Known as a classic example of a gentle giant, the Saint Bernard is calm, patient and sweet with adults, and especially children. However St. Bernards, like all very large dogs, must be well socialized with people and other dogs in order to prevent fearfulness and any possible aggression or territoriality. The biggest threat to small children is being accidentally knocked over by this breed's larger size. Overall they are a gentle, loyal and affectionate breed, and if socialized are very friendly. Because of its large adult size, it is essential that proper training and socialization begin while the St. Bernard is still a puppy, so as to avoid the difficulties that normally accompany training large dogs. An unruly St. Bernard may present problems for even a strong adult, so control needs to be asserted from the beginning of the dog's training. While generally not instinctively protective, a St. Bernard may bark at strangers, and their size makes them good deterrents against possible intruders. [27] [28]

The St. Bernard was bred to be a working companion and to this day the St. Bernard lives to please its master and is an amiable yet hard worker. St. Bernards have retained their natural ability for scent work and depending on the skill of the trainer and the talents of the dog, St. Bernards can participate in tracking events or even become involved in search and rescue work. [29]


In media

St. Bernards are often portrayed, especially in old live action comedies such as Swiss Miss , the TV series Topper , and classic cartoons, wearing small barrels of brandy around their necks. Avalanche victims supposedly drank the brandy to stay warm while awaiting rescue, although this is medically unsound. The monks of the St. Bernard Hospice deny that any St. Bernard has ever carried casks or small barrels around their necks; they attribute the image to an 1820 painting by Edwin Landseer, perhaps Alpine Mastiffs Reanimating a Distressed Traveller (which became a popular engraving in 1831 by Charles Landseer). [30] The monks did keep casks around for photographs by tourists. [31]

There was apparently at least one dog that really did carry brandy. In The Percy Anecdotes, by Thomas Byerley, published in 1823, the following anecdote appears, and was often quoted in other books in the 19th century:

The breed of dogs kept by the monks to assist them ... has been long celebrated for its sagacity and fidelity. All the oldest and most tried of them were lately buried, along with some unfortunate travellers, under a valanche [sic]; but three or four hopeful puppies were left at home in the convent, and still survive. The most celebrated of those who are no more, was a dog called Barry. This animal served the hospital for the space of twelve years, during which time he saved the lives of forty individuals. His zeal was indefatigable. Whenever the mountain was enveloped in fogs and snow, he set out in search of lost travellers. He was accustomed to run barking until he lost breath, and would frequently venture on the most perilous places. When he found his strength was insufficient to draw from the snow a traveller benumbed with cold, he would run back to the hospital in search of the monks….

When old age deprived him of strength, the Prior of the Convent pensioned him at Berney, by way of reward. After his death, his hide was stuffed and deposited in the museum of that town. The little phial, in which he carried a reviving liquor for the distressed travellers whom he found among the mountains, is still suspended from his neck. [32]

A Punch magazine cartoon from 1949 depicts a man with a St. Bernard and several puppies, all of which are wearing neck casks. The man explains, "Of course, I only breed them for the brandy."

A frequent joke in old MGM and Warner Brothers shorts is to depict the dogs as compulsive alcoholics who engage in frequent nips from their own casks.

Famous St. Bernards

A drawing of Barry rescuing a small child Barry.jpg
A drawing of Barry rescuing a small child

Fictional dogs

See generally: List of fictional dogs


The famous St. Bernard Barry found a small boy in the snow and persuaded the child to climb on his back. The dog then carried the boy to safety. [12]

See also

Related Research Articles

Great Dane Dog breed

The Great Dane, also known as the German Mastiff or Deutsche Dogge, is a breed of dog from Germany. The Great Dane descends from hunting dogs known from the Middle Ages and is one of the largest breeds in the world.

Scent hound

Scent hounds are a type of hound that primarily hunts by scent rather than sight. These breeds are hunting dogs and are generally regarded as having some of the most sensitive noses among dogs. Scent dogs specialize in following scent or smells. Most of them tend to have long, drooping earls and large nasal cavities to enhance smell sensitivity. They relatively need to have high endurance to be able to keep track of scent over long distances and rough terrain. It is believed that they were originally bred by the Celts.

Pyrenean Mountain Dog Dog breed

The Pyrenean Mountain Dog, also known as the Chien de Montagne des Pyrénées in its native land and the Great Pyrenees in the United States, is a breed of livestock guardian dog from France. The breed comes from the French side of the Pyrenees Mountains that separate France and Spain, it is recognised as a separate breed from the closely related Pyrenean Mastiff which is from the Spanish side of the mountains.

Bernese Mountain Dog Dog breed

The Bernese Mountain Dog is a large dog breed, one of the four breeds of Sennenhund-type dogs from the Swiss Alps. These dogs have roots in the Roman mastiffs. The name Sennenhund is derived from the German Senne and Hund (hound/dog), as they accompanied the alpine herders and dairymen called Senn. Berner refers to the area of the breed's origin, in the canton of Bern. This breed was originally kept as a general farm dog. Large Sennenhund in the past were also used as draft animals, pulling carts. The breed was officially established in 1912.

Chinook (dog) Dog breed

The Chinook is a breed of sled dog, developed in the state of New Hampshire during the early 20th century. The Chinook is New Hampshire's official state dog.

Great St Bernard Pass

The Great St Bernard Pass is the third highest road pass in Switzerland, at an elevation of 2,469 m (8,100 ft). It connects Martigny in the canton of Valais in Switzerland with Aosta in the region Aosta Valley in Italy. It is the lowest pass lying on the ridge between the two highest mountains of the Alps, Mont Blanc and Monte Rosa. The pass itself is located in Switzerland in the canton of Valais, very close to Italy. It is located on the main watershed that separates the basin of the Rhône from that of the Po.

Newfoundland dog Dog breed

The Newfoundland is a large working dog. They can be either black, brown, grey, or white-and-black. However, in the Dominion of Newfoundland, before it became part of the confederation of Canada, only black and Landseer coloured dogs were considered to be proper members of the breed. They were originally bred and used as working dogs for fishermen in Newfoundland. Newfoundlands are known for their giant size, intelligence, tremendous strength, calm dispositions, and loyalty. They excel at water rescue/lifesaving because of their muscular build, thick double coat, webbed paws, and swimming abilities.

Greater Swiss Mountain Dog Dog breed

The Greater Swiss Mountain Dog is a dog breed which was developed in the Swiss Alps. The name Sennenhund refers to people called Senn or Senner, dairymen and herders in the Swiss Alps. Greater Swiss Mountain Dogs are almost certainly the result of indigenous dogs mating with large mastiff-type dogs brought to Switzerland by foreign settlers. At one time, the breed was believed to have been among the most popular in Switzerland. It was assumed to have almost died out by the late 19th century, since its work was being done by other breeds or machines, but was rediscovered in the early 1900s.

Albert Heim

Albert Heim was a Swiss geologist, noted for his three-volume Geologie der Schweiz.

Tibetan Mastiff Dog breed

The Tibetan mastiff is a medium to large size Tibetan dog breed. Its double coat is medium to long, subject to climate, and found in a wide variety of colors, including solid black, black and tan, various shades of red and bluish-gray, often with white and blue markings.

English Mastiff Dog breed

The English Mastiff is a breed of large dog. The breed is referred to simply as the Mastiff by national kennel clubs, including the United Kingdom's Kennel Club and the Fédération Cynologique Internationale (FCI). They perhaps descended from the ancient Alaunt and Pugnaces Britanniae, with a significant input from the Alpine Mastiff in the 19th century. Distinguished by its enormous size, massive head, short coat in a limited range of colours, and always displaying a black mask, the Mastiff is noted for its gentle and loving nature. The lineage of modern dogs can be traced back to the early 19th century, but the modern type was stabilised in the 1880s and refined since. Following a period of sharp decline, the Mastiff has increased its worldwide popularity. Throughout its history the Mastiff has contributed to the development of a number of dog breeds, some generally known as mastiff-type dogs or, confusingly, just as "mastiffs". At its peak weight, it is the largest living canid, outweighing the wolf by up to 20 kg.

Leonberger Dog breed

The Leonberger is a dog breed, whose name derives from the city of Leonberg in Baden-Württemberg, Germany.

Bernard of Menthon

Bernard of Montjoux was an Italian canon regular and founder of the Great St Bernard Hospice, and its associated Canons Regular of the Hospitaller Congregation of Great Saint Bernard.

Swiss mountain dog Type of dog

Sennenhunds, called Swiss mountain dogs or Swiss cattle dogs in English, are a type of dog originating in the Swiss Alps. The Sennenhund are farm dogs of the general livestock guardian type. There are four breeds of Sennenhunds, all sporting a unique tricolor coat. While the two larger ones share a heavy build and a calm temperament, the two smaller ones are more agile. The breeds range from medium in size to very large. The name Sennenhund refers to people called Senn or Senner, Swiss Alpine herdsmen and dairymen, and does not translate as "mountain" or "cattle".

Molossus (dog) Dog breed

The Molossus was a breed of dog from Ancient Greece.

Barry (dog)

Barry der Menschenretter (1800–1814), also known as Barry, was a dog of a breed which was later called the St. Bernard that worked as a mountain rescue dog in Switzerland and Italy for the Great St Bernard Hospice. He predates the modern St. Bernard, and was lighter built than the modern breed. He has been described as the most famous St. Bernard, as he was credited with saving more than 40 lives during his lifetime, hence his byname Menschenretter meaning "people rescuer" in German.

White Swiss Shepherd Dog Swiss breed of dog

The White Swiss Shepherd Dog is a breed of dog from Switzerland. It descends from American White Shepherds imported to Switzerland; the White Shepherd itself descends from white-coloured purebred German Shepherds.

Dog type

Dog types are broad categories of domestic dogs based on form, function or style of work, lineage, or appearance. Some may be locally adapted dog types that may have the visual characteristics of a modern purebred dog. In contrast, modern dog breeds strictly adhere to long established breed standards, that began with documented foundation breeding stock sharing a common set of inheritable characteristics, developed by long established, reputable kennel clubs that recognize the dog as a purebred.

Alpine Mastiff Dog breed

The Alpine Mastiff is an extinct molosser dog breed. Although they have the same origin as the Saint Bernard, they are still two totally different breeds. The Alpine Mastiff is a major contributor to the modern English Mastiff, as well as to other breeds that derive from these breeds or are closely related to them. M. B. Wynn wrote, "In 1829 a vast light brindle dog of the old Alpine mastiff breed, named L'Ami, was brought from the convent of Great St. Bernard area, and exhibited in London and Liverpool as the largest dog in England." William Cavendish, 5th Duke of Devonshire, is believed to have bred Alpine Mastiffs at Chatsworth House.

Great St Bernard Hospice

The Great St Bernard Hospice, named after Bernard of Menthon, is a hospice or hostel for travelers in southwestern Switzerland. At an elevation of 2,469 m (8,100 ft) at the Great St Bernard Pass in the Pennine Alps, the border with Italy is only a few hundred metres to the south.



  1. Buck in The Call of the Wild is described thus: "His (Buck's) father, Elmo, a huge St Bernard, had been the Judge's inseparable companion, and Buck bid fair to follow in the way of his father. He was not so large,— he weighed only one hundred and forty pounds [64 kg],— for his mother, Shep, had been a Scotch shepherd dog. Nevertheless, one hundred and forty pounds [64 kg], to which was added the dignity that comes of good living and universal respect, enabled him to carry himself in right royal fashion." The Call of the Wild (novel).
  2. The term "Scotch shepherd dog" is an archaic Victorian phrase which probably refers to the Scotch Collie, or the Old Time Farm Shepherd, but might also refer to the English Shepherd. "Name That Breed – A Collie By Any Other Name…". Old-Time Farm Shepherd. Retrieved 9 October 2012. "Defining a Breed: An Apologia of the OTFS" . Retrieved 9 October 2012.
  3. A St. Bernard was used in the Clark Gable version, The Call of the Wild (1935). Three Leonberger 'actors' (one was a female, two were males) played the starring dog "Buck" in The Call of the Wild: Dog of the Yukon (1997), "Call of the Wild - Dog of the Yukon". Internet Movie Data Base . Retrieved 8 October 2012. a Canadian rendition of Jack London's The Call of the Wild starring Rutger Hauer as John Thornton (narrated by Richard Dreyfuss). "Leonberger Facts". American Kennel Club . Retrieved 8 October 2012. Nevertheless, films and television renditions have varied the dog breed. The book was also adapted in The Call of the Wild by D. W. Griffith (1908); a second silent film (1923) by Hal Roach; The Call of the Wild (1972) and Call of the Wild 3D (2009). It has also been the subject of three television programs or films: The Call of the Wild, a 1976 American TV film starring John Beck, with a screenplay by James Dickey; The Call of the Wild, a 1993 American TV film starring Rick Schroder; and Call of the Wild , a 2000 adventure TV series on Animal Planet.


  1. 1 2 3 , Fédération Cynologique Internationale: Saint Bernard Breed Standard. Retrieved 9 August 2016
  2. 1 2 AKC breed standard
  3. "A brief history of the St Bernard rescue dog". Smithsonian. Retrieved 5 August 2016.
  4. 1 2 3 "Saintly Bernards Rescue - History".
  5. "The St Bernard: the making of an Alpine legend". House of Switzerland. 12 May 2017.
  6. "Breeds nomenclature" (PDF). Fédération Cynologique Internationale. Retrieved 15 January 2014.
  7. 1 2 St. Bernard, Vertebrate Animals Department, Naturhistoriches Museum der Burgergemeinde Bern, archived from the original on 2 September 2011, retrieved 10 October 2014
  8. Brown, Thomas (1829). Biographical Sketches and Authentic Anecdotes of Dogs. Simpkin & Marshall. pp. 278–283. Retrieved 21 November 2009.
  9. "The Legendary Barry at the Natural History Museum". Natural History Museum of Bern. Naturhistorisches Museum der Burgermendiz Bern. Archived from the original on 7 September 2010. Retrieved 20 March 2011.
  10. Blumberg, Jess (1 January 2008). "A Brief History of the St. Bernard Rescue Dog: The canine's evolution from hospice hound to household companion". Smithsonian magazine . Retrieved 12 June 2011.Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  11. "The Newfoundland". Dog Owners Guide. Retrieved 13 June 2011.
  12. 1 2 Clark, Anne Rogers; Andrew H. Brace (1995). The International Encyclopedia of Dogs. Howell Book House. pp. 381–383. ISBN   0-87605-624-9.
  13. "Dogs Learn by Modeling the Behavior of Other Dogs".
  14. "Les chiens d'avalanche" [Avalanche dogs]. (in French). Archived from the original on 9 September 2015. Retrieved 2 September 2015. In 1962, an avalanche dog over to Great Dixence is organized at the initiative of Canine Club of Sion. A TSR camera is present on The working St Bernard dogs at the hospice was still smaller than the show St Bernard dogs during 1962 and premises
  15. "St Bernard breeding: why Barry got a bigger head" . Retrieved 2 September 2015.
  16. "Dog Owner's Guide Profile: The St. Bernard". Retrieved 19 December 2011.
  17. "The History of the Mastiff — English Mastiff — dog of dogs". Retrieved 19 December 2011.
  18. "470 Методико-кинологический центр служебного собаководства ВС РФ" [470th Methodology-сynology centre of military dog breeding]. Retrieved 2 September 2015.
  19. "The Little Saint Bernard pass, dog parade". Le Dauphiné Libéré. Retrieved 5 August 2016.
  20. Bech-Nielsen; S.; Haskins; M. E.; et al. (1978). "Frequency of osteosarcoma among first-degree relatives of St. Bernard dogs". J Natl Cancer Inst. 60 (2): 349–53. doi:10.1093/jnci/60.2.349. PMID   271748.
  21. "Breed Information". The English Saint Bernard Club. Retrieved 28 March 2012.
  22. "Breeder Advertisements". Saint Bernard Club of America. Retrieved 28 March 2012.
  23. Cassidy, Kelly M. (1 February 2008). "Breed Longevity Data". Dog Longevity. Retrieved 18 September 2012.
  24. Proschowsky, H. F.; Rugbjerg, H.; Ersbøll, A. K. R. (2003). "Mortality of purebred and mixed-breed dogs in Denmark". Preventive Veterinary Medicine. 58 (1–2): 63–74. doi:10.1016/S0167-5877(03)00010-2. PMID   12628771.
  25. "Summary results of the Purebred Dog Health Survey for the St Bernard breed" (PDF). Kennel Club/British Small Animal Veterinary Association Scientific Committee. Retrieved 28 March 2012.
  26. Ekenstedt, Kari J.; Becker, Doreen; Minor, Katie M.; Shelton, G. Diane; Patterson, Edward E.; Bley, Tim; Oevermann, Anna; Bilzer, Thomas; Leeb, Tosso; Drögemüller, Cord; Mickelson, James R. (2 October 2014). "An ARHGEF10 Deletion Is Highly Associated with a Juvenile-Onset Inherited Polyneuropathy in Leonberger and Saint Bernard Dogs". PLOS Genetics . PLOS. 10 (10): e1004635. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1004635. PMC   4183422 . PMID   25275565 . Retrieved 13 March 2015.
  27. Stenmark, Betty-Anne. A New Owner's Guide to Saint Bernards. New Jersey, U.S.A.: T.F.H. pp.  23–25. ISBN   0-7938-2810-4.
  28. Walker, Joan Hustace (1998). Saint Bernards A Complete Pet Owner's Manual. Hong Kong: Barrons. pp.  14–22. ISBN   0-7641-0288-5.
  29. Hustace Walker, Joan (2000). Saint Bernards: Everything About Purchase, Care, Nutrition, Breeding, Behavior and Training (Barron's Complete Pet Owner's Manuals). p. 11.
  30. "Legend of the St. Bernard Barrel". It's the dogs' life. Archived from the original (http) on 18 February 2014. Retrieved 19 January 2016.
  31. Pickow, George (1957). "The Great St. Bernard Hospice Today". National Geographic, January 1957. Archived from the original (http) on 15 December 2005. Retrieved 26 January 2006.
  32. Byerley, Thomas (1823). The Percy Anecdotes (1826 ed.). London: T. Boys. pp. 25–26. Retrieved 15 April 2018.
  33. McPherson, Stephanie Sammartino; Gardner, Joseph Sammartino (2003). Wilbur & Orville Wright: taking flight. Minneapolis, MN: Carolrhoda, Inc. p. 103. ISBN   1-57505-443-4 . Retrieved 6 January 2012.
  34. friend