Stanley Rous

Last updated

Sir

Stanley Rous
CBE
Stanley Rous.jpg
6th President of FIFA
In office
28 September 1961 8 May 1974
Preceded by Arthur Drewry
Succeeded by João Havelange
Personal details
Born
Stanley Ford Rous

(1895-04-25)25 April 1895
Mutford, East Suffolk, England
Died(1986-07-18)18 July 1986 (aged 91)
Paddington, London, England
NationalityBritish
Spouse(s)Adrienne Gacon (died 1950)
OccupationReferee and Football Administrator

Sir Stanley Ford Rous, CBE (25 April 1895 – 18 July 1986) was the 6th President of FIFA, serving from 1961 to 1974. He also served as secretary of the Football Association from 1934 to 1962 and was an international referee.

Order of the British Empire British order of chivalry

The Most Excellent Order of the British Empire is a British order of chivalry, rewarding contributions to the arts and sciences, work with charitable and welfare organisations, and public service outside the civil service. It was established on 4 June 1917 by King George V and comprises five classes across both civil and military divisions, the most senior two of which make the recipient either a knight if male or dame if female. There is also the related British Empire Medal, whose recipients are affiliated with, but not members of, the order.

The Football Association governing body of association football in England

The Football Association (FA) is the governing body of association football in England and the Crown dependencies of Jersey, Guernsey, and the Isle of Man. Formed in 1863, it is the oldest football association in the world and is responsible for overseeing all aspects of the amateur and professional game in its territory.

Referee (association football) supervisor of a game of association football

The referee is the person responsible for enforcing the Laws of the Game (LOTG) during an association football match. He or she is the final decision-making authority on all facts connected with play, and is the only official on the pitch with the authority to start and stop play and impose disciplinary action against players during a match. At most levels of play the referee is assisted by two assistant referees, who are empowered to advise the referee in certain situations such as the ball leaving play or infringements of the Laws of the Game occurring out of the view of the referee; however, the assistant referees' decisions are not binding and the referee has authority to overrule an assistant referee. At higher levels of play the referee may also be assisted by a fourth official who supervises the teams' technical areas and assists the referee with administrative tasks, and, at the very highest levels, additional assistant referees and/or video assistant referees.

Contents

Early life

Rous was born in Mutford near Lowestoft in East Suffolk and attended Sir John Leman School in Beccles. [1] [2] He was the eldest son of a provision master but trained as a teacher in Beccles before serving in World War I as a non-commissioned officer in the 272nd brigade of the Royal Field Artillery (East Anglian) in France, Palestine, Egypt, and Lebanon. [1] [2]

Mutford village in Suffolk

Mutford is a small village and civil parish located south-west of Lowestoft in the English county of Suffolk. The village is located between Lowestoft and Beccles in a rural area south of the A146 at Barnby. Nearby villages include Gisleham and Henstead. The village gave its name to the Half Hundred of Mutford which is named in the Domesday Book.

Lowestoft town in Suffolk, England

Lowestoft is an English town and civil parish in the county of Suffolk. The town, on the North Sea coast, is the most easterly settlement of the United Kingdom. It is 110 miles (177 km) north-east of London, 38 miles (61 km) north-east of Ipswich and 22 miles (35 km) south-east of Norwich. It lies on the edge of The Broads system and is the major settlement in the district of East Suffolk, with a population of 71,010 in 2011. Some of the earliest evidence of settlement in Britain has been found here. As a port town it developed out of the fishing industry and as a traditional seaside resort. It has wide, sandy beaches, two piers and other attractions. While its fisheries have declined, oil and gas exploitation in the southern North Sea in the 1960s added to its development, as a base for the industry alongside nearby Great Yarmouth. This role has declined, but the town has begun to develop as an Eastern England centre of the renewable energy industry.

East Suffolk (county) former county of England

East Suffolk, along with West Suffolk, was created in 1888 as an administrative county of England. The administrative county was based on the eastern quarter sessions division of Suffolk. East Suffolk County Council's headquarters were at East Suffolk County Hall in Ipswich, which was a county borough in its own right.

After the war Rous attended St Luke's College in Exeter and then became a sports teacher at Watford Boys Grammar School. [1] [2]

Exeter City in the south west of England

Exeter is a cathedral city in Devon, England, with a population of 129,800. The city is located on the River Exe approximately 36 miles (58 km) northeast of Plymouth and 65 miles (105 km) southwest of Bristol. It is the county town of Devon, and the base of Devon County Council. Also situated in Exeter are two campuses of the University of Exeter - Streatham Campus and St Luke's Campus.

Watford Grammar School for Boys school in Hertfordshire, UK

Watford Grammar School for Boys is a partially selective academy for boys in Watford in Hertfordshire, England. The school and its sister school, Watford Grammar School for Girls, descend from a Free School founded as a charity school for boys and girls by Elizabeth Fuller in 1704. Despite its name, the school accepts boys of all abilities, although approximately a third are selected for academic or musical aptitude, and brothers of existing pupils are also guaranteed places. Its results are among the highest achieved by non-grammar state schools in England.

Referee

Rous refereeing a game between Hungary and Italy in 1933 Stanley Ford Rous As the judge of a match between commands of Hungary and Italy. October, 1933.jpg
Rous refereeing a game between Hungary and Italy in 1933

Rous played football at amateur level as a goalkeeper for clubs including Kirkley and Lowestoft Town, but was forced to retire from playing after breaking a wrist. [3] [4] He developed an interest in refereeing whilst watching Norwich City and later qualified as a referee while studying at St Luke’s and became a football league referee in 1927. [1] He officiated in his first international match, a 2–0 friendly win for Belgium against the Netherlands, in the Bosuilstadion, Antwerp, on 13 March in the same year. [5] He eventually officiated in a total of 34 international matches. [1]

Goalkeeper (association football) position in association football

The goalkeeper, often shortened to keeper or goalie, is one of the major positions of association football. It is the most specialised position in the sport. The goalkeeper's primary role is to prevent the opposing team from scoring. This is accomplished by the goalkeeper moving into the path of the ball and either catching it or directing it away from the vicinity of the goal line. Within the penalty area goalkeepers are able to use their hands, making them the only players on the field permitted to handle the ball. The special status of goalkeepers is indicated by them wearing different coloured kits from their teammates.

Kirkley & Pakefield F.C.

Kirkley & Pakefield Football Club is a football club based in the Kirkley suburb of Lowestoft, Suffolk, England. They are currently members of the Eastern Counties League Premier Division and play at Walmer Road.

Lowestoft Town F.C. Association football club

Lowestoft Town Football Club is a semi-professional football club from Lowestoft, Suffolk, England. They are currently members of the Southern League Premier Division Central and play at Crown Meadow.

He rose to the top tier of the game when he was appointed to referee the 1934 FA Cup Final at Wembley Stadium, where Manchester City defeated Portsmouth by 2 goals to 1. [6] The following day, after travelling to Belgium to control an international match, Stanley Rous retired from refereeing.

1934 FA Cup Final

The 1934 FA Cup Final was won by Manchester City in a 2–1 win over Portsmouth. The match is most remembered for a young Frank Swift's heroics in goal and the predictions of City forward Fred Tilson. The match was also refereed by future FIFA president Stanley Rous, in his penultimate game as an official.

Wembley Stadium (1923) former stadium in London, England which opened in 1923

The original Wembley Stadium was a football stadium in Wembley Park, London, which stood on the same site now occupied by its successor, the new Wembley Stadium. The demolition in 2003 of its famous Twin Towers upset many people worldwide.

Manchester City F.C. Association football club

Manchester City Football Club is an English football club based in Manchester, that competes in the Premier League, the top flight of English football. Founded in 1880 as St. Mark's , it became Ardwick Association Football Club in 1887 and Manchester City in 1894. The club's home ground is the City of Manchester Stadium in east Manchester, to which it moved in 2003, having played at Maine Road since 1923.

Rous made a major contribution to the game by rewriting the Laws of the Game in 1938, making them simpler and easier to understand. He was also the first to employ the diagonal system of control for referees as a standard practice. [1] [7] According to Belgian referee John Langenus, who had been in charge of the 1930 FIFA World Cup Final, he had seen referees from his country making a similar attempt at scientific positioning on the field of play. [8]

The Laws of the Game (LOTG) are the codified rules that help define association football. The laws mention the number of players a team should have, the game length, the size of the field and ball, the type and nature of fouls that referees may penalise, the frequently misinterpreted offside law, and many other laws that define the sport. During a match, it is the task of the referee to interpret and enforce the Laws of the Game.

John Langenus football referee

John Langenus was a Belgian football referee, who officiated for FIFA in three World Cup competitions, including the first ever Final match in 1930.

1930 FIFA World Cup Final association football match

The 1930 FIFA World Cup Final was a football match contested by Uruguay and Argentina to determine the champion of the 1930 FIFA World Cup. The final was a rematch of the gold medal match of the 1928 Olympics, which Uruguay won after a replay.

Administrator

He then moved into the sphere of football administration. He served as secretary of the Football Association from 1934 to 1962. At UEFA, Sir Stanley joined the Executive Committee in 1958, becoming vice-president in March 1960, before leaving to become FIFA president the following year. [1] During his time as FIFA President from 1961 to 1974, Rous witnessed the crowning of England as Champions of the World in 1966. [9]

He was also known for his support for the apartheid-era South African Football Association.[ citation needed ] South Africa had been admitted to FIFA in 1954, but expelled from their local federation, the Confederation of African Football (CAF), in 1958. They were suspended from FIFA in 1961 after failing to fulfill an ultimatum regarding anti-discrimination rules. In 1963, they were readmitted to FIFA after Rous travelled to the country to "investigate" football in the country, concluding that the game could disappear in the country if they were not readmitted and after the South African Football Association proposed playing an all-white team for the 1966 finals and an all-black team in 1970. It turned out to be short-lived. At FIFA's next annual congress, held in Tokyo just after the Olympic Games, a greater turnout of African and Asian representatives led to South Africa being suspended again. They were finally expelled from FIFA twelve years later.[ citation needed ] Rous, however, continued to press for them to be readmitted, to the point that he was prepared to establish a Southern African confederation so that South Africa and Rhodesia (who were themselves expelled in 1970) could compete.[ citation needed ] Rous was forced to back down after CAF members made it clear that they would all withdraw from FIFA at the 1966 FIFA congress in London. [ citation needed ] A complex arrangement made during the 1966 World Cup by which referees of nations which passed to the knock-out phase were permitted to field referees was outlawed by FIFA under pressure from South American nations. [ citation needed ]

Rous stood for re-election as president in 1974, but was defeated by the vigorous canvassing of João Havelange, in the context of discontent of other nations at European domination of FIFA as well as opposition by African and Asian countries due to the pro-South African stance of Rous. [10] Upon his retirement as president, on 11 June 1974, he was nominated Honorary President of FIFA. [9]

The short-lived Rous Cup was named after him, as was the Rous Stand at Watford F.C.'s Vicarage Road ground, until being renamed the Graham Taylor Stand in 2014. He wrote A History of the Laws of Association Football, published in 1974. [1] [2]

Rous appears as a character in the Half Man Half Biscuit song "Albert Hammond Bootleg".[ citation needed ]

Personal life

Stanley Rous was married to Adrienne Gacon in 1924. [1] [2] The couple had no children. [1] He was appointed CBE in 1943 and knighted in 1949. [2] He was a lifelong friend of one of the founding members of FIFA, Dr. Ivo Schricker (1877–1962). Rous was an active freemason attending Exonian Lodge No. 3415 in London. [11]

Death

Rous died in Paddington, London, of leukaemia in 1986, at the age of 91. [1] A service in his memory was held at Westminster Abbey in the September of the same year. [1]

He is buried with his wife Lady Rous in the Holy Trinity Church in the Lickey Hills, close to both Bromsgrove and Birmingham.

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Sir John Leman High School is a coeducational 11–18 secondary school with academy status serving part of the Waveney region in north Suffolk, England. The school is located on the western edge of the town of Beccles and serves the surrounding area, including Worlingham. Pupils from Norfolk villages such as Gillingham also sometimes attend the school. The school has approximately 1,400 pupils, including a sixth form of around 260 students.

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References

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Pawson.A (2004) ‘Rous, Sir Stanley Ford (1895–1986)’, rev. Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press (online). Retrieved 20 April 2011.
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 ‘ROUS, Sir Stanley (Ford)’, Who Was Who, A & C Black, online edn, Oxford University Press, Dec 2007 (online). Retrieved 20 April 2011.
  3. History Kirkley & Pakefield F.C.
  4. Sir Stanley Rous medal to be handed over by Town East Anglian Daily Times, 23 December 2010
  5. Belgium v. Holland Archived 13 November 2007 at the Wayback Machine , 1927, result: R Da Silva personal website.
  6. 1934 FA Cup Final: at soccerbase.com website.
  7. Rewriting the Laws of the Game (19 June 1997), also mention of the diagonal system of control for referees: FIFA.com website.
  8. Diagonal system of control Archived 22 June 2007 at the Wayback Machine : Footballreferee.org website.
  9. 1 2 Honorary President of FIFA, 1974: FIFA.com website.
  10. Sugden, John and Tomlinson, Alan (1997) "Global power struggles in world football: FIFA and UEFA, 1954–74, and their legacy", International Journal of the History of Sport 14(2) pp. 1–25.
  11. "Anfield Lodge No. 2215". Woolton Group of Lodges and Chapters. 15 October 2017.
Sporting positions
Preceded by
E Wood
FA Cup Final  Referee
1934
Succeeded by
A E Fogg