Starlink (satellite constellation)

Last updated
Logo Starlink Logo.svg
Logo

Starlink is a satellite constellation development project underway by American company SpaceX, [1] [2] to develop a low-cost, high-performance satellite bus and requisite customer ground transceivers to implement a new space-based Internet communication system. [3] [4] SpaceX also plans to sell satellites that use a satellite bus that may be used for military, [5] scientific or exploratory purposes. [6]

Satellite constellation group of artificial satellites working in concert

A satellite constellation is a group of artificial satellites working in concert. Such a constellation can be considered to be a number of satellites with coordinated ground coverage, operating together under shared control, synchronized so that they overlap well in coverage, the period in which a satellite or other spacecraft is visible above the local horizon.

Business development entails tasks and processes to develop and implement growth opportunities within and between organizations. It is a subset of the fields of business, commerce and organizational theory. Business development is the creation of long-term value for an organization from customers, markets, and relationships. Business development can be taken to mean any activity by either a small or large organization, non-profit or for-profit enterprise which serves the purpose of ‘developing’ the business in some way. In addition, business development activities can be done internally or externally by a business development consultant. External business development can be facilitated through Planning Systems, which are put in place by governments to help small businesses. In addition, reputation building has also proven to help facilitate business development.

SpaceX American aerospace company

Space Exploration Technologies Corp., doing business as SpaceX, is a private American aerospace manufacturer and space transportation services company headquartered in Hawthorne, California. It was founded in 2002 by Elon Musk with the goal of reducing space transportation costs to enable the colonization of Mars. SpaceX has developed the Falcon launch vehicle family and the Dragon spacecraft family.

Contents

Starlink constellation, phase 1, first orbital shell: approximately 1,600 satellites at 550 km altitude StarlinkPhase1-1stOrbitalShell,~1600 sats @ 550 km altitude.jpg
Starlink constellation, phase 1, first orbital shell: approximately 1,600 satellites at 550 km altitude

SpaceX has plans to deploy nearly 12,000 and later possibly up to 42,000 [7] satellites. The additional 30,000 satellites were added to the plan in 2019 after FCC submitted an application on behalf of SpaceX with ITU. The 12,000 satellites are planned to orbit in three orbital shells by the mid-2020s: initially placing approximately 1,600 in a 550-kilometer (340 mi)-altitude shell, subsequently placing approximately 2,800 Ku- and Ka-band spectrum satellites at 1,150 km (710 mi) and approximately 7,500 V-band satellites at 340 km (210 mi). [8] The total cost of the decade-long project to design, build and deploy such a network was estimated by SpaceX in May 2018 to be on the order of US$10 billion. [9] Concerns have been raised about the long term danger of space junk resulting from placing thousands of satellites in orbits above 1000km where orbit decay times are measured in thousands of years. [10]

Federal Communications Commission Independent agency of the U.S. Government

The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) is an independent agency of the United States government created by statute to regulate interstate communications by radio, television, wire, satellite, and cable. The FCC maintains jurisdiction over the areas of broadband access, fair competition, radio frequency use, media responsibility, public safety, and homeland security.

International Telecommunication Union Specialised agency of the United Nations

The International Telecommunication Union (ITU), originally the International Telegraph Union, is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is responsible for issues that concern information and communication technologies. It is the second oldest international organization after the Rhine Navigation Commission (1815).

The Ku band is the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the microwave range of frequencies from 12 to 18 gigahertz (GHz). The symbol is short for "K-under", because it is the lower part of the original NATO K band, which was split into three bands because of the presence of the atmospheric water vapor resonance peak at 22.24 GHz, (1.35 cm) which made the center unusable for long range transmission. In radar applications, it ranges from 12 to 18 GHz according to the formal definition of radar frequency band nomenclature in IEEE Standard 521-2002.

Product development began in 2015, and two prototype test-flight satellites were launched in February 2018. A second set of test satellites and the first large deployment of a piece of the constellation occurred on 24 May 2019 (UTC) when the first 60 operational satellites were launched. [1] [11] Initial commercial operation of the constellation could begin in 2020. [12]

In business and engineering, new product development (NPD) covers the complete process of bringing a new product to market. A central aspect of NPD is product design, along with various business considerations. New product development is described broadly as the transformation of a market opportunity into a product available for sale. The product can be tangible or intangible, though sometimes services and other processes are distinguished from "products." NPD requires an understanding of customer needs and wants, the competitive environment, and the nature of the market. Cost, time and quality are the main variables that drive customer needs. Aiming at these three variables, innovative companies develop continuous practices and strategies to better satisfy customer requirements and to increase their own market share by a regular development of new products. There are many uncertainties and challenges which companies must face throughout the process. The use of best practices and the elimination of barriers to communication are the main concerns for the management of the NPD.

Flight test Flight testing is a branch of aeronautical engineering that develops and gathers data during flight.

Flight testing is a branch of aeronautical engineering that develops and gathers data during flight of an aircraft, or atmospheric testing of launch vehicles and reusable spacecraft, and then analyzes the data to evaluate the aerodynamic flight characteristics of the vehicle in order to validate the design, including safety aspects.

The SpaceX satellite development facility in Redmond, Washington, houses the research, development, manufacturing and on-orbit control operations for the satellite Internet project.

Redmond, Washington City in Washington, United States

Redmond is a city in King County, Washington, United States, located 15 miles (24 km) east of Seattle. The population was 54,144 at the 2010 census and an estimated 67,678 in 2018. Redmond is commonly recognized as the home of Microsoft and Nintendo of America. With an annual bike race on city streets and the state's only velodrome, Redmond is also known as the "Bicycle Capital of the Northwest".

History

2015–2017

The communication satellite network SpaceX envisions was publicly announced in January 2015, with the projected design capability to support sufficient bandwidth to carry up to 50% of all backhaul communications traffic, and up to 10% of local Internet traffic, in high-density cities. [4] [6] CEO Elon Musk said that there is significant unmet demand for low-cost global broadband capabilities. [13]

A satellite internet constellation—sometimes referred to as a megaconstellation —is a large constellation of artificial satellites orbiting in low-Earth orbit (LEO), working together to provide high-throughput satellite (HTS) communication to facilitate low-latency broadband internet service to various business and individual nodes on the surface of Earth.

In computing, bandwidth is the maximum rate of data transfer across a given path. Bandwidth may be characterized as network bandwidth, data bandwidth, or digital bandwidth.

In a hierarchical telecommunications network, the backhaul portion of the network comprises the intermediate links between the core network, or backbone network, and the small subnetworks at the edge of the network.

SpaceX satellite development facility, Redmond, Washington, in use from 2015 to mid-2018 SpaceX satellite development facility, Redmond, Washington, 2018.jpg
SpaceX satellite development facility, Redmond, Washington, in use from 2015 to mid-2018

The opening of the SpaceX satellite development facility in Redmond was announced by SpaceX in January 2015 with partners, to develop and build out the new communication network. At the time, the Seattle-area office planned to initially hire approximately 60 engineers, and potentially 1,000 people over the next several years. [14] The company operated in 2,800 square meters (30,000 sq ft) of leased space by late 2016, and by January 2017 had taken on a 3,800 square meters (40,625 sq ft) second facility, both in Redmond. [15] In August 2018, SpaceX consolidated all their Seattle-area operations with a move to a larger three-building facility at Redmond Ridge Corporate Center to support satellite manufacturing in addition to R&D. [16]

In July 2016, SpaceX acquired a 740 square meters (8,000 sq ft) creative space in Irvine, California (Orange County). [17] SpaceX job listings indicated the Irvine office would include signal processing, RFIC, and ASIC development for the satellite program. [18]

By January 2016, the company had publicly disclosed plans to have two prototype satellites flying in 2016, [19] and have the initial satellite constellation in orbit and operational by approximately 2020. [6] By October 2016, SpaceX had developed the initial satellites that they hoped to launch and test in 2017, but the satellite division was focusing on a significant business challenge of achieving a sufficiently low-cost design for the user equipment, aiming for something that can ostensibly install easily at end-user premises for approximately US$200. Overall, SpaceX President Gwynne Shotwell said then that the project remained in the "design phase as the company seeks to tackle issues related to user-terminal cost." [3] Deployment, if carried out, would not be until "late in this decade or early in the next." [13] The two original test satellites were not flown, and were used only in ground testing. The planned launch of two revised satellites was moved to 2018. [20] [21]

In November 2016, SpaceX filed an application with the FCC for a "non-geostationary orbit (NGSO) satellite system in the Fixed-Satellite Service using the Ku and Ka frequency bands." [22]

By March 2017, SpaceX filed plans with the FCC to field a second orbital shell of more than 7500 "V-band satellites in non-geosynchronous orbits to provide communications services" in an electromagnetic spectrum that has not previously been heavily employed for commercial communications services. Called the "V-band low-Earth orbit (VLEO) constellation," [23] it would consist of 7,518 satellites and would orbit at just 340 kilometres (210 mi) altitude, [24] while the smaller originally-planned group of 4,425 satellites would operate in the Ka- and Ku-bands and orbit at 1,200 kilometres (750 mi) altitude. [23] [24] SpaceX's plans were unusual in two areas: the company intended to use the little-used V band of the communications spectrum, and also intended to operationally use a new orbital regime, the very-low Earth orbit regime of ~340 km altitude, where atmospheric drag is quite high – normally resulting in short orbital lifetimes. [25] SpaceX has not made public the specific spaceflight technology they intend to use to deal with the high-drag environment of VLEO. The March 2017 plan called for SpaceX to launch test satellites of the initial Ka/Ku type in both 2017 and 2018, and begin launching the operational constellation in 2019. Full build-out of the ~1200 km constellation of ~4,440 sats was not then expected to be completed until 2024. [26]

Some controversy arose in 2015–2017 with regulatory authorities on licensing of the communications spectrum for these large constellations of satellites. The traditional and historical regulatory rule for licensing spectrum has been that satellite operators could "launch a single spacecraft to meet their in-service deadline [from the regulator], a policy seen as allowing an operator to block the use of valuable radio spectrum for years without deploying its fleet." [27] By 2017, the US regulatory authority (FCC) had set a six-year deadline to have an entire large constellation deployed to comply with licensing terms. The international regulator, International Telecommunication Union, proposed in mid-2017 a guideline that would be considerably less restrictive. In September 2017, both Boeing and SpaceX petitioned the US FCC for a waiver of the 6-year rule, [27] but that was ultimately not granted. By 2019, the FCC had set the rule to be that half of the constellation must be in orbit in six years, with the full system in orbit by nine years from the date of the license. [8]

SpaceX trademarked the name Starlink for their satellite broadband network in 2017; [28] the name was inspired by the book The Fault in Our Stars. [29]

SpaceX filed documents in late 2017 with the US FCC to clarify their space debris mitigation plan. The company will "implement an operations plan for the orderly de-orbit of satellites nearing the end of their useful lives (roughly five to seven years) at a rate far faster than is required under international standards. [Satellites] will de-orbit by propulsively moving to a disposal orbit from which they will reenter the Earth's atmosphere within approximately one year after completion of their mission." [30] In March 2018, the FCC issued SpaceX approval with some conditions. SpaceX would need to obtain a separate approval from the ITU. [31] [32] The FCC supported a NASA request to ask SpaceX to achieve an even higher level of de-orbiting reliability than the standard that NASA had previously used for itself: reliably deorbiting 90% of the satellites after their missions are complete. [33]

2018–2019

In May 2018, SpaceX expected the total cost of development and buildout of the constellation to approach US$10 billion. [9] In mid-2018, SpaceX reorganized the satellite development division in Redmond, and fired several members of senior management. [16]

In November 2018, SpaceX received US regulatory approval to deploy 7,518 broadband satellites, in addition to the 4,425 approved earlier. SpaceX's initial 4,425 satellites had been requested in the 2016 regulatory filings to orbit at altitudes of 1,110-kilometer (690 mi) to 1,325-kilometer (823 mi), well above the ISS. The new approval was for the addition of a very-low Earth orbit NGSO [non-geostationary satellite orbit] constellation, consisting of 7,518 satellites operating at altitudes from 335-kilometer (208 mi) to 346-kilometer (215 mi), below the ISS. [34] Also in November, SpaceX made new regulatory filings with the US FCC to request the ability to alter its previously granted license in order to operate approximately 1,600 of the 4,425 Ka-/ Ku-band satellites approved for operation at 1,150 km (710 mi) in a "new lower shell of the constellation" at only 550 km (340 mi) orbital altitude. [35] [36] These satellites would effectively operate in a third orbital shell, a 550-kilometer (340 mi) orbit, while the higher and lower orbits at ~1,200-kilometer (750 mi) and ~340-kilometer (210 mi) would be used only later, once a considerably larger deployment of satellites becomes possible in the later years of the deployment process. The FCC approved the request in April 2019, giving approval to place nearly 12,000 satellites in three orbital shells: initially approximately 1,600 in a 550-kilometer (340 mi)-altitude shell, and subsequently placing ~2800 Ku- and Ka-band spectrum satellites at 1,150 km (710 mi) and ~7500 V-band satellites at 340 km (210 mi). [8]

With plans by several providers to build commercial space-Internet mega-constellations of thousands of satellites increasing likely to become a reality, the US military began to perform test studies in 2018 to evaluate how the networks might be used. In December, the US Air Force issued a US$28 million contract for specific test services on Starlink. [37]

In February 2019, a sister company of SpaceX, SpaceX Services, Inc., filed a request with the US Federal Communications Commission to request a license for the operation of up to 1,000,000 fixed satellite earth stations that will communicate with its non-geostationary orbit satellite (NGSO) Starlink system. [38]

By April 2019, SpaceX was transitioning their satellite efforts from R&D to manufacturing, with the planned first launch of a large batch of satellites to orbit, and the clear need to achieve an average launch rate of "44 high-performance, low-cost spacecraft built and launched every month for the next 60 months" to get the 2,200 satellites launched to support their FCC spectrum allocation license assignment. [39] SpaceX said they will meet the deadline of having half the constellation "in orbit within six years of authorization ... and the full system in nine years." [8]

By the end of June 2019, SpaceX had communicated with all 60 satellites but lost contact with three; the remaining 57 were working as intended. 45 satellites had reached their final orbital altitude of 550 km (340 mi), five were still raising their orbits, and another five were undergoing systems checks before they raise their orbits. The remaining two satellites were intended to be quickly removed from orbit and reenter the atmosphere in order to test the satellite de-orbiting process; the three that lost contact were also expected to reenter, but will do so passively from atmospheric drag as SpaceX was no longer able to actively control them. [40]

In June 2019, SpaceX applied to the FCC for a license to test up to 270 ground terminals—70 nationwide across the United States and 200 in Washington state at SpaceX employee homes [41] [42] —and aircraft-borne antenna operation from four distributed US airfields; as well as five ground-to-ground test locations. [43] [44]

By September 2019, SpaceX had gone back to the FCC to apply for more changes to the orbital constellation. SpaceX asked to triple the number of orbital planes in the 550 km orbital shell, from 24 to 72, arguing that they could then place satellites into multiple planes from a single launch, and provide service earlier to more areas. [45]


PhaseOrbit shells (km)Number of satellitesInclination

(degrees)

Half size contractual completion timeFull size contractual completion timeCurrent completion (23 May 2019)
1
5501,58453March 2024March 202762 [46]
1,1101,60053.80
1,130400740
1,275375810
1,325450700
2
335.92,49342November 2024November 20270
340.82,478480
345.62,547530

Launches

View of the 60 Starlink satellites from the May 24, 2019 launch Starlink Mission (47926144123).jpg
View of the 60 Starlink satellites from the May 24, 2019 launch

The deployment of the first 1,584 satellites will be into 24 orbital planes of 66 satellites each, with a requested lower minimum elevation angle of beams to improve reception: 25 degrees rather than the 40 degrees of the other two orbital shells. [35] :17 SpaceX launched the first 60 satellites of the constellation in May 2019 into a 450 km orbit and expected up to six launches in 2019 at that time, with 720 satellites (12*60) for continuous coverage in 2020. [47] [48]

In August 2019 SpaceX expected 4 more launches in 2019 [49] and at least 9 launches in 2020. [50]

Launches
Flight №Date and time (UTC)Launch siteLaunch vehicle [lower-alpha 1] Orbit altitude (km)InclinationNumber deployedOutcome
1February 22, 2018 14:17 [51] [52] Vandenberg F9 FT ♺ B1038.2 [53] 51497.44°[ citation needed ]2Success
Two test satellites known as Tintin A and B [54] (MicroSat-2a and 2b) that were deployed as co-payloads to the Paz satellite.
2May 24, 2019 02:30 [55] CCAFS SLC-40 F9 B5 ♺ B1049.3 [53] 440 to 550~53°60 [56] [57] Success [58]
Second launch of test satellites for SpaceX's Starlink constellation. [8] Said to be "production design", these will be used to test various aspects of the network, including deorbiting. [59] They will not have satellite interlink capabilities and will only be able to communicate with stationary ground antennas.

A day after launch an amateur astronomer in the Netherlands was one of the first to publish a video showing the satellites flying across the sky as a "train" of bright lights. [60] By five weeks post launch, 57 of the 60 satellites were "healthy" while 3 had become non-operational and were derelict, but will deorbit due to atmospheric drag. [61]

3October 17, 2019 [62] CCAFS SLC-40 F9 B5 45053˚60 [63] Planned
Will launch a large batch of Starlink satellites to a roughly 450km orbit at an inclination of 53˚. This will likely be the start of a launch campaign to get over 2200 Starlink Ka/Ku-band satellites launched by March 2024. [64]
4November 4, 2019 [62] CC 39A or 40 F9 B5 TBDPlanned
Fourth launch

Services

Global broadband Internet

SpaceX intends to provide broadband internet connectivity to underserved areas of the planet, as well as provide competitively-priced service to urban areas. The company has stated that the positive cashflow from selling satellite internet services would be necessary to fund their Mars plans. [65]

In early 2015, two space entrepreneurs announced Internet satellite ventures in the same week. In addition to SpaceX CEO Elon Musk announcing the project that would later be named Starlink, serial-entrepreneur Richard Branson announced an investment in OneWeb, a similar constellation with approximately 700 satellites that had already procured communication frequency licenses for their broadcast spectrum. [14] [66]

After the failures of previous satellite-to-consumer space ventures, satellite industry consultant Roger Rusch said in 2015 "It's highly unlikely that you can make a successful business out of this." [14] Musk publicly acknowledged that business reality, and indicated in mid-2015 that while endeavoring to develop this technically-complicated space-based communication system he wanted to avoid overextending the company, and stated that they are being measured in their pace of development. [67] Nevertheless, internal documents leaked in February 2017 indicated that SpaceX expected more than US$30 billion in revenue by 2025 from its satellite constellation, while revenues from its launch business were expected to reach US$5 billion in the same year. [68] [69]

In February 2015, financial analysts questioned established geosynchronous orbit communications satellite fleet operators as to how they intend to respond to the competitive threat of SpaceX/Google and OneWeb LEO communication satellites. [70] [ needs update ] In October, SpaceX President Gwynne Shotwell indicated that while development continues, the business case for the long-term rollout of an operational satellite network was still in an early phase. [71]

In 2015, court documents indicate that SpaceX had engaged in collaboration with wireless chip-maker Broadcom. Five key engineers subsequently left to join SpaceX, leading to a lawsuit filed by Broadcom alleging that "SpaceX stole our best minds." In March, an Orange County judge denied Broadcom's multiple restraining order requests. [72] [ needs update ]

With the initial launch of the first 60 satellites of the operational constellation in 2019, SpaceX indicated that it would require 420 sats in the constellation to achieve minor broadband coverage of Earth, and 780 of the first ~1600 to provide moderate coverage. [57]

Use beyond Earth

In the long term, SpaceX intends to develop and deploy a version of the satellite communication system to serve Mars. [13]

Satellite hardware

The Internet communication satellites were expected to be in the smallsat-class of 100-to-500 kg (220-to-1,100 lb)-mass, and were intended to be in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) at an altitude of approximately 1,100 kilometers (680 mi), according to early public releases of information in 2015. In the event, the first large deployment of 60 satellites in May 2019 were 227 kilograms (500 lb) [55] and SpaceX decided to place the satellites at a relatively low 550 kilometers (340 mi), due to concerns about the space environment. [73] Initial plans as of January 2015 were for the constellation to be made up of approximately 4,000 cross-linked [67] satellites, more than twice as many operational satellites as were in orbit in January 2015. [6]

The satellites will employ optical inter-satellite links and phased array beam-forming and digital processing technologies in the Ku and Ka bands, according to documents filed with the U.S. Federal Communications Commission (FCC). [74] [75] While specifics of the phased array technologies have been disclosed as part of the frequency application, SpaceX enforced confidentiality regarding details of the optical inter-satellite links, other than that they will utilize frequencies above 10 GHz. [76]

The satellites will be mass-produced, at a much lower cost per unit of capability than existing satellites. Musk said, "We’re going to try and do for satellites what we’ve done for rockets." [77] "In order to revolutionize space, we have to address both satellites and rockets." [6] "Smaller satellites are crucial to lowering the cost of space-based Internet and communications." [14]

In February 2015, SpaceX asked the FCC to consider future innovative uses of the Ka-band spectrum before the FCC commits to 5G communications regulations that would create barriers to entry, since SpaceX is a new entrant to the satellite communications market. The SpaceX non-geostationary orbit communications satellite constellation will operate in the high-frequency bands above 24 GHz, "where steerable earth station transmit antennas would have a wider geographic impact, and significantly lower satellite altitudes magnify the impact of aggregate interference from terrestrial transmissions." [78]

The system will not compete with the Iridium satellite constellation, which is designed to link directly to handsets. Instead, it will be linked to flat user terminals the size of a pizza box, which will have phased array antennas and track the satellites. The terminals can be mounted anywhere, as long as they can see the sky. [67]

Internet traffic via a geostationary satellite has a minimum theoretical round-trip latency of at least 477 ms (between user and ground gateway), but in practice, current satellites have latencies of 600 ms or more. Starlink satellites would orbit at 130 to 1105 of the height of geostationary orbits, and thus offer more practical Earth-to-sat latencies of around 25 to 35 ms, comparable to existing cable and fiber networks [79] The system will use a peer-to-peer protocol claimed to be "simpler than IPv6", it will also incorporate end-to-end encryption natively. [80] However, no details on this have been released as of yet.

Starlink satellites use Hall-effect thrusters with krypton gas as the reaction mass [55] [81] for orbit raising and station keeping. [82] Krypton Hall thrusters tend to exhibit significantly higher erosion of the flow channel compared to a similar electric propulsion system operated with xenon, but at a lower propellant cost. [83]

Prototype development and testing

At the time of the June 2015 announcement, SpaceX had stated plans to launch the first two demonstration satellites in 2016, [19] but the target date was subsequently moved out to 2018. [20] SpaceX began flight testing their satellite technologies in 2018 [20] with the launch of two test satellites. The two identical satellites were called MicroSat-2a and MicroSat-2b [84] during development but were renamed Tintin A and Tintin B upon orbital deployment in February 2018. Two previously manufactured satellites, MicroSat-1a and MicroSat-1b were meant to be launched together as secondary payloads on one of the Iridium-NEXT flights, but they were instead used for ground-based tests. [85]

MicroSat 1a & 1b were originally slated to be launched into 625 km circular orbits at approximately 86.4 degrees inclination, and to include panchromatic video imager cameras to film images of Earth and the satellite. [86]

Tintin A and B were inserted into a 514 km orbit. Per FCC filings [87] they were intended to raise themselves to an 1125 km orbit, the operational altitude for StarLink LEO satellites per the earliest regulatory filings, but stayed close to their original orbits. SpaceX announced in November 2018 that they would like to operate an initial shell of about 1,600 satellites in the constellation at about 550 km orbital altitude, at an altitude similar to the orbits Tintin A and B stayed in. [35] :17

The satellites currently orbit in a circular low Earth orbit at about 500 kilometers (310 mi) altitude [88] in a high-inclination orbit for a planned six to twelve-month duration. The satellites will communicate with three testing ground stations in Washington and California for short-term experiments of less than ten minutes duration, roughly daily. [19] [89]

The 60 Starlink v0.9 satellites, launched May 2019, have the following characteristics: [55]

Competition and market effects

In addition to the OneWeb constellation, announced nearly concurrently with the SpaceX constellation, a 2015 proposal from Samsung outlined a 4,600-satellite constellation orbiting at 1,400 kilometers (900 mi) that could provide a zettabyte per month capacity worldwide, an equivalent of 200 gigabytes per month for 5 billion users of Internet data, [91] [92] but by 2019, no more public information had been released about the Samsung constellation. Telesat announced a smaller 117 satellite constellation in 2015 with plans to deliver initial service in 2021. [93] Amazon announced a large broadband internet satellite constellation in April 2019, planning to launch 3,236 satellites in the next decade in what the company calls "Project Kuiper", a satellite constellation that will work in concert [94] with Amazon's previously-announced large network of 12 satellite ground station facilities (the "AWS Ground Station unit") announced in November 2018. [95]

By October 2017, the expectation for large increases in satellite network capacity from emerging lower-altitude broadband constellations caused market players to cancel some planned investments in new geosynchronous orbit broadband communications satellites. [96]

Criticism

The large number of planned satellites have been met with criticism from the astronomical community. [97] [98] [99] Astronomers claim that the number of visible satellites will outnumber visible stars, and that their brightness in both optical and radio wavelengths will severely impact scientific observations. Since the Starlink satellites can autonomously change their orbits, their motion will be hard to compensate for. The International Astronomical Union and National Radio Astronomy Observatory have also released official statements expressing concern on the matter. [100] [101] However, these organizations also stated that the impact of large constellations of satellites has not been quantitatively estimated.

While SpaceX representatives and Musk stated that the satellites will have minimal impact, [102] many professional astronomers have disputed these claims based on initial observation of the Starlink v0.9 satellites on the first launch, shortly after their deployment from the launch vehicle. [103] [104] [105] [106] In later statements on Twitter, Musk has reassured the astronomical community that SpaceX will work on reducing the albedo of the satellites and will provide on-demand orientation adjustments for astronomical experiments, if necessary. [107] [108]

See also

Notes

  1. Falcon 9 first-stage boosters are designated with a construction serial number and an optional flight number when reused, e.g. B1021.1 and B1021.2 represent the two flights of booster B1021. Launches using reused boosters are denoted with a recycled symbol ♺.

Related Research Articles

Teledesic satellite company

Teledesic was a company founded in the 1990s to build a commercial broadband satellite constellation for Internet services. Using low-Earth-orbiting satellites small antennas could be used to provide uplinks of as much as 100 Mbit/s and downlinks of up to 720 Mbit/s. The original 1994 proposal was extremely ambitious, costing over 9 billion USD and originally planning 840 active satellites with in-orbit spares at an altitude of 700 km. In 1997, the plan was scaled back to 288 active satellites at 1400 km.

Satellite Internet access is Internet access provided through communications satellites. Modern consumer grade satellite Internet service is typically provided to individual users through geostationary satellites that can offer relatively high data speeds, with newer satellites using Ku band to achieve downstream data speeds up to 506 Mbit/s.

Falcon 9 Family of orbital launch vehicles made by SpaceX

Falcon 9 is a two-stage-to-orbit medium lift launch vehicle designed and manufactured by SpaceX in the United States. It is powered by Merlin engines, also developed by SpaceX, burning liquid oxygen (LOX) and rocket-grade kerosene (RP-1) propellants. Its name is derived from the Millennium Falcon and the nine engines of the rocket's first stage. The rocket evolved with versions v1.0 (2010–2013), v1.1 (2013–2016), v1.2 "Full Thrust" (2015–2018), and its Block 5 variant, flying since May 2018. Unlike most rockets, which are expendable launch systems, Falcon 9 is partially reusable, with the first stage capable of re-entering the atmosphere and landing back vertically after separating from the second stage. This feat was achieved for the first time on flight 20 with the v1.2 version in December 2015.

Orbcomm is a family of low Earth orbit communications satellites, operated by the American satellite communications company Orbcomm. As of July 2014, 51 such satellites have orbited Earth, with 50 still continuing to do so.

Heavy-lift launch vehicle orbital launch vehicle capable of lifting between 20,000 to 50,000 kg to low Earth orbit

A heavy-lift launch vehicle, HLV or HLLV, is an orbital launch vehicle capable of lifting between 20,000 to 50,000 kg to low Earth orbit (LEO). As of 2017, operational heavy-lift launch vehicles include the Ariane 5, the Proton-M and the Delta IV Heavy. In addition, the Angara A5, the Falcon 9 Full Thrust, the Falcon Heavy and the Long March 5 are designed to provide heavy-lift capabilities in at least some configurations but have not yet been proven to carry a 20-tonne payload into LEO. Several other heavy-lift rockets are in development.

Falcon Heavy Heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle made by SpaceX

The Falcon Heavy is a partially reusable heavy-lift launch vehicle designed and manufactured by SpaceX. It is derived from the Falcon 9 vehicle and consists of a strengthened Falcon 9 first stage as the center core with two additional first stages as strap-on boosters. The Falcon Heavy has the highest payload capacity of any currently operational launch vehicle, the second-highest capacity of any rocket ever to reach orbit, trailing the Saturn V, and the third-highest capacity of any orbital-class rocket ever launched.

OneWeb satellite constellation proposed constellation

The OneWeb satellite constellation—formerly, WorldVu constellation—is an initial 650-satellite constellation currently being built out to provide global satellite Internet broadband services to people everywhere and is on track to provide global services starting in 2021. The constellation is being deployed by the company OneWeb, formerly known as WorldVu Satellites and headquartered in London, UK with offices in California, Florida, Virginia, Dubai and Singapore. The first six satellites of the constellation were launched in February 2019.

Falcon 9 first-stage landing tests series of controlled-descent flight tests conducted by SpaceX

The Falcon 9 first-stage landing tests were a series of controlled-descent flight tests conducted by SpaceX between 2013 and 2016. Since 2017, the first stage of Falcon 9 missions has been routinely landed if the rocket performance allowed it, and if SpaceX chose to recover the stage.

Falcon 9 flight 20 Falcon 9 space launch that occurred on 22 December 2015 at 01:29 UTC

Falcon 9 flight 20 was a Falcon 9 space launch that occurred on 22 December 2015 at 01:29 UTC. It was the first time that the first stage of an orbital rocket made a successful return and vertical landing.

Billionaire space race

The billionaire space race is the intense rivalry in NewSpace by recent space entrepreneurs, who entered the space industry as billionaires from other industries, particularly computing. This private industry space race of the 21st century involves sounding rockets to the ionosphere, orbital launch rockets, and suborbital tourist spaceflights.

History of SpaceX

This is a corporate history of SpaceX, an American aerospace manufacturer and space transport services company founded by Elon Musk.

Falcon 9 booster B1029 Reused Falcon 9 rocket booster

Falcon 9 booster B1029 is a first-stage reusable rocket booster for the Falcon 9 orbital launch vehicle manufactured by SpaceX. B1029 was the second orbital-class booster in the history of rocketry to be flown again after a vertical landing. It was also the first to land without damage on an autonomous spaceport drone ship in the Pacific Ocean and to be launched from both coasts of the United States.

BFR (rocket) Reusable space launch and spacecraft system developed by SpaceX

Big Falcon Rocket was the code name for SpaceX's project to develop a privately funded, fully reusable launch vehicle and spacecraft system. It is to be a two-stage-to-orbit launch vehicle, classed as super-heavy-lift since the payload capacity to Earth orbit is cited as being at least 150,000 kg (330,000 lb). In November 2018 the second stage and ship was renamed to Starship, while the first stage was renamed "Super Heavy." As of September 2019, the combined Starship spacecraft and Super Heavy rocket system is officially, collectively referred to as "Starship". The overall space vehicle architecture includes both launch vehicle and spacecraft, as well as ground infrastructure for rapid launch and relaunch, and unusually for historic spacecraft systems, propellant transfer in space. The first orbital flight will occur no earlier than 2020, with a flight around the Moon slated for 2023.

Elon Musks Tesla Roadster Sports car launched into space in 2018

Elon Musk's Tesla Roadster is an electric sports car that served as the dummy payload for the February 2018 Falcon Heavy test flight and became an artificial satellite of the Sun. "Starman", a mannequin dressed in a spacesuit, occupies the driver's seat. The car and rocket are products of Tesla and SpaceX, respectively, both companies founded by Elon Musk. The 2008-model Roadster was previously used by Musk for commuting to work, and is the only production car in space.

Paz (satellite) Spanish military Earth observation satellite

Paz is a Spanish Earth observation and reconnaissance satellite launched on 22 February 2018. It is Spain's first spy satellite. The satellite is operated by Hisdesat. Paz was previously referred to as SEOSAR.

SpaceX Starship A fully reusable second-stage rocket and spaceship

The SpaceX Starship is a fully reusable second stage and space vehicle being privately developed by SpaceX. It is being designed to be a long-duration cargo- and passenger-carrying spacecraft. While it is being used today as an independent rocket for testing, it will be used on orbital launches with an additional booster stage, the Super Heavy, where Starship would serve as the second stage on a two-stage-to-orbit launch vehicle. The combination of spacecraft and booster is called Starship as well. Beginning in mid-2019, prototype versions are being flown with Starship as an independent rocket in its own right—without any launch vehicle booster stage at all—as part of an extensive suborbital flight testing program to get launch and landing working and iterate on a variety of design details, particularly with respect to atmospheric reentry of the vehicle.

References

  1. 1 2 Hall, Shannon (1 June 2019). "After SpaceX Starlink Launch, a Fear of Satellites That Outnumber All Visible Stars - Images of the Starlink constellation in orbit have rattled astronomers around the world". The New York Times . Retrieved 1 June 2019.
  2. Grush, Loren (15 February 2018). "SpaceX is about to launch two of its space Internet satellites — the first of nearly 12,000". The Verge. Retrieved 16 February 2018.
  3. 1 2 de Selding, Peter B. (5 October 2016). "SpaceX's Shotwell on Falcon 9 inquiry, discounts for reused rockets and Silicon Valley's test-and-fail ethos". SpaceNews . Retrieved 8 October 2016.
  4. 1 2 Gates, Dominic (16 January 2015). "Elon Musk touts launch of 'SpaceX Seattle'". Seattle Times. Retrieved 19 January 2015.
  5. Ralph, Eric (21 December 2018). "SpaceX's Starlink eyed by US military as co. raises $500-750M for development". Teslarati. Retrieved 23 May 2019.
  6. 1 2 3 4 5 SpaceX Seattle 2015, 16 January 2015.
  7. "SpaceX submits paperwork for 30,000 more Starlink satellites". 15 October 2019.
  8. 1 2 3 4 5 Henry, Caleb (26 April 2019). "FCC OKs lower orbit for some Starlink satellites". SpaceNews . Retrieved 28 April 2019. lower the orbit of nearly 1,600 of its proposed broadband satellites. The Federal Communications Commission said April 26 it was OK with SpaceX changing its plans to orbit those satellites at 550-kilometer (340 mi) kilometers instead of 1,150-kilometer (710 mi) kilometers. SpaceX says the adjustment, requested six months ago, will make a safer space environment, since any defunct satellites at the lower altitude would reenter the Earth’s atmosphere in five years even without propulsion. The lower orbit also means more distance between Starlink and competing internet constellations proposed by OneWeb and Telesat. FCC approval allows satellite companies to provide communications services in the United States. The agency granted SpaceX market access in March 2018 for 4,425 satellites using Ku- and Ka-band spectrum, and authorized 7,518 V-band satellites in November. SpaceX’s modified plans apply to the smaller of the two constellations.
  9. 1 2 Baylor, Michael (17 May 2018). "With Block 5, SpaceX to increase launch cadence and lower prices". NASASpaceFlight.com . Retrieved 22 May 2018. The system is designed to improve global internet access by utilizing thousands of satellites in Low Earth orbit. SpaceX President Gwynne Shotwell stated in a TED Talk last month that she expects the constellation to cost at least $10 billion. Therefore, reducing launch costs will be vital.
  10. Foust, Jeff. "Starlink failures highlight space sustainability concerns". Space News. Retrieved 18 September 2019.
  11. "SpaceX's 60-Satellite Launch Is Just the Beginning for Starlink Megaconstellation Project". 24 May 2019. Retrieved 24 May 2019.
  12. "Musk shakes up SpaceX in race to make satellite launch window: sources". Reuters. 30 October 2018. Retrieved 31 October 2018.
  13. 1 2 3 Foust, Jeff (10 October 2016). "Shotwell says SpaceX "homing in" on cause of Falcon 9 pad explosion". SpaceNews . Retrieved 16 October 2016.
  14. 1 2 3 4 Petersen, Melody (16 January 2015). "Elon Musk and Richard Branson invest in satellite-Internet ventures". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 19 January 2015.
  15. Boyle, Alan (27 January 2017). "SpaceX adds a big new lab to its satellite development operation in Seattle area". GeekWire . Retrieved 13 May 2019.
  16. 1 2 Boyle, Alan (31 October 2018). "SpaceX reorganizes Starlink satellite operation, reportedly with high-level firings". GeekWire . Retrieved 2 November 2018.
  17. "SpaceX expands to new 8,000 sqft office space in Orange County, CA". Teslarati. 8 July 2016. Retrieved 23 May 2019.
  18. SpaceX. "Open Positions". SpaceX.
  19. 1 2 3 Boyle, Alan (4 June 2015). "How SpaceX Plans to Test Its Satellite Internet Service in 2016". NBC News. Retrieved 5 June 2015.
  20. 1 2 3 Henry, Caleb [@CHenry_SN] (25 October 2017). "SpaceX's Patricia Cooper: 2 demo sats launching in next few months, then constellation deployment in 2019. Can start service w/ ~800 sats" (Tweet). Retrieved 13 May 2019 via Twitter.
  21. "SpaceX FCC Application Technical Application – QUESTION 7: PURPOSE OF EXPERIMENT".
  22. "FCC SELECTED APPLICATION LISTING File Number = SATLOA2016111500118". International Bureau Application Filing and Reporting System. FCC. 15 November 2016. Retrieved 22 November 2016.
  23. 1 2 Henry, Caleb (2 March 2017). "FCC gets five new applications for non-geostationary satellite constellations". SpaceNews . Retrieved 23 May 2019.
  24. 1 2 Henry, Caleb (19 September 2017). "SpaceX asks FCC to make exception for LEO constellations in Connect America Fund decisions". SpaceNews . Retrieved 23 May 2019.
  25. Messier, Doug (3 March 2017). "SpaceX Wants to Launch 12,000 Satellites". Parabolic Arc. Retrieved 28 April 2019.
  26. McCormick, Rich (4 May 2017). "SpaceX plans to launch first Internet-providing satellites in 2019". The Verge . Retrieved 25 March 2019.
  27. 1 2 de Selding, Peter B. (4 September 2017). "SES asks ITU to replace 'one and done' rule for satellite constellations with new system" . Space Intel Report.
  28. Boyle, Alan (19 September 2017). "SpaceX seeks to trademark the name 'Starlink' for satellite broadband network". GeekWire . Retrieved 13 May 2019.
  29. "How Indianapolis author John Green inspired one of Elon Musk's most grand ideas". Indianapolis Star. Retrieved 15 May 2019.
  30. Brodkin, Jon (4 October 2017). "SpaceX and OneWeb broadband satellites raise fears about space debris". Ars Technica . Retrieved 7 October 2017.
  31. "FCC Authorizes SpaceX to Provide Broadband Satellite Services". Federal Communications Commission. 29 March 2018. Retrieved 31 March 2018.
  32. Brodkin, Jon (30 March 2018). "FCC approves SpaceX plan to launch 4,425 broadband satellites". Ars Technica. Retrieved 30 March 2018.
  33. Henry, Caleb (29 March 2018). "FCC approves SpaceX constellation, denies waiver for easier deployment deadline". SpaceNews . Retrieved 23 May 2019.
  34. Brodkin, Jon (30 March 2018). "FCC tells SpaceX it can deploy up to 11,943 broadband satellites". Ars Technica. Retrieved 25 March 2019.
  35. 1 2 3 Wiltshire, William M., ed. (18 November 2018), "Application for Fixed Satellite Service by Space Exploration Holdings, LLC", SAT-MOD-20181108-00083 / SATMOD2018110800083, https://fcc.report: Space Exploration Holdings, LLC via FCC regulatory release process, retrieved 24 March 2019, Space Exploration Holdings, LLC seeks to modify its Ku/Ka-band NGSO license to relocate satellites previously authorized to operate at an altitude of 1,150-kilometer (710 mi) to an altitude of 550-kilometer (340 mi), and to make related changes to the operations of the satellites in this new lower shell of the constellation.
  36. SPACEX NON-GEOSTATIONARY SATELLITE SYSTEM, Attachment A, TECHNICAL INFORMATION TO SUPPLEMENT SCHEDULE S, US Federal Communications Commission, 8 November 2018, accessed 23 November 2018.
  37. Erwin, Sandra (28 February 2019). "Air Force laying groundwork for future military use of commercial megaconstellations". SpaceNews . Retrieved 12 May 2019.
  38. SpaceX Services Application for Blanket-licensed Earth stations, SES-LIC-INTR2019-00217, SpaceX, 1 February 2019, accessed 9 February 2019.
  39. Ralph, Eric (8 April 2019). "SpaceX's first dedicated Starlink launch announced as mass production begins". Teslarati. Retrieved 9 April 2019.
  40. Grush, Loren (28 June 2019). "One month after launch, all but three of SpaceX's 60 Starlink satellites are communicating". The Verge.
  41. "FCC FORM 442 - APPLICATION FOR NEW OR MODIFIED RADIO STATION UNDER PART 5 OF FCC RULES - EXPERIMENTAL RADIO SERVICE : 0517-EX-CN-2019". Federal Communications Commission . Retrieved 4 July 2019.
  42. "0517-EX-CN-2019—Application question 7: Purpose of Experiment". FCC. June 2019. Retrieved 4 July 2019. SpaceX seeks experimental authority for two types of testing: (1) a total of 70 user terminals (mixed between the two types of antennas) so that it can test multiple devices at a number of geographically dispersed locations throughout the United States; and (2) up to 200 phased array user terminals to be deployed within the state of Washington at the homes of SpaceX employees for ongoing testing. Such authority would enable SpaceX to obtain critical data regarding the operational performance of these user terminals and the SpaceX NGSO system.
  43. "FCC FORM 442 - APPLICATION FOR NEW OR MODIFIED RADIO STATION UNDER PART 5 OF FCC RULES - EXPERIMENTAL RADIO SERVICE: 0515-EX-CN-2019". Federal Communications Commission . Retrieved 4 July 2019.
  44. "0515-EX-CN-2019—Application question 7: Purpose of Experiment -- Narative summery". FCC. June 2019. Retrieved 4 July 2019. SpaceX seeks an experimental authorization to test activities ... tests are designed to demonstrate the ability to transmit and receive information (1) between five ground sites (“Ground-to-Ground”) and (2) between four ground sites and an airborne aircraft (“Ground-to-Air”). ... This application seeks only to use an earth station to transmit signals to the SpaceX satellites first from the ground and later from a moving aircraft.
  45. https://spacenews.com/spacex-says-more-starlink-orbits-will-speed-service-reduce-launch-needs/
  46. Chang, Kenneth (23 May 2019). "SpaceX Launches 60 Starlink Internet Satellites Into Orbit" via NYTimes.com.
  47. SpaceX on Twitter: Falcon 9 launches 60 Starlink satellites to orbit – targeting up to 6 Starlink launches this year and will accelerate our cadence next year to put ~720 satellites in orbit for continuous coverage of most populated areas on Earth
  48. "Technical details for satellite STARLINK GROUP". N2YO.com - Real Time Satellite Tracking and Predictions. Retrieved 1 June 2019.
  49. "SpaceX planning four more Falcon 9-launched Starlink missions this year, permits show". 1 September 2019.
  50. "Smallsat rideshare program" . Retrieved 2 September 2019.
  51. Graham, William (22 February 2018). "SpaceX launches Falcon 9 with PAZ, Starlink demo and new fairing". NASASpaceFlight.com . Retrieved 12 May 2019.
  52. Wall, Mike (22 February 2018). "SpaceX's Prototype Internet Satellites Are Up and Running". Space.com . Retrieved 12 May 2019.
  53. 1 2 "Falcon-9". space.skyrocket.de. Retrieved 18 May 2019.
  54. Elon Musk [@elonmusk] (22 February 2018). "First two Starlink demo satellites, called Tintin A & B, deployed and communicating to Earth stations" (Tweet). Archived from the original on 22 February 2018. Retrieved 22 February 2018 via Twitter.
  55. 1 2 3 4 "Starlink Press Kit" (PDF). SpaceX. 15 May 2019. Retrieved 23 May 2019.
  56. Elon Musk [@elonmusk] (11 May 2019). "First 60 SpaceX Starlink satellites loaded into Falcon fairing. Tight fit" (Tweet). Retrieved 12 May 2019 via Twitter.
  57. 1 2 Elon Musk [@elonmusk] (11 May 2019). "Much will likely go wrong on 1st mission. Also, 6 more launches of 60 sats needed for minor coverage, 12 for moderate" (Tweet) via Twitter.
  58. Roulette, Joey. (23 May 2019), "First satellites for Musk's Starlink internet venture launched into orbit", Reuters , retrieved 24 May 2019
  59. Elon Musk [@elonmusk] (11 May 2019). "These are production design, unlike our earlier Tintin demo sats" (Tweet). Retrieved 13 May 2019 via Twitter.
  60. Langbroek, Marco (25 May 2019). "WOWOWOW!!!! A SPECTACULAR view of the SpaceX Starlink satellite train!" . Retrieved 26 May 2019.
  61. Contact lost with three Starlink satellites, other 57 healthy, SpaceNews, 1 July 2019, accessed 1 July 2019.
  62. 1 2 Bergin, Chris (2 August 2019). "SpaceX present to future: From retesting boosters to planning a Starship pad". NASASpaceFlight.com.
  63. Pietrobon, Steven (22 July 2019). "United States Commercial ELV Launch Manifest" . Retrieved 22 July 2019.
  64. Dortch, Marlene (July 2019). "SpaceX NGSO MOOA".Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  65. Foust, Jeff (12 March 2018). "Musk reiterates plans for testing BFR". SpaceNews . Retrieved 15 March 2018. Construction of the first prototype spaceship is in progress. 'We’re actually building that ship right now,' he said. 'I think we’ll probably be able to do short flights, short sort of up-and-down flights, probably sometime in the first half of next year.'
  66. Fernholz, Tim (24 June 2015). "Inside the race to create the next generation of satellite internet". Quartz . Retrieved 18 October 2016.
  67. 1 2 3 Elon Musk, Mike Suffradini (7 July 2015). ISSRDC 2015 – A Conversation with Elon Musk (2015.7.7) (video). Event occurs at 46:45–50:40. Retrieved 30 December 2015.
  68. Winkler, Rolfe; Pasztor, Andy (13 January 2017). "Exclusive Peek at SpaceX Data Shows Loss in 2015, Heavy Expectations for Nascent Internet Service". Wall Street Journal. ISSN   0099-9660 . Retrieved 9 February 2018.
  69. Etherington, Darrell. "SpaceX hopes satellite Internet business will pad thin rocket launch margins". TechCrunch. Retrieved 9 February 2018.
  70. de Selding, Peter B. (23 February 2015). "Wall Street Grills Fleet Operators Over Mega-Constellation Threat". Space News. Retrieved 24 February 2015.
  71. Boyle, Alan (27 October 2015). "SpaceX's Gwynne Shotwell signals go-slow approach for Seattle satellite plan" . Retrieved 28 October 2015.
  72. Axe, David (1 April 2016). "'SpaceX Stole Our Best Minds': Chip-Maker Sues Elon Musk Startup" via www.thedailybeast.com.
  73. Grush, Loren (9 November 2018). "SpaceX wants to fly some internet satellites closer to Earth to cut down on space trash". The Verge. Retrieved 9 November 2018.
  74. Space Exploration Holdings, LLC (15 November 2016). "SPACEX NON-GEOSTATIONARY SATELLITE SYSTEM – ATTACHMENT A". FCC Space Station Applications. Retrieved 15 February 2018.
  75. Space Exploration Holdings, LLC (15 November 2016). "SAT-LOA-20161115-00118". FCC Space Station Applications. Retrieved 15 February 2018.
  76. Wiltshire, William M. (20 April 2017). "Re: Space Exploration Holdings, LLC, IBFS File No. SAT-LOA-20161115-00118". FCC Space Station Application. Retrieved 15 February 2018.
  77. Hull, Dana; Johnsson, Julie (14 January 2015). "SpaceX chief Elon Musk has high hopes for Seattle office". Seattle Times. Retrieved 25 May 2019.
  78. Alleven, Monica (22 February 2015). "In 5G proceeding, SpaceX urges FCC to protect future satellite ventures". FierceWirelessTech. Retrieved 3 March 2015. SpaceX pointed out that it recently announced plans to build a network of 4,000 non-geostationary orbit (NGSO) communications satellites, which it will manufacture, launch and operate.
  79. Brodkin, Jon (14 February 2018). "SpaceX hits two milestones in plan for low-latency satellite broadband". Ars Technica . Retrieved 13 May 2019.
  80. Elon Musk [@elonmusk] (25 February 2018). "Will be simpler than IPv6 and have tiny packet overhead. Definitely peer-to-peer" (Tweet). Retrieved 28 February 2018 via Twitter.
  81. "High winds scrub SpaceX launch of 60 Starlink internet relay satellites". www.cbsnews.com. Retrieved 24 May 2019.
  82. Ralph, Eric (22 March 2019). "SpaceX's Starlink satellite lawyers refute latest "flawed" OneWeb critique". Teslarati. Retrieved 2 May 2019.
  83. KHT - KRYPTON HALL THRUSTERS - IDENTIFICATION, EVALUATION AND TESTING OF ALTERNATIVE PROPELLANTS FOR ELECTRIC PROPULSION SYSTEMS. Proejct KHT. European Space Agency. 6 September 2017. Retrieved 17 May 2019. The overall outcome is that propellant different from xenon can provide significant economic benefits in the long term for commercial telecom applications. In particular, krypton would allow for a major reduction of qualification and operation costs with minor performance drawbacks.
  84. "MicroSat 2a, 2b (Tintin A, B)". space.skyrocket.de. Retrieved 9 June 2018.
  85. "MicroSat 1a, 1b". space.skyrocket.de. Retrieved 9 June 2018.
  86. "SpaceX presentation at NOAA" (PDF).
  87. Tintin A and Tintin B at n2yo.com
  88. Kang, Cecilia; Davenport, Christian (9 June 2015). "SpaceX founder files with government to provide Internet service from space" via www.washingtonpost.com.
  89. Musk, Elon. "Starlink". Starlink. Retrieved 20 August 2019.
  90. Gershgorn, Dave (17 August 2015). "Samsung Wants To Blanket The Earth In Satellite Internet". Popular Science. Retrieved 21 August 2015.
  91. Khan, Farooq (2015). "Mobile Internet from the Heavens". arXiv: 1508.02383 [cs.NI].
  92. Foust, Jeff (18 February 2018). "Telesat to announce manufacturing plans for LEO constellation in coming months". SpaceNews . Retrieved 2 May 2019.
  93. Sheetz, Michael (4 April 2019). "Amazon wants to launch thousands of satellites so it can offer broadband internet from space". CNBC . Retrieved 4 April 2019.
  94. Sheetz, Michael (27 November 2018). "Amazon cloud business reaches into space with satellite connection service". CNBC . Retrieved 4 April 2019.
  95. de Selding, Peter B. (5 October 2017). "Panasonic Avionics' surprising conversion into a satellite mega-constellation believer" . Space Intel Report.
  96. "After SpaceX Starlink Launch, a Fear of Satellites That Outnumber All Visible Stars". The New York Times. Retrieved 3 June 2019.
  97. "The unexpected brightness of new satellites could ruin the night sky". The Economist. Retrieved 3 June 2019.
  98. "SpaceX's Starlink Could Change The Night Sky Forever, And Astronomers Are Not Happy". Forbes. Retrieved 3 June 2019.
  99. "IAU's statement on satellite constellations". International Astronomical Union. Retrieved 3 June 2019.
  100. "Statement on Starlink and 'Constellations' of Communication Satellites". National Radio Astronomy Observatory. Retrieved 3 June 2019.
  101. "Sightings of SpaceX's Starlink satellites spark awe — and astronomical angst". Geek Wire. Retrieved 3 June 2019.
  102. McCaughrean, Mark [@markmccaughrean] (25 May 2019). "If predictions are correct that 400–500 Starlink satellites about that bright will also be visible *all the time*" (Tweet) via Twitter.
  103. Mack, Katie [@AstroKatie] (25 May 2019). "Musk's offhand "they can't be seen at night" is not true or reassuring" (Tweet) via Twitter.
  104. Lomax, Jamie [@jrlomax] (25 May 2019). "Even if they were only visible at dusk and dawn as claimed, they would still affect our data because we take calibrations then" (Tweet) via Twitter.
  105. Parker, Alex [@Alex_Parker] (25 May 2019). "At midsummer midnight in Seattle, I estimate about 500 of them will both be above the horizon and directly illuminated by the sun" (Tweet) via Twitter.
  106. Musk, Elon [@elonmusk] (27 May 2019). "Sent a note to Starlink team last week specifically regarding albedo reduction. We'll get a better sense of value of this when satellites have raised orbits & arrays are tracking to sun" (Tweet) via Twitter.
  107. Musk, Elon [@elonmusk] (27 May 2019). "If we need to tweak sat orientation to minimize solar reflection during critical astronomical experiments, that's easily done" (Tweet) via Twitter.
  108. Amazon lays out constellation service goals, deployment and deorbit plans to FCC, Caleb Henry, SpaceNews, 8 July 2019, accessed 9 September 2019.