Stanisław Leszczyński

Last updated

Stanisław I
Portrait of Stanislaw I Leszczynski.jpg
Portrait by Jean-Baptiste van Loo, 1727–1728
King of Poland
Grand Duke of Lithuania
1st reign12 July 1704 – 8 July 1709
Coronation 4 October 1705
Predecessor Augustus II
SuccessorAugustus II
2nd reign12 September 1733 – 26 January 1736
PredecessorAugustus II
Successor Augustus III
Duke of Lorraine
Reign9 July 1737 – 23 February 1766
Predecessor Francis III Stephen
Successor Escheated into the Kingdom of France
Born(1677-10-20)20 October 1677
Lwów, Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
Died23 February 1766(1766-02-23) (aged 88)
Lunéville, Kingdom of France
Burial
Spouse Catherine Opalińska
Issue Anna Leszczyńska
Marie, Queen of France
Full name
Stanisław Bogusław Leszczyński
House Leszczyński
Father Rafał Leszczyński
Mother Anna Jabłonowska
Religion Roman Catholicism
Signature Autograph of Stanislaw Leszczynski.PNG

Stanisław I Leszczyński (Polish pronunciation:  [staˈɲiswaf lɛʂˈtʂɨj̃skʲi] ; Lithuanian : Stanislovas Leščinskis; French : Stanislas Leszczynski; 20 October 1677 – 23 February 1766), also Anglicized and Latinized as Stanislaus I, was King of Poland, Grand Duke of Lithuania, Duke of Lorraine and a count of the Holy Roman Empire.

Contents

In 1709, Charles suffered a defeat from the Russians at the Battle of Poltava, and was subsequently driven into exile in the Ottoman Empire. As a result, Stanisław lost all stable support. Augustus II ultimately became King of Poland, and Stanisław fled the country and settled in the province of Alsace, France. In 1725, his daughter Marie Leszczyńska married Louis XV of France. [1]

In Nancy, Place Stanislas (Stanisław Square) was named in his honour.

Early life

Born in Lwów in 1677, he was the son of Rafał Leszczyński, voivode of Poznań Voivodeship, and Princess Anna Katarzyna Jabłonowska. He married Katarzyna Opalińska, by whom he had a daughter, Maria, who became Queen of France as wife of Louis XV. In 1697, as Cup-bearer of Poland, he signed the confirmation of the articles of election of August II the Strong. In 1703 he joined the Lithuanian Confederation, which the Sapiehas with the aid of Sweden had formed against August.

King for first time

During his first reign before 1709 Manyoki Stanislaus Leszczynski.png
During his first reign before 1709

The following year, Stanisław was selected by Charles XII of Sweden after a successful Swedish invasion of Poland, to supersede Augustus II, who was hostile towards the Swedes. Leszczyński was a young man of blameless antecedents, respectable talents, and came from an ancient family, but certainly without sufficient force of character or political influence to sustain himself on so unstable a throne.

Nevertheless, with the assistance of a bribing fund and an army corps, the Swedes succeeded in procuring his election by a scratch assembly of half a dozen castellans and a few score of noblemen on 12 July 1704. A few months later, Stanisław was forced by a sudden inroad of Augustus II to seek refuge in the Swedish camp, but finally on 24 September 1705, he was crowned king with great splendor. Charles himself supplied his nominee with a new crown and scepter in lieu of the ancient Polish regalia, which had been carried off to Saxony by August. During this time the King of Sweden sent Peter Estenberg to King Stanislaw to act as an ambassador and correspondence secretary. The Polish king's first act was to cement an alliance with Charles XII whereby the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth engaged to assist Sweden against the Russian tsar. Stanisław did what he could to assist his patron. Thus, he induced Ivan Mazepa, the Cossack hetman, to desert Peter the Great at the most critical period of the Great Northern War between Russia and Sweden, and Stanisław placed a small army corps at the disposal of the Swedes and was beaten in Battle of Koniecpol. However, Stanisław depended so entirely on the success of Charles' arms that after the Battle of Poltava (1709), his authority vanished as a dream at the first touch of reality. Stanisław then resided in the town of Rydzyna.

First loss of throne

The vast majority of Poles hastened to repudiate Stanisław and make their peace with August. Henceforth a mere pensioner of Charles XII, Stanisław accompanied Krassow's army corps in its retreat to Swedish Pomerania. On the restoration of Augustus, Stanisław resigned the Polish Crown (though he retained the royal title) in exchange for the little principality of Deux-Ponts. In 1716, an assassination was attempted by a Saxon officer, Lacroix, but Stanisław was saved by Stanisław Poniatowski, father of the future king. Forced to leave Zweibrücken in 1719 after the death of Charles XII in whose name he was Count Palatine, Stanisław Leszczyński then resided at Wissembourg in Alsace. In 1725, he had the satisfaction of seeing his daughter Maria become queen consort of Louis XV of France. From 1725 to 1733, Stanisław lived at the Château de Chambord.

King for second time

Place Stanislas in Nancy, France Nancy Porte Here BW 2015-07-18 13-45-28.jpg
Place Stanislas in Nancy, France

Stanislaw's son-in-law Louis XV supported his claims to the Polish throne after the death of August II the Strong in 1733, which led to the War of the Polish Succession. On 11 September 1733, Stanisław himself arrived at Warsaw, having traveled night and day through central Europe disguised as a coachman. On the following day, despite many protests, Stanisław was duly elected King of Poland for the second time. However, Russia was opposed to any nominee of France and Sweden. Russia protested against his election at once, in favor of the new Elector of Saxony, as being the candidate of her Austrian ally.

On 30 June 1734, a Russian army of 20,000 under Peter Lacy, after proclaiming August III the Saxon at Warsaw, proceeded to besiege Stanisław at Danzig, where he was entrenched with his partisans (including the Primate and the French and Swedish ministers) to await the relief that had been promised by France.

The siege began in October 1734. On 17 March 1735, Marshal Münnich superseded Peter Lacy, and on 20 May 1735 the long-expected French fleet appeared and disembarked 2,400 men on Westerplatte. A week later, this little army gallantly attempted to force the Russian entrenchments, but was finally compelled to surrender. This was the first time that France and Russia had met as foes in the field. On 30 June 1735, Danzig capitulated unconditionally, after sustaining a siege of 135 days which cost the Russians 8,000 men.

Disguised as a peasant, Stanisław had contrived to escape two days before. He reappeared at Königsberg (where he briefly met the future King Frederick the Great of Prussia), whence he issued a manifesto to his partisans which resulted in the formation of a confederation on his behalf, and the despatch of a Polish envoy to Paris to urge France to invade Saxony with at least 40,000 men. In Ukraine too, Count Nicholas Potocki kept on foot to support Stanisław a motley host of 50,000 men, which was ultimately scattered by the Russians.

Duke of Lorraine

Chateau de Luneville Chateau de Luneville - 2012-05-16.jpg
Château de Lunéville

On 26 January 1736, Stanisław again abdicated the throne but received in compensation the Duchy of Lorraine and of Bar, which was to revert to France on his death. In 1738, he sold his estates of Rydzyna and Leszno to Count (later Prince) Alexander Joseph Sułkowski. He settled at Lunéville, founded there in 1750 both the Académie de Stanislas and Bibliothèque municipale de Nancy, and devoted himself for the rest of his life to science and philanthropy, engaging most notably in controversy with Rousseau. [2] He also published Głos wolny wolność ubezpieczający , one of the most important political treatises of the Polish Enlightenment.

Death

The fireplace incident, drawing by Ksawery Pilati from the 19th century Wypadek Leszczynski.jpg
The fireplace incident, drawing by Ksawery Pilati from the 19th century

Stanisław was still alive when his great-great-granddaughter, Archduchess Maria Theresa of Austria, was born in 1762. In his last years, his close friend, the Hungarian-born Marshal of France Ladislas Ignace de Bercheny lived on his estate to provide company.

Leszczyński died in 1766, aged 88 as a result of serious burns – his silk attire caught fire from a spark while the King was asleep near the fireplace in his palace in Lunéville. He was medically treated for several days but died of wounds on 23 February. He was the longest living Polish king. [3]

Originally buried in the Church of Notre-Dame-de-Bonsecours, Nancy, following the French Revolution his remains were brought back to Poland and buried in the royal tomb of the Wawel Cathedral in Kraków.

Children

  1. Anna (25 May 1699 – 20 June 1717) died unmarried and childless.
  2. Maria (23 June 1703 – 24 June 1768) married Louis XV of France and had issue.

His wife also suffered many miscarriages.

Ancestry

Play and opera

Loosely based on an incident of King Stanisław's life are the play Le faux Stanislas written by the Frenchman Alexandre Vincent Pineu-Duval in 1808, transformed into the opera Un giorno di regno, ossia Il finto Stanislao (A One-Day Reign, or The Pretend Stanislaus, but often translated into English as King for a Day) by Giuseppe Verdi, to an Italian libretto written in 1818 by Felice Romani.

Further reading

See also

Related Research Articles

War of the Polish Succession War in Europe 1734–1738

The War of the Polish Succession was a major European conflict sparked by a Polish civil war over the succession to Augustus II of Poland, which the other European powers widened in pursuit of their own national interests. France and Spain, the two Bourbon powers, attempted to test the power of the Austrian Habsburgs in western Europe, as did the Kingdom of Prussia, whilst Saxony and Russia mobilized to support the eventual Polish victor. The fighting in Poland resulted in the accession of Augustus III, who in addition to Russia and Saxony, was politically supported by the Habsburgs.

Augustus II the Strong Elector of Saxony

Augustus II the Strong was Elector of Saxony from 1694, Imperial Vicar and elected King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania in the years 1697–1706 and from 1709 until his death in 1733. He belonged to the Albertine line of the House of Wettin.

Augustus III of Poland King of Poland

Augustus III was King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania from 1734 until 1763, as well as Elector of Saxony in the Holy Roman Empire from 1733 until 1763 where he was known as Frederick Augustus II.

Lunéville Subprefecture and commune in Grand Est, France

Lunéville is a commune in the Meurthe-et-Moselle department in France.

Stanisław Poniatowski (1676–1762)

Stanisław Poniatowski was a Polish military commander, diplomat, and noble. Throughout his career, Poniatowski served in various military offices, and was a general in both the Swedish and Polish–Lithuanian militaries. He also held numerous civil positions, including those of podstoli of Lithuania and Grand Treasurer of the Lithuanian army in 1722, voivode of the Masovian Voivodeship in 1731, regimentarz of the Crown Army in 1728, and castellan of Kraków in 1752. Throughout his lifetime, he served in many starost positions.

Leszczyński

Leszczyński was a prominent Polish noble family. They were magnates in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.

Catherine Opalińska Queen consort of Poland

Countess Catherine Opalińska, known as Catherine Opalinska in the French and English languages, was by birth member of House of Opaliński, Queen consort of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth twice and Duchess consort of Lorraine through her marriage with Stanisław I of Poland.

Anna Leszczyńska (1660–1727)

Anna Leszczyńska née Jabłonowska (1660–1727) was a Polish noblewoman, born into the House of Jablonowski and the mother of King of Poland Stanislaus I Leszczyński.

Treaty of the Three Black Eagles

The Treaty of the Three Black Eagles, or Treaty of Berlin, was a secret treaty signed in September and December 1732 between the Austrian Empire, the Russian Empire and Prussia.

History of Poland in the Early Modern era (1569–1795)

The early modern era of Polish history follows the late Middle Ages. Historians use the term early modern to refer to the period beginning in approximately 1500 AD and lasting until around 1800.

Battle of Warsaw (1705) A Battle near Warsaw in 1704, between the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and Saxony, against Sweden

The Battle of Warsaw was fought on 31 July 1705 near Warsaw, Poland, during the Great Northern War. The battle was part of a power struggle for the Polish–Lithuanian throne. It was fought between Augustus II the Strong and Stanisław Leszczyński and their allies. Augustus II entered the Northern war as elector of Saxony and king of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, and had formed an alliance with Denmark–Norway and Russia. Stanisław Leszczyński had seized the Polish throne in 1704, with the support of the Swedish army of Charles XII of Sweden. The struggle for the throne forced the Polish nobility to pick sides; the Warsaw Confederation supported Leszczyński and Sweden, and the Sandomierz Confederation supported Augustus II and his allies. The conflict resulted in the Polish civil war of 1704–1706.

The Treaty of Narva was concluded on 19 August (O.S.) / 30 August 1704 during the Great Northern War. The faction of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth loyal to Augustus the Strong joined the anti-Swedish alliance between the Saxon electorate and the Tsardom of Russia.

The Treaty of Warsaw was concluded on 18 November (O.S.) / 28 November 1705 during the Great Northern War. It was a peace treaty and an alliance between the Swedish Empire and the faction of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth loyal to Stanisław Leszczyński.

Treaty of Thorn (1709)

The Treaty of Thorn was concluded on 9 October 1709 between Augustus the Strong of Poland-Lithuania and Peter the Great of Russia in Thorn (Toruń), during the Great Northern War. The parties revived their alliance, which Charles XII of Sweden had destroyed in the Treaty of Altranstädt (1706), and agreed on restoring the Polish crown to Augustus.

Treaty of Altranstädt (1706)

The Treaty of Altranstädt was concluded between Charles XII of Sweden and Augustus the Strong of Saxony and Poland–Lithuania, on 13 October 1706, during the Great Northern War. Augustus had to renounce his claims to the Polish throne and his alliance with Russia.

Swedish invasion of Poland (1701–1706)

The Swedish invasion of Poland (1701–1706), also known as Charles XII's invasion of Poland or the Polish front of the Great Northern War, was a conflict in eastern Europe overshadowed by the ongoing Great Northern War fought between the Swedish Empire against the Russian Empire, Denmark-Norway, Saxony and the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. The Polish front was a major part of the greater conflict, and it included some decisive battles in favor of the Swedes that contributed to the length of the war.

1704 Polish–Lithuanian royal election

In early 1700, King of Poland, Grand Duke of Lithuania and Elector of Saxony, Augustus II the Strong began the Great Northern War by attacking Swedish Livonia. Despite Russian support, Saxon army lost several battles, and soon afterwards, forces of the Swedish Empire controlled most of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. In June 1703, Augustus II convened the Extraordinary Sejm in Lublin, where he faced widespread criticism. His opponent were led by Primate of Poland, Michał Radziejowski, and sons of late King Jan III Sobieski, Jakub and Konstanty.

1733 Polish–Lithuanian royal election

On February 1, 1733, the King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania Augustus II the Strong died in Warsaw, leaving the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth without a monarch. Another royal election was necessary. This time, the Polish – Lithuanian nobility firmly opposed a foreign candidate, such as Portuguese Duke Infante Manuel, Count of Ourem, who was supported by the Russian Empire and the Habsburg Empire.

The civil war in Poland (1704–1706) was a part of a larger European conflict, the Great Northern War. It focused on the struggle for the Polish throne between King Stanisław I supported by his Warsaw Confederation and Sweden, and the Russian-backed Sandomierz Confederation of Augustus II the Strong. The war ended with Stanisław's victory and the Treaty of Altranstädt in 1706 in which August II renounced his claims to the Polish throne. Stanisław's triumph would be short-lived, however, as by 1709 he would be forced to give up the throne to Augustus II once again.

Campaign of Grodno

The Campaign of Grodno was a plan developed by Johann Patkul and Otto Arnold von Paykull during the Swedish invasion of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, a part of the Great Northern War. Its purpose was to crush Charles XII's army with overwhelming force in a combined offensive of Russian and Saxon troops. The campaign, executed by Peter I of Russia and Augustus II of Saxony, began in July 1705 and lasted almost a year. In divided areas the allies would jointly strike the Swedish troops occupied in Poland, in order to neutralize the influence the Swedes had in the Polish politics. However, the Swedish forces under Charles XII successfully outmaneuvered the allies, installed a Polish king in favor of their own and finally won two decisive victories at Grodno and Fraustadt in 1706. This resulted in the Treaty of Altranstädt (1706) in which Augustus renounced his claims to the Polish throne, broke off his alliance with Russia, and established peace between Sweden and Saxony.

References

  1. "Stanisław I - king of Poland". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved April 11, 2019.
  2. Květina, Jan. "The Polish Question as a Political Issue within Philosophical Dispute: Leszczyński versus Rousseau". Oriens Aliter. Journal for Culture and History of the Central and Eastern Europe. Retrieved April 11, 2019 via www.academia.edu.
  3. "Stanisław Leszczyński - Szkolnictwo.pl". www.szkolnictwo.pl. Retrieved April 11, 2019.
  4. Żychliński, Teodor (1882). Złota księga szlachty polskiéj: Rocznik IVty (in Polish). Jarosław Leitgeber. p. 1. Retrieved August 1, 2018.

Commons-logo.svg Media related to Stanislaus I Leszczyński at Wikimedia Commons

Stanisław Leszczyński
Born: 20 October 1677 Died: 23 February 1766
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Augustus II
King of Poland
Grand Duke of Lithuania

1704–1709
Succeeded by
Augustus II
King of Poland
Grand Duke of Lithuania

1733–1736
Succeeded by
Augustus III
Preceded by
Francis III Stephen
Duke of Lorraine
1737–1766
Annexation by France

Wikisource-logo.svg This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain :  Bain, Robert Nisbet (1911). "Stanislaus I.". In Chisholm, Hugh (ed.). Encyclopædia Britannica . 25 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 775–776.