St. Kliment Ohridski Base

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St. Kliment Ohridski Station
St.-Kliment-Ohridski-Base-2012.jpg
The Bulgarian base in 2012, with the new St. Ivan Rilski Chapel in the foreground and Russian Hut, Lame Dog Hut (painted light green), the Laboratory, Casa España and the Main Building in the background
Antarctica relief location map.jpg
Red pog.svg
St. Kliment Ohridski Station
Location of St. Kliment Ohridski Station in Antarctica
Coordinates: 62°38′29″S60°21′53″W / 62.641389°S 60.364722°W / -62.641389; -60.364722
CountryFlag of Bulgaria.svg  Bulgaria
Location in Antarctica Livingston Island
South Shetland Islands
Administered by Bulgarian Antarctic Institute
Established29 April 1988 (1988-04-29)
Elevation
12 m (39 ft)
Population
  Total
  • Up to 25
TypeSeasonal
PeriodSummer
StatusOperational
Website http://www.bai-bg.net
Coat-of-Arms-Bulgaria-Blue.jpg
Bulgaria in Antarctica
Bulgarian Antarctic Institute
National Centre of Polar Research
St. Kliment Ohridski Base
Lame Dog Hut
Livingston Island Museum
St. Ivan Rilski Chapel
Camp Academia
Tangra 2004/05
Bulgarian toponyms in Antarctica
Antarctic Place-names Commission
Military Geographic Service

St. Kliment Ohridski Base (Bulgarian : База Св. Климент Охридски, romanized: Baza Sv. Kliment Ohridski, IPA:  [ˈbazɐ svɛˈti ˈklimɛnt ˈɔxritski] ) is a Bulgarian Antarctic base on Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands.

Contents

The base, originally known as Sofia University Refuge or Hemus Base, [1] was named in 1993 after Clement of Ohrid, a ninth- and tenth-century Bulgarian scholar and saint. [2] The name is often shortened by non-Bulgarians to Ohridski Base, [3] and sometimes misspelt as Ohridiski.

Location

The base is located at 62°38′29″S60°21′53″W / 62.64139°S 60.36472°W / -62.64139; -60.36472 Coordinates: 62°38′29″S60°21′53″W / 62.64139°S 60.36472°W / -62.64139; -60.36472 , which is at an elevation of 12 to 15 m on Bulgarian Beach, 130 m inland from the shore of Emona Anchorage, between Pesyakov Hill and Sinemorets Hill, overlooking the Grand Lagoon. The base area is crossed by the melt-water Rezovski Creek in the summer, providing a water supply.

History

Following an unsuccessful landing attempt at Cape Vostok on the northwestern extremity of Alexander Island, two prefabricated huts — the Lame Dog Hut and Russian Hut — were assembled on Livingston Island between 26 and 28 April 1988 by a four-member Bulgarian party supported logistically by the Soviet Research Ship Mikhail Somov under Captain Feliks Pesyakov. The facilities were later refurbished and inaugurated as a permanent base on 11 December 1993. [1]

An expansion programme at St. Kliment Ohridski including the construction of a new multi-purpose building was carried out between 1996 and 1998 and subsequently. The St. Ivan Rilski Chapel built in 2003 is the first Eastern Orthodox edifice in Antarctica and the southernmost Eastern Orthodox building of worship in the world. A post office of the Bulgarian Posts has been in operation at St. Kliment Ohridski since 1994/1995. [4]

The base is visited regularly by representatives of the institutions responsible for Bulgaria's activities in Antarctica, including President Georgi Parvanov of Bulgaria during January 2005. [1]

Description

Personnel and cargo from supply ships are offloaded by Zodiac boats at the southwestern extremity of the beach, 300 m away from the main base facilities. A designated helipad site is located on the northern side of the Grand Lagoon.

St. Kliment Ohridski enjoys the exceptional advantage of several convenient overland routes leading from Bulgarian Beach to a variety of internal and coastal areas of Livingston Island including the Balkan Snowfield, Burdick Ridge and Pliska Ridge, Tangra Mountains and the glaciers Perunika, Huntress, Huron and Kaliakra, and Saedinenie Snowfield. The Spanish base Juan Carlos I is situated 2.7 km to the south-southwest, and is reached either by sea or by a 5.5 km route, while the central location of Camp Academia site is 11 km due east in the Tangra Mountains.

The base is used by scientists from Bulgaria and other nations for research in the field of geology, biology, glaciology, topography and geographic information. St. Kliment Ohridski is visited by cruise ships from Hannah Point, one of the most popular tourist destinations in Antarctica situated but 12 km to the west. Lame Dog Hut, the 1988 principal building of the base (the oldest on the island since the renovation of the Spanish base started in 2009) hosts the Livingston Island Museum, a branch of the National Museum of History in Sofia since October 2012. [5] The hut and its associated artefacts are considered part of the cultural and historic heritage of the island and Antarctica, designated a Historic Site or Monument of Antarctica. [6] [7] [8] Under a joint Bulgarian-Mongolian project, a Monument to the Cyrillic Script was erected on Pesyakov Hill in March 2018. [9]

See also

The chapel's new building in 2012 St.-Ivan-Rilski-Chapel-New-Building.jpg
The chapel's new building in 2012

Maps

St. Ivan Rilski Chapel's altar St. Ivan Rilski Chapel.jpg
St. Ivan Rilski Chapel's altar

Related Research Articles

Livingston Island Island of the South Shetland Islands

Livingston Island is an Antarctic island in the Southern Ocean, part of the South Shetlands Archipelago. It was the first land discovered south of 60° south latitude in 1819, a historic event that marked the end of a centuries-long pursuit of the mythical Terra Australis Incognita and the beginning of the exploration and utilization of real Antarctica. The name Livingston, although of unknown derivation, has been well established in international usage since the early 1820s.

Bulgarian Beach

Bulgarian Beach is a coast in the north part of Hurd Peninsula, eastern Livingston Island, extending 2.3 km from Hespérides Point to the southwest to Perunika Glacier to the northeast, and forming the southeast coast of Emona Anchorage.

Catalunyan Saddle

Catalunyan Saddle is a saddle of 1260 m height in the Friesland Ridge of the Tangra Mountains on Livingston Island, in the South Shetland Islands. The saddle is bounded by Lyaskovets Peak to the east and by Presian Ridge to the west. The saddle was named in honour of the Catalans Francesc Sàbat and Jorge Enrique from Juan Carlos I Base who established the first route via the saddle to Mount Friesland on 30 December 1991.

Gurev Gap

Gurev Gap is a flat ice-covered saddle of elevation 450 m extending 3 km in south-north direction between Hemus Peak and Gleaner Heights in eastern Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. The gap separates the glacial catchments of Kaliakra Glacier to the east, and Saedinenie Snowfield and Perunika Glacier to the west. It is part of the overland route from the St. Kliment Ohridski Base via the Balkan Snowfield, Rezen Saddle and Perunika Glacier to Varna Peninsula. The saddle was first trekked on 24 December 2004 by the Tangra 2004/05 Survey team from Camp Academia, and was named for Vasil Gurev, physicist at St. Kliment Ohridski in 1994/95 and subsequent seasons.

Orpheus Gate

Orpheus Gate, also Orpheus Pass, is the 548 m high and 380 m wide pass in eastern Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica bounded by Pliska Ridge to the southeast and Burdick Ridge to the northwest, Huntress Glacier to the southwest and Perunika Glacier to the northeast.

Rezovski Creek

Rezovski Creek is a melt-water stream located on Livingston Island, Antarctica.

Rozhen Peninsula

Rozhen Peninsula extends 9 km in the southwest direction towards Barnard Point, Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica, and 8.8 km wide. It is bounded by False Bay and its segment Inept Cove to the west, Bransfield Strait to the southeast and Brunow Bay to the east. Its interior is occupied by the Friesland Ridge of Tangra Mountains.

Tangra Mountains mountain range

Tangra Mountains form the principal mountain range of Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. The range had been nameless until 2001, when it was named after the Bulgar god Tangra.

Vergilov Rocks

Vergilov Rocks are a group of rocks off Bulgarian Beach on Hurd Peninsula in eastern Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica, consisting of one main rock and two adjacent smaller ones submerging at high water.

Camp Academia Antarctic camp

Camp Academia is a geographical locality in eastern Livingston Island, South Shetland Islands, Antarctica, named for the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences in appreciation of Academy’s contribution to the Antarctic exploration. The site was first occupied in the 2004/05 austral summer, and has been designated since 2004 as the summer post office Tangra 1091, the southernmost branch of the Bulgarian Posts Plc.

Grand Lagoon

Grand Lagoon is a 1-hectare (2.5-acre) freshwater lagoon of elevation 2.4 metres (7.9 ft) on Bulgarian Beach, Hurd Peninsula in eastern Livingston Island, in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. Formed by Rezovski Creek and separated from sea by a moraine of elevation near 3 metres (9.8 ft). Surmounted by Pesyakov Hill. On the northeast side of the lagoon is the helipad of the Bulgarian base, and on its southwest side — the designated embarkation area and a shed hosting the base's Zodiac inflatable boats. A descriptive name, established in use at the time of approval.

Tangra 2004/05 Bulgarian geographical expedition to Antarctica

The Tangra 2004/05 Expedition was commissioned by the Antarctic Place-names Commission at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Bulgaria, managed by the Manfred Wörner Foundation, and supported by the Bulgarian Antarctic Institute, the Institute of Mathematics and Informatics at the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Bulgarian Posts, Uruguayan Antarctic Institute, Peregrine Shipping (Australia), and Petrol Ltd, TNT, Mtel, Bulstrad, Polytours, B. Bekyarov and B. Chernev (Bulgaria).

Mount Friesland

Mount Friesland is a mountain rising to 1,700.2 metres (5,578 ft) in the homonymous Friesland Ridge, the summit of Tangra Mountains and Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. Its north rib is connected to Pliska Ridge by Nesebar Gap on the west, and to Bowles Ridge by Wörner Gap on the north. On the east Mount Friesland is connected to Presian Ridge and further on to Catalunyan Saddle and Lyaskovets Peak. On the south-southwest it is connected by a short saddle to ‘The Synagogue’ a sharp-peaked rock-cored ice formation abutting neighbouring St. Boris Peak. The peak is heavily glaciated and crevassed, surmounting Huntress Glacier to the west, Perunika Glacier to the north-northwest, Huron Glacier to the northeast and Macy Glacier to the southeast. The local weather is notoriously unpleasant and challenging; according to the seasoned Antarctic mountaineer Damien Gildea who climbed in the area, 'just about the worst weather in the world'.

Hurd Peninsula

Hurd Peninsula lies between South Bay and False Bay on the south coast of Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. The Spanish Juan Carlos I Antarctic Base and the Bulgarian St. Kliment Ohridski Base are situated on its west coast.

Juan Carlos I Antarctic Base Antarctic base

Juan Carlos I Antarctic Base, named after the king of Spain, Juan Carlos I, is a seasonal scientific station operated by Spain, opened in January 1988. Situated on Hurd Peninsula, Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica.

Shirreff Base Antarctic base

Shirreff Base is a seasonal field station in the Southern Ocean operated by the United States and opened in 1996. It is situated on the east side of Cape Shirreff on Ioannes Paulus II Peninsula on Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands off the Antarctic peninsula.

Camp Byers Antarctic camp

Camp Byers is a Spanish seasonal base camp on Byers Peninsula, Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. The locality is also designated for use as an International Field Camp. When necessary for scientific research purposes, temporary camping is allowed elsewhere on the protected peninsula under certain conditions.

St. Ivan Rilski Chapel chapel on Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands

The St. Ivan Rilski Chapel at the Bulgarian base St. Kliment Ohridski on Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands is the first Eastern Orthodox edifice in Antarctica, the southernmost Eastern Orthodox building of worship in the world, and one of eight churches on Antarctica.

Pesyakov Hill

Pesyakov Hill is the ice-free hill rising to 36 m next south-southwest of the 1988 buildings of St. Kliment Ohridski Base on Bulgarian Beach, Hurd Peninsula on Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. Surmounting Grand Lagoon to the west and southwest. Access to the hill is restricted to protect floral communities.

Lame Dog Hut building in St. Kliment Ohridski Base on Livingston Island, Antarctica

The Lame Dog Hut is a building in St. Kliment Ohridski Base on Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. Presently the oldest preserved building on the island, since October 2012 the hut has been hosting the Livingston Island Museum, a branch of the National Museum of History in Sofia. It was the first permanent building established by Bulgaria in Antarctica, which laid the foundations for Bulgaria's systematic scientific research in the Livingston Island area under the Antarctic Treaty System. The building is a designated Historic Site or Monument of Antarctica.

References

  1. 1 2 3 L. Ivanov. General Geography and History of Livingston Island. In: Bulgarian Antarctic Research: A Synthesis. Eds. C. Pimpirev and N. Chipev. Sofia: St. Kliment Ohridski University Press, 2015. pp. 17-28. ISBN   978-954-07-3939-7
  2. St. Kliment Ohridski Base. SCAR Composite Antarctic Gazetteer.
  3. Ohridski Station. SCAR Composite Antarctic Gazetteer
  4. L. Ivanov. Bulgarian mail services on Livingston Island (1995/96 and 2004/05 seasons). Sofia, March 2005
  5. Certificate of the Livingston Island Museum. National Museum of History, Sofia, October 2012.
  6. ATCM Measure V (2015). Annex: Revised List of Historic Sites and Monuments. ATCM Sofia, 1–10 June 2015. pp. 21–42.
  7. Proposal to add the Lame Dog Hut at the Bulgarian base St. Kliment Ohridski on Livingston Island to the List of Historic Sites and Monuments. Working Paper CEP WP017. ATCM Sofia, 1–10 June 2015.
  8. Bulgaria successfully completed the Chairmanship of the XXXVIII Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meeting. Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Bulgaria website, 10 June 2015.
  9. B. Lazarov. The Three Monuments of the Cyrillic Alphabet. EUSCOOP News from Bulgaria, 13 March 2018

Bibliography

This article includes information from the Antarctic Place-names Commission of Bulgaria which is used with permission.