The state visit of Nikita Khrushchev to the United States was a 13-day visit from 15–27 September 1959. It marked the first state visit of a Soviet leader to the US. Nikita Khrushchev, then General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and Chairman of the Council of Ministers, was also the first ethnic Ukrainian leader to set foot in the Western Hemisphere.Being the first visit by a leader of his kind, the coverage of it resulted in an extended media circus.
Earlier in 1959, Vice President Richard Nixon visited the Soviet Union, attending a tour of the American National Exhibition in Moscow. He and Khrushchev took part in what later became known as the Kitchen Debate, in which both Nixon and Khrushchev defended their country's respective economic systems. In early August of that year, it was announced by President Dwight Eisenhower that Khrushchev was invited to visit the United States, and did so that September, spending thirteen days in the country.
Catchphrases and incidents
During the course of the visit, Khrushchev traveled to Washington, D.C., New York, California (briefly visiting a supermarket in San Francisco), Iowa, Pennsylvania, and Camp David.
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Khrushchev arrived in Washington, DC on 15 September 1959, landing at Andrews Air Force Base at 11:30 a.m. Khrushchev was accompanied by his wife Nina, as well as his adult children (son Sergei, daughters Yulia and Rada, and son-in-law Alexey). This was unprecedented, as it was not usual for Soviet officials to travel domestically or internationally with their families. Upon arrival, he and President Eisenhower were honored with a 21-gun salute as well as a national salute by a Joint Service (Army, Marine Corps, Navy, Air Force, and Coast Guard) Honor Guard, during which the State Anthem of the Soviet Union and the Star Spangled Banner were played. Khrushchev and his family stayed at Blair House for the rest of the day. He arrived in Beltsville, Maryland the next morning. While attending the Agricultural Experiment Station, Khrushchev allegedly complained that the "pigs are too fat and the turkeys are too small". He returned to the capital later in the day for a luncheon at the National Press Club.[ citation needed ]
He arrived by train in New York City on 17 September. [ citation needed ]He spent his first night at a dinner hosted by the Economic Club of New York at the Waldorf Astoria, where he spoke to an audience of about 2,000 described by New York Herald Tribune as "one of history’s greatest concentrations of capitalists." During his visit to New York City, he visited former First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt at her home in Hyde Park. Khrushchev was accompanied by Henry Cabot Lodge Jr., the then-United States Ambassador to the United Nations, during his tour of the city. When touring Manhattan, Khrushchev reportedly argued with "capitalists" and yelled at hecklers who protested his visit. At the end of his tour, he addressed the United Nations General Assembly. He also met with Governor Nelson Rockefeller and Mayor Robert F. Wagner Jr.
During the visit, Los Angeles mayor Norris Poulson addressed Khrushchev's "We will bury you" made at the Embassy of Poland in Moscow three years prior when delivering welcome remarks. Poulson stated the following: "We do not agree with your widely quoted phrase 'We shall bury you.' You shall not bury us and we shall not bury you. We are happy with our way of life. We recognize its shortcomings and are always trying to improve it. But if challenged, we shall fight to the death to preserve it". Poulson's comments came after the Soviet premier constantly touted Soviet superiority to L.A. during his tour of the city.
During a luncheon at the Twentieth Century-Fox Studio, Khrushchev was engaged in an improvised debate with his host Spyros Skouras over the respective merits of capitalism and communism.Notable American actors such as Gary Cooper, Frank Sinatra, Elizabeth Taylor, and Marilyn Monroe met Khrushchev. Although Khrushchev was supposed to visit Disneyland on 19 September, the visit was canceled for security reasons, which added to his anger.
While visiting a new research campus for the International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) in San Jose, Khrushchev seemed to express little interest in the computer technology, but rather the self-service cafeteria, which he introduced in the USSR upon return to Moscow.
The Soviet leader arrived in Iowa on 22 September. He immediately attended a reception in Des Moines, hosted by Governor Herschel Loveless and Mayor Charles Iles the next day. He visited Coon Rapids, Iowa on 23 September,[ citation needed ] visiting the Roswell and Elizabeth Garst Farmstead Historic District. He was quick to compare the farm to many Soviet collective farms, saying the two types of farms were "very striking indeed".[ citation needed ] He also visited the Swine Research Center of Iowa State University. Khrushchev later remarked to journalists that the visit to Iowa was "the most relaxed"[ citation needed ] of his visit to the U.S.
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Mayor Thomas Gallagher greeted and welcomed Khrushchev to Pittsburgh on 24 September, presenting the premier with a key to the city. The last two days concluded the tour with a meeting with President Eisenhower at Camp David. Khrushchev and his delegation left the country in the early hours of 27 September.
The visit took place during period in time in which the ongoing-Cold War at the time was feared to be the force that causes nuclear war. The visit helped alleviate these fears. Khrushchev and Eisenhower reached an informal agreement that there would not be any firm deadline over the fate of Berlin and that any solution would be developed at a four-power summit. This summit would be postponed until 1960 due to actions by French President Charles de Gaulle. The premier left having achieved a personal relationship with Eisenhower and the possibility of détente with the Americans.Sergei Khrushchev, who became an American citizen in 1999, said that his father's visit brought about the "Spirit of Geneva".
Khrushchev gave Eisenhower a replica of the Soviet pennants that Luna 2 had placed onto the lunar surface a few days before Khrushchev arrived in the U.S.The sphere is kept at the Eisenhower Presidential Library and Museum in Abilene, Kansas. A copy of the spherical pennant is located at the Kansas Cosmosphere in Hutchinson, Kansas.
Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev was a Soviet politician who served as the First Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union from 1953 to 1964 and as chairman of the country's Council of Ministers from 1958 to 1964. During his rule, Khrushchev stunned the communist world with his denunciation of Stalin's crimes and began de-Stalinization. He sponsored the early Soviet space program, and enactment of relatively liberal reforms in domestic policy. After some false starts, and a narrowly avoided nuclear war over Cuba, he conducted successful negotiations with the United States to reduce Cold War tensions. His proclivity toward recklessness led the Kremlin leadership to strip him of power, replacing him with Leonid Brezhnev as First Secretary and Alexei Kosygin as Premier.
Brinksmanship, or Brinkmanship, is the practice of trying to achieve an advantageous outcome by pushing dangerous events to the brink of active conflict. The tactic occurs in international politics, foreign policy, labor relations, and in contemporary military strategy by involving the threat of nuclear weapons, and high-stakes litigation. The maneuver of pushing a situation with the opponent to the brink succeeds by forcing the opponent to back down and make concessions. That might be achieved through diplomatic maneuvers by creating the impression that one is willing to use extreme methods rather than concede.
Charles Norris Poulson was an American politician who represented Southern California in public office at the local, state, and federal levels. He served as the 36th Mayor of Los Angeles, California from 1953 to 1961, after having been a California State Assemblyman and then a member of the United States Congress. He was a Republican though the office of mayor is officially nonpartisan.
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Anastas Ivanovich Mikoyan was an Armenian Communist revolutionary, Old Bolshevik and Soviet statesman during the mandates of Lenin, Stalin, Khrushchev and Brezhnev. He was the only Soviet politician who managed to remain at the highest levels of power within the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, as that power oscillated between the Central Committee and the Politburo, from the latter days of Lenin's rule, throughout the eras of Stalin and Khrushchev, until his peaceful retirement after the first months of Brezhnev's rule.
The Kitchen Debate was a series of impromptu exchanges through interpreters between U.S. Vice President Richard Nixon, then 46, and Soviet First Secretary Nikita Khrushchev, 65, at the opening of the American National Exhibition at Sokolniki Park in Moscow on July 24, 1959.
"We will bury you!" is a phrase that was used by Soviet First Secretary Nikita Khrushchev while addressing Western ambassadors at a reception at the Polish embassy in Moscow on November 18, 1956. The phrase was originally translated into English by Khrushchev's personal interpreter Viktor Sukhodrev.
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Eisenhower National Historic Site preserves the home and farm of Dwight D. Eisenhower, the 34th President of the United States, and its surrounding property of 690.5 acres (279.4 ha). It is located in Cumberland Township, Adams County, Pennsylvania, just outside Gettysburg. Purchased by then-General Eisenhower and his wife Mamie in 1950, the farm served as a weekend retreat for the President and a meeting place for world leaders, and became the Eisenhowers' home after they left the White House in 1961.
Miles from Home is a 1988 film starring Richard Gere and Kevin Anderson. It is about two brothers who, after being forced off their farm in the debt stricken Midwestern United States, become folk heroes when they begin robbing the banks that have been foreclosing on farmers. The movie was directed by Gary Sinise and written by Chris Gerolmo. The film uses many members of Chicago's Steppenwolf Theatre Company of which Sinise is a co-founder.
The Cold War Museum is a history museum in Warrenton, Virginia, focused on Cold War history.
The shoe-banging incident occurred when Nikita Khrushchev, First Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, pounded his shoe on his delegate-desk in protest at a speech by Philippine delegate Lorenzo Sumulong during the 902nd Plenary Meeting of the United Nations General Assembly held in New York City on 12 October 1960.
The following events occurred in September 1959:
The Roswell and Elizabeth Garst Farmstead Historic District is a farm in Guthrie County, Iowa, United States, near the city of Coon Rapids. It is significant as the home of farmer and hybrid corn populizer Roswell Garst. During the 1930s and 1940s, Garst played an active role in the conversion of old-style family farms to modern agribusiness. He was a key marketer of hybrid seed corn, which greatly increased corn yields per acre. Further, he espoused the use of nitrogen and other chemical fertilizers to renew soil so that fields need not be left fallow in order for the soil to replenish, allowing farmers to grow more acres of corn. Additionally, he embraced the use of cellulose from corncobs left after processing seed corn as cattle feed.
K Blows Top: A Cold War Comic Interlude, Starring Nikita Khrushchev, America's Most Unlikely Tourist is a book by Peter Carlson published by PublicAffairs describing the 1959 visit of Nikita Khrushchev to the United States.
Vernon Oliver Johnson was an American diplomat. After losing his crew in a B17-bomber crash and spending 18 months in V.A. hospitals, Johnson dedicated himself to solving global political tensions via face-to-face dialogue. During the height of the Cold War, he traveled the world for 20 months with his wife, Anne Beckwith (Miller) Johnson and their eight children, promoting peace and world diplomacy through personal interaction.
The following lists events that happened during 1959 in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.
The Richard L. and Verda M. Alleman Farm Historic District is a nationally recognized historic district located southeast of Slater in rural Polk County, Iowa, United States. It was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2013. At the time of its nomination the district consisted of 18 resources, including nine contributing buildings, one contributing site, one contributing structure, one contributing object, three non-contributing buildings, and three non-contributing structures.
The Berlin Crisis of 1958–1959 saw the Soviet Union threaten to undermine the status of West Berlin during the height of the Cold War. It resulted from efforts by Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev to react strongly against American nuclear warheads located in West Germany, and build up the prestige of the Soviet puppet state of East Germany, where the Soviets stationed a large military force. American President Dwight D. Eisenhower mobilized NATO opposition. He was strongly supported by German Chancellor Konrad Adenauer, but Great Britain went along reluctantly. There was never any military action. The result was a continuation of the status quo in Berlin, and a move by Eisenhower and Khrushchev toward détente. The Berlin problem had not disappeared, and escalated into a major conflict over building the Berlin wall in 1961. See Berlin Crisis of 1961.