St Mary's Church, Knowsley

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St Mary's Church, Knowsley
St Mary's Church, Knowsley.jpg
St Mary's Church, Knowsley, from the southwest
Merseyside UK location map.svg
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St Mary's Church, Knowsley
Location in Merseyside
Coordinates: 53°27′22″N2°51′10″W / 53.4562°N 2.8528°W / 53.4562; -2.8528
OS grid reference SJ 435,958
Location Knowsley, Merseyside
Country England
Denomination Anglican
Website St Mary, Knowsley
History
Status Parish church
Consecrated 6 June 1844
Architecture
Functional status Active
Heritage designation Grade II*
Designated 28 January 1971
Architect(s) Edmund Sharpe,
Edward Paley
Paley and Austin
Paley, Austin and Paley
Architectural type Church
Style Gothic revival
Groundbreaking 1843
Completed 1893
Administration
Parish St Mary, Knowsley
Deanery Huyton
Archdeaconry Liverpool
Diocese Liverpool
Province York
Clergy
Vicar(s) Revd Hugh Lea-Wilson
Laity
Churchwarden(s) David Allan

St Mary's Church is in Knowsley Lane, Knowsley Village, Merseyside, England. The church is recorded in the National Heritage List for England as a designated Grade II* listed building. [1] It is an active Anglican parish church in the diocese of Liverpool, the archdeaconry of Liverpool and the deanery of Huyton. [2] In the Buildings of England series, Pollard and Pevsner describe the church as being "largish" with "an intimate interior". [3]

Knowsley, Merseyside village and civil parish within the Metropolitan Borough of Knowsley in Merseyside, England

Knowsley is a large village and civil parish within the Metropolitan Borough of Knowsley in Merseyside, England. It is more commonly known as Knowsley Village.

Merseyside County of England

Merseyside is a metropolitan county in North West England, with a population of 1.38 million. It encompasses the metropolitan area centred on both banks of the lower reaches of the Mersey Estuary and comprises five metropolitan boroughs: Knowsley, St Helens, Sefton, Wirral, and the city of Liverpool. Merseyside, which was created on 1 April 1974 as a result of the Local Government Act 1972, takes its name from the River Mersey.

The National Heritage List for England (NHLE) is Historic England's official list of buildings, monuments, parks and gardens, wrecks, battlefields, World Heritage Sites and other heritage assets considered worthy of preservation. Properties on the list, or located within a conservation area, are protected from being altered or demolished without special permission from local government planning authorities.

Contents

History

The church was built in 1843–44 to a design by Edmund Sharpe for the 13th Earl of Derby at a cost of about £20,000 (equivalent to £1,840,000in 2016). [4] [5] [6] It was consecrated on 6 June 1844 by Rt Revd John Bird Sumner, Bishop of Chester. [5] Transepts designed by Edward Paley, Sharpe's successor in the architectural practice, were added in 1860. [7] In 1871–72 a memorial chapel to the 14th Earl of Derby, designed by Paley and Austin, was added. It cost £3,000, which included the cost of a monument with a figure by Matthew Noble. [8] In 1892–93 a new vestry and a new east window by Paley, Austin and Paley were built. [9] An organ was installed in the Derby chapel in 1913. [5] In 1981–82 the church was reordered, a nave altar was introduced, and meeting and service facilities were installed in the base of the tower. [3]

Edmund Sharpe English architect and engineer (1809 – 1877)

Edmund Sharpe was an English architect, architectural historian, railway engineer, and sanitary reformer. Born in Knutsford, Cheshire, he was educated first by his parents and then at schools locally and in Runcorn, Greenwich and Sedbergh. Following his graduation from Cambridge University he was awarded a travelling scholarship, enabling him to study architecture in Germany and southern France. In 1835 he established an architectural practice in Lancaster, initially working on his own. In 1845 he entered into partnership with Edward Paley, one of his pupils. Sharpe's main focus was on churches, and he was a pioneer in the use of terracotta as a structural material in church building, designing what were known as "pot" churches, the first of which was St Stephen and All Martyrs' Church, Lever Bridge.

Edward Smith-Stanley, 13th Earl of Derby British politician

Edward Smith-Stanley, 13th Earl of Derby, KG, of Knowsley Hall in Lancashire, was a politician, peer, landowner, builder, farmer, art collector, and naturalist. He was the patron of the writer Edward Lear.

Consecration is the solemn dedication to a special purpose or service, usually religious. The word consecration literally means "association with the sacred". Persons, places, or things can be consecrated, and the term is used in various ways by different groups. The origin of the word comes from the Latin word consecrat, which means dedicated, devoted, and sacred. A synonym for to consecrate is to sanctify; a distinct antonym is to desecrate.

Architecture

Exterior

The church is constructed in sandstone with freestone dressings and has a stone tile roof. Its architectural style is mainly Early English. The plan of the church consists of a west steeple, a five-bay nave with north and south aisles and a clerestory, a north porch, north and south transepts, a five-bay chancel with a north chapel (formerly the Derby chapel), and a south vestry. The tower is in three stages, with angle buttresses. In the bottom stage is a west doorway with lancet windows above. The middle stage also contains windows with pointed arches. In the top stage are two-light bell openings containing quatrefoil tracery, flanked by blind arches. The tower is surmounted by a broach spire with two tiers of lucarnes. Each bay on the south side of both the aisles and the clerestory contains a pair of windows. The transepts have buttresses, a corbel table, two-light north and south windows in Decorated style, and small west windows. The chancel also has a corbel table. Its east window has five lights with Perpendicular tracery, and the two two-light south windows are in Decorated style. The north chapel is also in Decorated style, and has a four-light north window. Along the north side of the church are three-light windows, and a frieze of quatrefoils. The vestry has a square-headed window and an east doorway re-set from an earlier doorway. [1]

Sandstone A clastic sedimentary rock composed mostly of sand-sized particles

Sandstone is a clastic sedimentary rock composed mainly of sand-sized mineral particles or rock fragments.

A freestone is a stone used in masonry for molding, tracery and other replication work required to be worked with the chisel. Freestone, so named because it can be freely cut in any direction, must be fine-grained, uniform and soft enough to be cut easily without shattering or splitting. Some sources, including numerous nineteenth century dictionaries, say that the stone has no grain, but this is incorrect. Oolitic stones are generally used, although in some countries soft sandstones are used; in some churches an indurated chalk called clunch is employed for internal lining and for carving. Some believe that freemason originally meant one who is capable of carving freestone.

Bay (architecture) space defined by the vertical piers, in a building

In architecture, a bay is the space between architectural elements, or a recess or compartment. Bay comes from Old French baee, meaning an opening or hole.

Interior

The nave arcades are carried on quatrefoil piers with foliage capitals. The chancel arch includes carvings of Queen Victoria and the Archbishop of Canterbury. The nave is floored with 19th-century relief tiles, and there are encaustic tiles in the chapel. [1] Inside the church is an intricately carved bench from Knowsley Hall which is dated 1646, and royal arms dated 1567. The reredos, dating from 1866, was designed by Edwin Stirling. In the Derby chapel is a recumbent alabaster effigy by Matthew Noble of the 14th Earl of Derby. [3] Along the chancel walls are memorial mosaics dating from the 1910s and 1920s. The octagonal font was created in 1890 by Stubbs and Sons of Liverpool. The pulpit is polygonal and dates from about 1946. [1] Stained glass in the church includes the east window of 1893 by Shrigley and Hunt, a window in each transept by Lavers and Barraud, and a window in the south wall of the chancel of 1923 by Powell and Sons. [3] The three-manual organ was made in 1913 by Rushworth and Dreaper of Liverpool. [10]

Arcade (architecture) covered walk enclosed by a line of arches on one or both sides

An arcade is a succession of contiguous arches, with each arch supported by columns, piers. Exterior arcades are designed to provide a sheltered walkway for pedestrians. The walkway may be lined with retail stores. An arcade may feature arches on both sides of the walkway. Alternatively, a blind arcade superimposes arcading against a solid wall. Blind arcades are a feature of Romanesque architecture that influenced Gothic architecture. In the Gothic architectural tradition, the arcade can be located in the interior, in the lowest part of the wall of the nave, supporting the triforium and the clerestory in a cathedral, or on the exterior, in which they are usually part of the walkways that surround the courtyard and cloisters.

Pier (architecture) architectural upright support for a structure or superstructure

A pier, in architecture, is an upright support for a structure or superstructure such as an arch or bridge. Sections of structural walls between openings (bays) can function as piers.

Capital (architecture) part of a column (architecture)

In architecture the capital or chapiter forms the topmost member of a column. It mediates between the column and the load thrusting down upon it, broadening the area of the column's supporting surface. The capital, projecting on each side as it rises to support the abacus, joins the usually square abacus and the usually circular shaft of the column. The capital may be convex, as in the Doric order; concave, as in the inverted bell of the Corinthian order; or scrolling out, as in the Ionic order. These form the three principal types on which all capitals in the classical tradition are based. The Composite order, established in the 16th century on a hint from the Arch of Titus, adds Ionic volutes to Corinthian acanthus leaves.

External features

The churchyard contains the war graves of a soldier of World War I, and two soldiers of World War II. [11]

World War I 1914–1918 global war originating in Europe

World War I, also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. Contemporaneously described as "the war to end all wars", it led to the mobilisation of more than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, making it one of the largest wars in history. It is also one of the deadliest conflicts in history, with an estimated nine million combatants and seven million civilian deaths as a direct result of the war, while resulting genocides and the 1918 influenza pandemic caused another 50 to 100 million deaths worldwide.

World War II 1939–1945 global war

World War II, also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries. The major participants threw their entire economic, industrial, and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China. It included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, and the only use of nuclear weapons in war.

See also

Knowsley is a civil parish in the Metropolitan Borough of Knowsley, Merseyside, England. It contains six buildings that are recorded in the National Heritage List for England as designated listed buildings. Of these, two are listed at Grade II*, the middle of the three grades, and the others are at Grade II, the lowest grade. The parish is dominated by Knowsley Hall, which is listed. The other listed buildings are a church, a former vicarage, a farmhouse, a lodge, and a school later converted into cottages.

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References

Citations

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  2. Deanery of Huyton, The Diocese of Liverpool , retrieved 9 September 2008
  3. 1 2 3 4 Pollard & Pevsner 2006 , p. 223
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  6. Brandwood et al. 2012 , p. 213
  7. Brandwood et al. 2012 , p. 219
  8. Brandwood et al. 2012 , p. 225
  9. Brandwood et al. 2012 , p. 239
  10. Lancashire (Merseyside), Knowsley, St. Mary (D07779), British Institute of Organ Studies , retrieved 6 August 2011
  11. KNOWSLEY (ST. MARY) CHURCHYARD, Commonwealth War Graves Commission , retrieved 4 February 2013

Sources