Stanislas-Marie Maillard (December 11, 1763 – April 11, 1794) was a captain of the Bastille Volunteers. As a national guardsman, he participated in the attack on the Bastille, being the first revolutionary to get into the fortress, also and accompanied the women who marched to Versailles on October 5, 1789. Maillard testified in court to the events at Versailles.
The Bastille was a fortress in Paris, known formally as the Bastille Saint-Antoine. It played an important role in the internal conflicts of France and for most of its history was used as a state prison by the kings of France. It was stormed by a crowd on 14 July 1789, in the French Revolution, becoming an important symbol for the French Republican movement, and was later demolished and replaced by the Place de la Bastille.
The Palace of Versailles was the principal royal residence of France from 1682, under Louis XIV, until the start of the French Revolution in 1789, under Louis XVI. It is located in the department of Yvelines, in the region of Île-de-France, about 20 kilometres southwest of the centre of Paris.
Maillard participated in the taking of the Bastille on July 14, 1789. Henceforth bearing the title “Captain of the Volunteers of the Bastille”, he took an active part in most of the landmark revolutionary events. Recruited into the ranks of the “Hébertistes”, he was charged by the Committee of Public Safety with the task of organizing a revolutionary police force. He was also one of the leaders of the “October Days”, which took place on October 5 and 6 of 1789, but for which he was present only on October 5. The October days consisted of the famous march of the poissardes, or market women, to Versailles, to demand bread and justice against the royal bodyguards who had supposedly disrespected the revolution. Presenting himself as the spokesperson for the women's grievances, Maillard presented the following statement before the Constituent Assembly: « Nous sommes à Versailles pour demander du pain et en même temps pour punir les gardes du corps qui ont insulté la cocarde patriotique1. », or “We have come to Versailles to demand bread, and to request the punishment of the royal body-guards who have insulted the patriotic cockade”. This latter statement referred to rumors that, at the banquet of October 2, 1789, put on for the visiting Flanders regiment by the royal bodyguards, the national cockade had been trampled underfoot. The marchers themselves behaved violently on the 5th, insulting the Queen and the priests they met in the National Assembly, and clashing with the guards of the palace. (The 6th was a disaster for which he was not present: two royal bodyguards were murdered, and the palace itself was forcibly entered, and the queen's chambers penetrated.)
Named captain of the national guard in 1790, he signed, on July 17, 1791, the petition of the Champs-de-Mars, which proclaimed the creation of a Republic. Charged by the Commune of Paris in September 1792 to put an end to recent wholesale massacres of prisoners, he would play a controversial role. He seems to have aided and abetted the massacres, having loaned them an air of legality with his presence. Others credit him with having a “providential role"in the affair. Posterity knows him as “the grand judge of the Abbaye” or “Chief of the Murderers”.
While serving as president of the improvised tribunal at the Prison de l’Abbaye, he released the marquis Charles François de Virot de Sombreuil, who had been saved by his daughter Marie-Maurille, to whom legend confers the status of l'héroïne au verre de sang. This name refers to the legend that, in order to spare her father's life, she was compelled to drink a glass of blood. Jules Claretie, in the role of second-in-command, gave an eyewitness account of Maillard in the role of judge: “Maillard was a young man of thirty, large, dark, with matted hair. He wears stockings, and a grey habit with large pockets."
Charles François de Virotmarquis de Sombreuil was a French Royalist general of the Ancien Régime and French Revolutionary Wars. He rose to become maréchal de camp, hero of the Battle of Rocoux and governor of Les Invalides before being guillotined in 1794.
Detained twice under The Terror, due to his ties with the Hébertists, he died, in misery, of tuberculosis.
The Hébertists, or Exaggerators were a radical revolutionary political group associated with the populist journalist Jacques Hébert, a member of the Cordeliers club. They came to power during the Reign of Terror and played a significant role in the French Revolution.
The French Revolution was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies beginning in 1789. The Revolution overthrew the monarchy, established a republic, catalyzed violent periods of political turmoil, and finally culminated in a dictatorship under Napoleon who brought many of its principles to areas he conquered in Western Europe and beyond. Inspired by liberal and radical ideas, the Revolution profoundly altered the course of modern history, triggering the global decline of absolute monarchies while replacing them with republics and liberal democracies. Through the Revolutionary Wars, it unleashed a wave of global conflicts that extended from the Caribbean to the Middle East. Historians widely regard the Revolution as one of the most important events in human history.
Marie Antoinette was the last Queen of France before the French Revolution. She was born an Archduchess of Austria and was the penultimate child and youngest daughter of Empress Maria Theresa and Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor. She became Dauphine of France in May 1770 at age 14 upon her marriage to Louis-Auguste, heir apparent to the French throne. On 10 May 1774, her husband ascended the throne as Louis XVI and she assumed the title Queen of France and Navarre, which she held until September 1791, when she became Queen of the French as the French Revolution proceeded, a title that she held until 21 September 1792.
The flag of France is a tricolour flag featuring three vertical bands coloured blue, white, and red. It is known to English speakers as the French Tricolour or simply the Tricolour. The Tricolour has become one of the most influential flags in history, with its three-colour scheme being copied by many other nations, both in Europe and the rest of the world.
Swiss Guards are the Swiss soldiers who have served as guards at foreign European courts since the late 15th century.
Lucie-Simplice-Camille-Benoît Desmoulins was a journalist and politician who played an important role in the French Revolution. He was a schoolmate of Maximilien Robespierre and a close friend and political ally of Georges Danton, who were influential figures in the French Revolution. Desmoulins was tried and executed alongside Danton when the Committee of Public Safety reacted against Dantonist opposition.
Armand Marc, Count of Montmorin de Saint Herem was a French statesman. He was Minister of Foreign Affairs and the Navy under Louis XVI.
Louis Pierre Manuel was a French writer and political figure of the Revolution.
This is a glossary of the French Revolution. It generally does not explicate names of individual people or their political associations; those can be found in List of people associated with the French Revolution.
The September Massacres were a number of killings in Paris and other cities that occurred from 2–4 September 1792 during the French Revolution.
The Storming of the Bastille occurred in Paris, France, on the afternoon of 14 July 1789.
The French Guards were an infantry regiment of the Military Household of the King of France under the Ancien Régime.
The Women's March on Versailles, also known as The October March, The October Days, or simply The March on Versailles, was one of the earliest and most significant events of the French Revolution. The march began among women in the marketplaces of Paris who, on the morning of 5 October 1789, were near rioting over the high price and scarcity of bread. Their demonstrations quickly became intertwined with the activities of revolutionaries, who were seeking liberal political reforms and a constitutional monarchy for France. The market women and their various allies grew into a mob of thousands. Encouraged by revolutionary agitators, they ransacked the city armory for weapons and marched to the Palace of Versailles. The crowd besieged the palace, and in a dramatic and violent confrontation, they successfully pressed their demands upon King Louis XVI. The next day, the crowd compelled the king, his family, and most of the French Assembly to return with them to Paris.
Anne-Josèphe Théroigne de Méricourt was a singer, orator and organizer in the French Revolution. She was born at Marcourt, a small town in Luxembourg province, in modern Belgium. She is known both for her portrayal in the French Revolutionary press and for her subsequent mental breakdown and institutionalization.
Charles Thévenin was a neoclassical French painter, known for heroic scenes from the time of the French Revolution and First French Empire.
The trial of Louis XVI was a key event of the French Revolution. It involved the trial of the former French king Louis XVI before the National Convention and led to his execution.
The Society of Revolutionary and Republican Women were two most famous political clubs during the French Revolution formed May 10, 1793, lasting less than five months. In this short span, however, the two Societies managed to create quite a stir in the national political scene, and brought to light some controversial points about women and political and sexual equality.
The Carmes Prison was a prison of the French Revolution. It was set up in what had been the Carmes Monastery in Paris. It formed a vast enclosure bounded by rue du Regard, rue du Cherche-Midi and rue Cassette - it was also bordered to the south by rue de Vaugirard. It was the site of one of the September Massacres in 1792 and features in the 1927 film Napoléon.
Louise-Emmanuelle de Châtillon, known as Princesse de Tarente (1763-1814) was a French noble, memoirist and court official. She served as lady-in-waiting to queen Marie Antoinette of France from 1782 to 1792. Her memoirs about her life during the French revolution has been published.