Stade

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Hanseatic City of Stade

Hansestadt Stade
Hansestadt Stood
Stade 2006, Hansehafen.jpg
View of the historic harbour in Stade
DEU Stade COA.svg
Coat of arms
Location of Hanseatic City of Stade
Germany adm location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Hanseatic City of Stade
Lower Saxony location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Hanseatic City of Stade
Coordinates: 53°36′3″N9°28′35″E / 53.60083°N 9.47639°E / 53.60083; 9.47639 Coordinates: 53°36′3″N9°28′35″E / 53.60083°N 9.47639°E / 53.60083; 9.47639
Country Germany
State Lower Saxony
District Stade
Government
   Mayor Sönke Hartlef (CDU)
Area
  Total110.03 km2 (42.48 sq mi)
Elevation
9 m (30 ft)
Population
 (2017-12-31) [1]
  Total47,330
  Density430/km2 (1,100/sq mi)
Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2)
Postal codes
21680, 21682–21684
Dialling codes 04141, 04146
Vehicle registration STD
Website www.stade.de

Stade (German pronunciation: [ˈʃtaːdə] ), officially the Hanseatic City of Stade (German: Hansestadt Stade, Low German: Hansestadt Stood) is a city in Lower Saxony in northern Germany. First mentioned in records in 934, it is the seat of the district (Landkreis) which bears its name. It is located roughly 45km to the west of Hamburg and belongs to that city's wider metropolitan region. Within the area of the city are the urban districts of Bützfleth, Hagen, Haddorf and Wiepenkathen, each of which have a council ("Ortsrat") of their own with some autonomous decision-making rights.

Lower Saxony State in Germany

Lower Saxony is a German state (Land) situated in northwestern Germany. It is the second-largest state by land area, with 47,624 km2 (18,388 sq mi), and fourth-largest in population among the 16 Länder federated as the Federal Republic of Germany. In rural areas, Northern Low Saxon and Saterland Frisian are still spoken, but the number of speakers is declining.

Germany Federal parliamentary republic in central-western Europe

Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in Central and Western Europe, lying between the Baltic and North Seas to the north and the Alps, Lake Constance and the High Rhine to the south. It borders Denmark to the north, Poland and the Czech Republic to the east, Austria and Switzerland to the south, France to the southwest, and Luxembourg, Belgium and the Netherlands to the west.

Stade is a district (Landkreis) in Lower Saxony, Germany. It has its seat in Stade and is bounded by the districts of Harburg, Rotenburg and Cuxhaven, the Elbe River, and the city state of Hamburg.

Contents

Stade is located in the lower regions of the river Elbe. It is also on the German Timber-Frame Road.

Niederelbe river in Germany

The Niederelbe is a 108 kilometers long section of the river Elbe, from western Hamburg downstream to its mouth into the North Sea near Cuxhaven. Starting at Mühlenberger Loch near Finkenwerder, Hamburg, it gradually widens from 2 km (1.2 mi) to 18 km (11 mi). Once passing the Hamburg state border, the Niederelbe also forms the border between the states of Lower Saxony and Schleswig-Holstein.

Elbe major river in Central Europe

The Elbe is one of the major rivers of Central Europe. It rises in the Krkonoše Mountains of the northern Czech Republic before traversing much of Bohemia, then Germany and flowing into the North Sea at Cuxhaven, 110 km (68 mi) northwest of Hamburg. Its total length is 1,094 kilometres (680 mi).

German Timber-Frame Road

The German Timber-Frame Road is a German tourist route leading from the river Elbe in the north to Lake Constance in the south. Along this road are numerous cities and towns each with examples of the vernacular timber-framed houses traditional to the German states. The route is divided into seven sections, each of which follow the traditional areas of: Lower Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt, Thuringia, Hesse, Bavaria, and Baden-Württemberg. The total length is nearly 3,000 km (1,864 mi).

History

The first human settlers came to the Stade area in 30,000 BC.

Since 1180 Stade belonged to the Prince-Archbishopric of Bremen. In early 1208 King Valdemar II of Denmark and his troops conquered Stade. In August Valdemar II's cousin being in enmity with the king, the then Prince-Archbishop Valdemar reconquered the city only to lose it soon after again to Valdemar II. [2] In 1209 Emperor Otto IV persuaded his ally Valdemar II to withdraw into the north of the Elbe, and the deposed Prince-Archbishop Valdemar took Stade.

Valdemar II of Denmark King of Denmark

Valdemar II, called Valdemar the Victorious or Valdemar the Conqueror, was the King of Denmark from 1202 until his death in 1241. The nickname Sejr is a later invention and was not used during the King's own lifetime. Sejr means victory in Danish.

Valdemar Knudsen was a Danish clergyman and statesman. Valdemar was Bishop of Schleswig from 1188 to 1208, officiated as Steward of the Duchy of Schleswig between 1184 and 1187, and served as Prince-Archbishop of Bremen from 1192 to 1194 and again between 1206 and 1217. He held the latter office on the grounds of the archdiocesan capitular election as archbishop elect and of the royal investiture with the princely regalia, but lacked the papal confirmation.

Otto IV, Holy Roman Emperor Holy Roman Emperor

Otto IV was one of two rival kings of Germany from 1198 on, sole king from 1208 on, and Holy Roman Emperor from 1209 until he was forced to abdicate in 1215. The only German king of the Welf dynasty, he incurred the wrath of Pope Innocent III and was excommunicated in 1210.

On 2 May 1209 Otto IV granted important town privileges ("Stadtrecht") to Stade. Otto IV confirmed the burghers to be personally free and recognised them constituting a political entity of their own law, the burgenses and optimi cives of Stade. [3] Property within the municipal boundaries could not be subjected to feudal overlordship and was to be freely inherited without feudal claims to reversion. Fair juridical procedures were constituted and maximal fines fixed. Otto IV obliged himself to prevent burghers from being taken as hostages and to liberate captured burghers.

Town privileges features of European towns during most of the second millennium

Town privileges or borough rights were important features of European towns during most of the second millennium. The city law customary in Central Europe probably dates back to Italian models, which in turn were oriented towards the traditions of the self-administration of Roman cities

Bourgeoisie polysemous French term which denotes the wealthy stratum of the middle class that originated during the latter part of the Middle Ages

The bourgeoisie is a polysemous French term that can mean:

After Otto IV had changed his mind and reinvested Prince-Archbishop Valdemar with the See in 1211, Valdemar II recaptured Stade. In 1213 Otto's elder brother Count Palatine Henry V of the Rhine, reconquered Stade for the Prince-Archbishop. In 1215 Henry repelled another Danish attack on Stade. In the winter of 1216 Valdemar II and his Danish troops, unable to take the city of Stade, ravaged the County of Stade. From then on Stade remained a part of the Prince-Archbishopric of Bremen.

Episcopal see the main administrative seat held by a bishop

An episcopal see is, in the usual meaning of the phrase, the area of a bishop's ecclesiastical jurisdiction.

Henry V, Count Palatine of the Rhine Count Palatine of the Rhine

Henry V, the Elder of Brunswick, a member of the House of Welf, was Count Palatine of the Rhine from 1195 until 1213.

1572 drawing of Stade. "S. Cosmus" and "S. Wilhat" refer to St. Cosmae et Damiani Church and St. Wilhadi, respectively. Braun Stade UBHD.jpg
1572 drawing of Stade. "S. Cosmus" and "S. Wilhat" refer to St. Cosmae et Damiani Church and St. Wilhadi, respectively.
Stade in 1640 (drawing by Matthaus Merian) Stade-1640-Merian.jpg
Stade in 1640 (drawing by Matthäus Merian)
New harbor during the 1894 flooding Stade Neuer Hafen Sturmflut.jpg
New harbor during the 1894 flooding

In medieval times (from the 13th century to the late 17th century), Stade was a prominent member of the Hanseatic League, but was later eclipsed by Hamburg. In 1611 the city signed a contract with Sephardic Jews, allowing the foundation of a community. In 1613, Johan Friedrich, Administrator of the Prince-Archbishopric, followed by settling Ashkenazic Jews in the city, but during the turmoil of Catholic conquest and Lutheran reconquest the last archival traces of Jews date from 1630. In 1648, by the Treaty of Westphalia, the Prince-Archbishopric of Bremen underwent a constitutional transformation from a prince-bishopric into a monarchy, the Duchy of Bremen . The duchy and the neighboured Principality of Verden , colloquially referred to as Bremen-Verden, were granted by the Treaty of Westphalia as an appanage to the Swedish crown. Stade, already under Swedish occupation since 1645, was a part of the Swedish province of Bremen-Verden-Wildeshausen from 1645 to 1712, and some of the buildings built by the Swedes are still in use today.

Hanseatic League Trade confederation in Northern Europe

The Hanseatic League was a commercial and defensive confederation of merchant guilds and market towns in Northwestern and Central Europe. Growing from a few North German towns in the late 1100s, the league came to dominate Baltic maritime trade for three centuries along the coasts of Northern Europe. Hansa territories stretched from the Baltic to the North Sea and inland during the Late Middle Ages, and diminished slowly after 1450.

Hamburg City in Germany

Hamburg is the second-largest city in Germany and 8th largest city in the European Union with a population of over 1.8 million.

Bremen-Verden

Bremen-Verden, formally the Duchies of Bremen and Verden, were two territories and immediate fiefs of the Holy Roman Empire, which emerged and gained imperial immediacy in 1180. By their original constitution they were prince-bishoprics of the Archdiocese of Bremen and Bishopric of Verden.

Swedish fortress

Stade's heyday lasted until the Thirty Years' War. In 1628 Tilly conquered the town; shortly thereafter, Sweden took possession of it until 1636. After a period of Danish occupation, Sweden finally recaptured it in 1643 and was also officially granted possession of it, together with the Archbishopric of Bremen, in the Peace of Westphalia. Two-thirds of the town were razed in the great town fire on 26 May 1659. The town was rebuilt again to the same plan.

From 1675 to 1676, in the Swedish-Brandenburg War, Swedish Stade was conquered during a campaign by Denmark and several states of the Holy Roman Empire and remained in allied hands until the end of that war in 1679. Stade, as the headquarters of the Swedish Stadhalter, was besieged from early April 1676 to 13 Aug 1676. In the wake of the Treaty of Saint Germain in 1679, Stade was once again awarded to Sweden.

The Elbe customs station near Stade, in Brunshausen at the mouth of the Schwinge, played special role in trading on the River Elbe from the period of the archbishopric. In 1663, the Swedes stationed an Elbe customs frigate (Elbzollfregatte) as a permanent patrol ship. This arrangement continued to exist under various rulers until 1850 and the customs station on the Schwinge fieldworks itself existed until 1865. [4]

Swedish sovereignty ended in 1712. Danish troops besieged the town in the Great Northern War and shelled it from 29 August to 7 September 1712 that destroyed 152 houses, a quarter of the built-up area.

During the Swedish times Stade was the capital of the province.

Danish rule

In 1712 Denmark conquered Stade and the whole of Bremen-Verden. Stade remained Bremen-Verden's capital also after the Danes ceded it to the Electorate of Brunswick and Lunenburg (Hanover) in 1715. When in 1823 Bremen-Verden was replaced by new administrative forms, Stade continued to be the capital of the Stade region.

In 1355 and in 1712, Stade suffered from the plague epidemic, which killed at least 30–40% of the city's population.

On 26 May 1659 a huge fire destroyed 60% of the city.

Early modern and modern period

In 1757 following the French Invasion of Hanover, the Army of Observation under Prince William, Duke of Cumberland, and the Privy Council of Hanover (government) took shelter in Stade. Cumberland prepared to defend the town before agreeing the Convention of Klosterzeven which brought about a temporary armistice.

By the end of the 17th century Ashkenazi Jews reappeared in Stade. In 1842 the Kingdom of Hanover granted equal rights to Jews and promoted to build up Jewish congregations and a regional superstructure (rabbinate) within a nationwide scope. The Jews in Stade regarded this a progress and a burden alike, because prior they hadn't employed any rabbi and religion teacher due to the implied financial burden. In 1845 – according to the new law – a land-rabbinate, under Land-Rabbi Joseph Heilbut, was established in the city, serving 16 Jewish congregations, which were founded over the years in the whole Stade Region, with altogether 1,250 Jews in 1864 (highest number ever reached). The local authorities now requested, that the Jewish congregations establish synagogues and Jewish education for the pupils. In 1849 Stade's synagogue opened, but had to close due to financial restrictions in 1908. And a teacher for Jewish religion and Hebrew was employed (after 1890 Stade's community couldn't afford a teacher any more). From 1903 on the Jewish community of Stade was granted public subsidies to continue functioning. The Stade Region stayed a Jewish diaspora, and from 1860 on Stade's land-rabbinate was never staffed again, but served alternately by one of the other three Hanoverian land-rabbinates. Labour migration and emigration [5] to urban centres outside the Stade Region and Jewish demography rather lead to a reduction of the number of Jews in the Stade Region (786 in 1913, 716 in 1928). [6] However, most of the remaining Jews were deported during the Nazi reign. During World War II, Stade remained completely untouched by allied bombings.

Stade nuclear power plant (offline) in 2006 Sudostansicht AKW Stade 1.jpg
Stade nuclear power plant (offline) in 2006

In past decades, Stade has economically benefited significantly from the presence of chemical and aerospace industry at the Elbe river, most notably Dow Chemical and Airbus. Also by the Elbe at Stade is the decommissioned Stade Nuclear Power Plant, which was connected to the power grid from 1972 to 2003. By the time the plant was brought offline, it was Germany's second oldest reactor. Following Germany's 2002 decision to phase out nuclear power generation, Stade was the first German plant to be affected; it was closed down permanently on 14 November 2003. Close to the former nuclear plant there is an inactive oil-fired power station, the Schilling Power Station.

Notable places

The old town centre (Altstadt) of Stade is home to a variety of notable historic buildings; among the most notable are the St. Cosmae et Damiani Lutheran Church, the Wilhadi Lutheran Church, the town hall (Rathaus), the Schwedenspeicher and the Zeughaus.

Located near to Stade are the gigantic pylons of Elbe Crossing 1 and Elbe Crossing 2; the Elbe Crossing 2 pylons are the tallest in Europe and the sixth-tallest in the world.

Transport

In late 2007, line S3 of the S-Bahn Hamburg was extended to Stade. Trains depart Stade station every 20 minutes (at peak times), arriving at Hamburg central station in roughly one hour.

Local industry

Firms with notable locations in the area include:

Twin towns

Notable residents

Aurora von Konigsmarck Aurora von Konigsmarck.jpg
Aurora von Königsmarck

olden times

more modern times

See also

Related Research Articles

Archbishopric of Bremen archdiocese

The Prince-Archbishopric of Bremen, also Archbishopric of Bremen, — not to be confused with the former Archdiocese of Bremen, and the modern Archdiocese of Hamburg, founded in 1994 — was an ecclesiastical principality (787–1566/1648) of the Holy Roman Empire, which after its definitive secularization in 1648, became the hereditary Duchy of Bremen. The prince-archbishopric, which was under the secular rule of the archbishop, consisted of about a third of the diocesan territory. The city of Bremen was de facto and de jure not part of the prince-archbishopric. Most of the prince-archbishopric lay rather in the area to the north of the city of Bremen, between the Weser and Elbe rivers. Even more confusingly, parts of the prince-archbishopric belonged in religious respect to the neighbouring diocese of Verden, making up 10% of its diocesan territory.

Bremervörde Place in Lower Saxony, Germany

Bremervörde is a town in the north of the district (Landkreis) of Rotenburg, in Lower Saxony, Germany. It is situated on the Oste river near the centre of the "triangle" formed by the rivers Weser and Elbe, roughly equidistant from the cities of Hamburg, Bremen and Cuxhaven.

Jork Place in Lower Saxony, Germany

Jork is a small town on the left bank of the Elbe, near Hamburg (Germany).

Himmelpforten Place in Lower Saxony, Germany

Himmelpforten is a municipality west of Hamburg (Germany) in the district of Stade in Lower Saxony. It is located on the Horsterbeck creek. Himmelpforten is also part and the seat of the Samtgemeinde Oldendorf-Himmelpforten.

Zeven Place in Lower Saxony, Germany

Zeven [] is a town in the district of Rotenburg, in Lower Saxony, Germany. It has a population of around 14,000. The nearest large towns are Bremerhaven, Bremen and Hamburg. It is situated approximately 22 km northwest of Rotenburg, and 40 km northeast of Bremen. Zeven is also the seat of the Samtgemeinde Zeven.

Dr. Jens Grand, the Firebug was a Danish archbishop of Lund (1289–1302), titular Archbishop of Riga and Terra Mariana (1304–1310), and Prince-Archbishop of Bremen, known as the central figure of the second ecclesiastical struggle in Denmark in the late 13th century. He was an outstanding jurist of canon law.

Neuhaus (Oste) Place in Lower Saxony, Germany

Neuhaus an der Oste is a municipality in the district of Cuxhaven, in Lower Saxony, Germany.

Selsingen Place in Lower Saxony, Germany

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Ottersberg Place in Lower Saxony, Germany

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Henry IV, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg German noble

Henry IV, called the Elder, a member of the House of Welf, was Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg and ruling Prince of Wolfenbüttel from 1491 until his death.

Flögeln Ortsteil of Geestland in Lower Saxony, Germany

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Elsdorf, Lower Saxony Place in Lower Saxony, Germany

Elsdorf is a municipality in the district of Rotenburg, in Lower Saxony, Germany.

Mittelnkirchen Place in Lower Saxony, Germany

Mittelnkirchen is a municipality in the district of Stade, Lower Saxony, Germany.

Neuenkirchen, Stade Place in Lower Saxony, Germany

Neuenkirchen is a municipality in the Altes Land, district of Stade, Lower Saxony, Germany.

Sauensiek Place in Lower Saxony, Germany

Sauensiek is a municipality in the district of Stade, Lower Saxony, Germany.

Rübke Ortsteil of Neu Wulmstorf in Lower Saxony, Germany

Rübke  a village located in the north of Lower Saxony, Germany. Its population is approximately 500 and consists of two main roads.

The Stade Region emerged in 1823 by an administrative reorganisation of the dominions of the Kingdom of Hanover, a sovereign state, whose then territory is almost completely part of today's German federal state of Lower Saxony. Until 1837 the Kingdom of Hanover was ruled in personal union by the Kings of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.

Albert II of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel was Prince-Archbishop of Bremen in the years 1361–1395.

References

  1. Landesamt für Statistik Niedersachsen, Tabelle 12411: Fortschreibung des Bevölkerungsstandes, Stand 31. Dezember 2017
  2. Adolf Hofmeister, "Der Kampf um das Erbe des Stader Grafen zwischen den Welfen und der Bremer Kirche (1144–1236)", In: Geschichte des Landes zwischen Elbe und Weser: 3 vols., Hans-Eckhard Dannenberg and Heinz-Joachim Schulze (eds.) on behalf of the Landschaftsverband der ehemaligen Herzogtümer Bremen und Verden, Stade: Landschaftsverband der ehem. Herzogtümer Bremen und Verden, 1995 and 2008, (Schriftenreihe des Landschaftsverbandes der ehem. Herzogtümer Bremen und Verden; No. 7), vol. II: Mittelalter (1995), pp. 105–157, here p. 123. ISBN   978-3-9801919-8-2
  3. Jürgen Bohmbach, "Der werdende Territorialstaat der Erzbischöfe von Bremen (1236–1511): III. Die Städte im Erzstift Bremen", In: Geschichte des Landes zwischen Elbe und Weser: 3 vols., Hans-Eckhard Dannenberg and Heinz-Joachim Schulze (eds.) on behalf of the Landschaftsverband der ehemaligen Herzogtümer Bremen und Verden, Stade: Landschaftsverband der ehem. Herzogtümer Bremen und Verden, 1995 and 2008, (Schriftenreihe des Landschaftsverbandes der ehem. Herzogtümer Bremen und Verden; No. 7), vol. II: Mittelalter (1995), pp. 241–262, here p. 249. ISBN   978-3-9801919-8-2
  4. Richard Graewe: Die zweihundertjährige Geschichte der Elb-Zoll-Fregatte zu Brunshausen und ihrer Kommandanten 1650–1850. Selbstverlag des Stader Geschichts- und Heimatvereins, Stade 1963
  5. About a third of the Jews emigrated in the 19th century to the USA. Cf. Jürgen Bohmbach, Sie lebten mit uns: Juden im Landkreis Stade vom 18. bis zum 20. Jahrhundert, Stade: city of Stade, 2001, (Veröffentlichungen aus dem Stadtarchiv Stade; vol. 21), p. 4.
  6. Albert Marx, Geschichte der Juden in Niedersachsen, Hanover: Fackelträger-Verlag, 1995, p. 144 and Jürgen Bohmbach, Sie lebten mit uns: Juden im Landkreis Stade vom 18. bis zum 20. Jahrhundert, Stade: city of Stade, 2001, (Veröffentlichungen aus dem Stadtarchiv Stade; vol. 21), p. 4.